Northeastern UniversityGraduate Program of ArchitectureMasters Research StudioLittell | Fall 2010Prepared By:Ahmed Almulla...
Introduction Statement     This book was written by twelve graduate students of     architecture (M. Arch.) at Northeaster...
Table of ContentsIntroduction                                                Determinants                                 ...
Non Physical Contexts Precedents Building Code..................................136                   Rating Precedents .....
Purpose and DefinitionsPre-fabrication in urban settings is an              Four main purposes of the book:underlooked, un...
INTRODUCTION                                                                                                              ...
Research Methodology and ScopeTo make our research and findings more effective     Asphalt Road   Drop Houseand useful, we...
INTRODUCTION                                                              Off-site                                        ...
Determinants
INTRODUCTION                                                                          DETERMINANTS                        ...
TransportationTransportation •8                   PRECEDENTS   CONTEXT   DEPLOYMENT         DETERMINANTS   INTRODUCTION
Transportation TypesGround: Rail                                          Ground: Road                                    ...
INTRODUCTION                                                                                                              ...
by Ground: RailRail transportation provides an economicalalternative to truck transport for longer shipping      Seattledi...
INTRODUCTIONThe container has become the unit ofmeasurement for rail transport. The dimensionalproperties of the container...
by Ground: RoadTransportation of pre fab elements in a urbanenvironment is constrained by a number ofobstacles. One of whi...
Truck DimensionsTransportation •14                                      PRECEDENTS   CONTEXT   DEPLOYMENT   DETERMINANTS  ...
Semi-Trailer Load CapacitiesSemi-Tractor trailer trucks have the greatestcarrying capacity. There are a number of options ...
INTRODUCTION                                                                                                 48’-0”       ...
Roadway Design & ObstaclesRoadway design can either help or hinder thetransport of prefab elements to site by truck.Outlin...
INTRODUCTION                                                                                                              ...
Truck Turning RadiiThe swept path a truck takes as it makes a right                                                   Swep...
INTRODUCTION                                                                                                              ...
by WaterVessels used for transport range in size based onthe depth of water being traveled. The prefabcomponent’s size, if...
INTRODUCTIONSize Comparison                                                                                            Boe...
by AirIt may be cost effective to transport by air using afreight aircraft if the elements are small enoughand light enoug...
INTRODUCTIONdifficult accessurban site                                                                                    ...
TransportationSourceshttp://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ship/sealift-ships.htmhttp://earthpulse.nationalgeogra...
Site Access + AssemblySite Access + Assembly • 26                              PRECEDENTS   CONTEXT   DEPLOYMENT          ...
Site AccessThere are several logical reasons for usingcranes in prefab construction. Sites completelysurrounded are render...
INTRODUCTION                                                                              DETERMINANTS                    ...
Crane Operation + Extents                                                                                    Special crane...
INTRODUCTIONSmall And Large Crane ExtentsTelescopic Boom Crane                                        All Terrain CraneNat...
Crane + ObstaclesHand signals                                                                           Permitting obstacl...
INTRODUCTIONObstacles on a construction siteThere are a variety of existing physical barriersthat must be worked around. T...
Off Frame AssemblySite Dimensions Determined byTruck TurnTruck turn dimensions can influence the decisionto use a site or ...
INTRODUCTION      41                                25                                17                                  ...
Off Frame AssemblyFrom Truck to Site   Off-Frame Modular Delivery                     Module delivery is possible without ...
INTRODUCTION                                                                                        DETERMINANTS          ...
Site Access + AssemblySourcesRent A Crane, Inc. http://www.rentacraneinc.com/equipment.htmlCapitol Building Supply. 2008. ...
Modular StrategiesModular Strategies • 38                          PRECEDENTS   CONTEXT   DEPLOYMENT          DETERMINANTS...
LogisticsModule Allowable WidthsModular strategies provide several benefits to the                                        ...
INTRODUCTIONSteel Frame Modular                                                                                         st...
LogisticsWood Frame Modular                                                                                          gwb c...
INTRODUCTIONShipping Container Modular                                                                                    ...
Site Placement StrategiesOn-Frame Modularchassis                                              set module on piers         ...
INTRODUCTION                                                                       DETERMINANTSanchor module to ground    ...
Aggregation TechniquesThere are several ways modules can be                  Non-attached   Semi-attachedaggregated to for...
INTRODUCTIONAttached : Mate   Attached : Stack   Attached : Void                                                          ...
Mechanical Systems                                                    Modular Building PartsAs the number of modules in a ...
INTRODUCTION                                       Shipping Container Connections                                         ...
Modular StrategiesSourcesGokturk, Nurhan. Personal Interview. 13 October 2010.“Distill Studio: Projects.” 2009.http://dist...
Component StrategiesComponent Strategies • 50                            PRECEDENTS   CONTEXT   DEPLOYMENT           DETER...
DefinitionsPrefab construction is often associated withwhole modules or shipping container architecture.However, there are...
INTRODUCTION                                                                               DETERMINANTS                   ...
On-Site Labor                                  The benefit of prefabricated systems is mostly                             ...
INTRODUCTIONRelationship of On-site Labor and Component Transfer                         Labor Personnel          Componen...
Fabricated UnitsFabricated units have the advantage of beingconstructed in a controlled environment.Compared to stick-buil...
INTRODUCTION                       Roof Structure                       Interior Finish                                   ...
Panel System                                                                                  3                           ...
ODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT                                             Last Panel                             I...
Precast Concrete                                                      Structural Components                  1           2...
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архитектура Prefab city

  1. 1. Northeastern UniversityGraduate Program of ArchitectureMasters Research StudioLittell | Fall 2010Prepared By:Ahmed Almulla, Matt Arnold, Hope Blanchette, Travis Blake, Joanna Grab, Melissa Goldfarb,Sarah Laliberte, Andrea Leveille, Brad Mckinney, Luke Palma, Sara Rosenthal, John Stoddard
  2. 2. Introduction Statement This book was written by twelve graduate students of architecture (M. Arch.) at Northeastern University in the fall of 2010 as part of our Master’s Research Studio. This book will explore issues related to pre-constructed building strategies in urban environments, thus the title, Prefab City. As a result of this exploration and analysis, we hope to uncover potential design opportunities in an area that seems to be less well documented and researched in the field. This book is intended to be used by our studio, and could be useful to peers, professors or professionals wanting an integrated understanding of an approach to prefabricated building in a urban context.
  3. 3. Table of ContentsIntroduction Determinants Deployment Tactics Purpose ...............................................1 Transportation ..................................10 Density on Demand...........................68 by Ground: Rail ..........................................11 Definition, Factors ...................................69 Definitions .......................................... 2 by Ground: Road ........................................13 Mobility and Adaptability .........................70 by Water .....................................................21 Construction .............................................71 Research Methodology + Scope ......4 by Air ..........................................................23 Connections .............................................73 Process.....................................................77 Site Access + Assembly....................26 Site Access ...............................................27 Parasite + Barnacle............................80 Crane Operation and Extents ...................29 Urban Infill Sites ......................................81 Cranes and Obstacles .............................31 Definitions ................................................83 Off Frame Assembly ................................33 Parasite Precedents ................................85 Barnacle Precedents ...............................89 Modular Strategies ............................38 Logistics ...................................................39 Instant Utopia ..................................98 Site Placement Strategies .......................43 Introduction..............................................96 Aggregation Techniques .........................45 The Plug-In Tower .................................100 Mechanical Systems.................................47 The Expanding Monolith .......................106 The Artificial Hill town ............................110 Component Strategies .....................49 Definitions ..................................................51 Extreme Prefab................................118 On-Site Labor ...........................................53 Launching Gantry Game .......................120 Fabricated Unit .........................................55 Incremental Launching System ............124 Panel System ............................................57 Extra-Large Prefab ...............................128 Precast Concrete ......................................59 Kit-of-Parts ................................................61
  4. 4. Non Physical Contexts Precedents Building Code..................................136 Rating Precedents .........................168 Regular....................................................137 Rating Systems ......................................169 HUD Code ..............................................138 Matrix Chart ............................................170 Prefab Scale ...........................................171 Zoning Code ...................................144 Enchridion................................................173 Boston ..................................................145 Charlottesville, VA ................................147 Precedents .....................................176 Little Rock, AK .....................................148 Economics ......................................150 Overview ...................................................151 HUD Code ................................................153 Single Family Modular .............................155 Stick Built Modular....................................156 Multi Family Modular ................................157 Multi Family Stick Built .............................158 Policy...............................................160
  5. 5. Purpose and DefinitionsPre-fabrication in urban settings is an Four main purposes of the book:underlooked, under-researched subject. This • Exploring prefab through the city lens: explaining the process of using prefab relative tomight have to do with the fact that there are dense, urban environments.limited examples of prefabricated architecture inthe city, even less that have actually been • Identifying and analyzing delivery methods; tracking the prefab process from therealized, and even less that have actually been manufacturer to site placement.successful. Those reasons (limited builtexamples) as well as the stigma associated with • Identfying advantages vs. disadvantages; why would someone want to use prefab in anprefabrication (cheap, indistinct) aren’t the only urban environment.factors; social and economic factors (such asunions) also play an important role. • To uncover potential design opportunities in an area that seems to be less well understood or studied in the general field. This gathering, dissecting and organizing of specificThere is a disproportionally high number of information is potentially valuable in the generation or advancement of a design idea.prefab buildings (especially residential homes) inrural settings. Our research, therefore, haspurposely limited looking into this well-documented area of prefab in order to exploreand eventually identify the challenges that are What this book is not about:unique to urban environments. • Prefabrication in rural settings. • How elements are prefabricated in a factory (not part of the construction or delivery process), unless it is significant in terms of time/labor/quality issues.
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTSUrbanRelating to, or belonging to, a city. Examples of prefabricated architecture are disproportionally locatedin rural or suburban settings. Therefore, our aim is to focus on researching prefabrication in a moredense urban fabric. Although the ‘density’ factor is loosely defined, the context should be clearlyunderstood as urban.Prefab DEPLOYMENTDefinitions for this word vary slightly but are all common in the sense that they are too broad andgeneral (factory-built, factory-made, pre-cut, panelized, manufactured, modular, mobile). For ourpurposes, we are defining prefab as a building or structure that is manufactured in standard parts off-site to be shipped and assembled elsewhere.To be even more rigid in our definition of prefab, we have developed a matrix and identified projects ormethods of construction just outside the matrix to define the borders of our research zone. Theprojects within the matrix re-enforce our definition of prefab. CONTEXTDelivery Method‘Delivery method’ has different meanings in different fields and even within the field of architecture, itcan have various implications. Since it is an important factor in Prefab City, a precise definition, for ourpurposes, is required. By delivery methods, we mean the mode of transportation and route fromfactory where a prefab element was made to the actual construction site, and everything in between. PRECEDENTS Introduction • 2
  7. 7. Research Methodology and ScopeTo make our research and findings more effective Asphalt Road Drop Houseand useful, we have devised a strategy tocalculate or ‘rate’ the degree or ‘prefabness’ foreach of the examples presented. Firstly, thematrix helps us define our boundaries on whatconstitutes prefab. In other words, the limits ofdegree of ‘prefabness’ are defined by the projectsaround the border of the matrix, and everythingwithin falls in our realm of study.By developing this matrix, we have givenourselves two extremes of prefab and therefore 100% on-site 100% off-sitenow have a scale from which we can place otherobjects relative to the two ends. As our owncommitment to being objective about theseexamples, our ratings and matrix placementsprimarily use measurable facts and figures.
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION Off-site Prefabrication Puma City DETERMINANTS Drop House Nomadic Museum Precast Concrete Metastadt Segmented Bridges Pierson Court Nakagin Tower DEPLOYMENT Use Kim House Elemental Box City Bailey UseResidential Bridge Infrastructure Hong Kong Tower Habitat 67 CONTEXT 2 x 4 Res. Elemental Permanent Infill Zollverein Temporary PRECEDENTS Keetwonen Asphalt Road Custom Adobe Hut/ On-site Igloo Construction Standard Introduction • 4
  9. 9. Determinants
  10. 10. INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXTde·ter·mi·nant[dih-tur-muh-nuhnt]–noun1. a determining agent or factor.A multitude of factors go into the design and PRECEDENTSdelivery of a prefabricated element. Prefabdelivery must be carefully thought through toensure smooth transition from factory to site.Factors to pay special attention to include methodof transportation, site restrictions, and theconstruction strategy. Determinants • 6
  11. 11. TransportationTransportation •8 PRECEDENTS CONTEXT DEPLOYMENT DETERMINANTS INTRODUCTION
  12. 12. Transportation TypesGround: Rail Ground: Road Ground: CraneRail transportation is one of the most efficient With many different types, transportation by Cranes provide the means of moving a containermodes of tranport for moving freight. However, trucks provides some flexibility for moving or module to its place on site. The cost of havingthe constraints of connectivity to other modes of materials and modules to site. Trucks are limited a crane is one limitation. The dimensions of thetransport and the rigidity of the rail car are both by the roads that lead them to a site. Local height site and its constraints also are limiting factors.limitations that need to be considered when using and weight restrictions, as well as the turningrail. radius of the truck, must be considered.
  13. 13. INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXTWater: Barge Air: Skycrane Air: Freight AirplaneBarges allow for the tranport of ‘mega structures’ Skycranes allow typically inaccessible sites to Freight airplanes can expedite the deliverythat would otherwise be precluded from use receive materials that could not be delievered process of containers and kit of parts projects.because they are unable to be moved by rail or there otherwise. The distance of the pick up to However, because of the dimensional and weightroad. While size of the component is not a factor site is very limiting, as well as the skill needed to restrictions, the typical container size is excluded PRECEDENTSwhen using a barge, port locations in relation to operate the device and the cost associated with from this mode of transportation.site are critical factors that limit the use of water delivery.transport. Transportation • 10
  14. 14. by Ground: RailRail transportation provides an economicalalternative to truck transport for longer shipping Seattledistances (over 250 miles). In the United States,there is an existing network of freight railwaysthat serve the major metropolitan areas. Boston ChicagoCities that are located close to water most often New Yorkhave the greatest convergence of railroads. PhiladelphiaWaterways offer the greatest capabilities for Los Angeles Washington D.C.intermodal transport.The two most commonly used methods of Atlantatransportation (shown below) are “trailers on flatcars” (TOFC) and “container on flat cars” (COFC).Both types allow undisturbed shipment of freight. US System of RailwaysTOFC COFC Beacon Park Freight Yard, Boston, MA
  15. 15. INTRODUCTIONThe container has become the unit ofmeasurement for rail transport. The dimensionalproperties of the container dictate the length ofthe rail car and the vertical clearance needed fortransport. This can be a limiting factor whentransporting containers into an urban DETERMINANTSenvironment. DEPLOYMENT Typical Railcar dimension is set by container container dimension so that dimension two containers can fit on one car Trailer lengths also accomodate container dimensions CONTEXT req’d clearance 18’-9” req’d clearance 20’-9” Worcester Boston 20’ -3” 18’ -3” PRECEDENTS < 19’-6” Other Railway Two 8’-6” Two 9’-6” Containers Stacked Containers Stacked Vertical Railway Clearance in Massachusetts Transportation • 12
  16. 16. by Ground: RoadTransportation of pre fab elements in a urbanenvironment is constrained by a number ofobstacles. One of which is the complex networkof roads that comprise many cities.In order to deliver pre fab modules to a site manydifferent sized trucks need to be considered aspart of the delivery process. Each truck has itsown set of limitations for maximum freight weight. Truck TypesAll of these factors must be considered when Pickup Trucksiting a pre fab project in an urban context. Advantages: Can easily navigate small urban streets Disadvantages: Lowest freight weight capacity, very limited by size Single Unit Truck Advantages: Comparitively narrow width (fairly easy for navigating small streets). Mid size compacity for freight (panels could fit) Disadvantages: Constrained by height. Dump Truck Advantages: Large freight weight compacity Disadvantages: Width could be problematic when trying to traverse complex sites. Semi Tractor Trailer Truck Advantages: Largest carrying capacity; multiple trailer options to facilitate different sized pieces. Disadvantages: Hardest to maneuver complex street network.
  17. 17. Truck DimensionsTransportation •14 PRECEDENTS CONTEXT DEPLOYMENT DETERMINANTS INTRODUCTION
  18. 18. Semi-Trailer Load CapacitiesSemi-Tractor trailer trucks have the greatestcarrying capacity. There are a number of options 48’-0”for the trailer; some maximize the length, someheight of the element that needs to betransported. Outlined below are the options. 8’-6” 48,000 lbs. 8’-6” Flatdeck Trailer 11’-0” 37’-0” 8’-6” a b 10’-0” 48,000 lbs. 8’-6”a: Height restriction for truck (varies by state from 13’-6” to 14’-6”)b: Height limit for vertical clearance (typ. 14’-0” for urban areas, 16’-0” rural)Vertical Clearance for Semi-Trailers Single Drop Trailer 10’-0” 52’-6” 29’-0” 8’-6” 9’-0” 11’-6” 9’-2” 10’-0” 45,000 lbs. 8’-6” 45,000 lbs. 8’-6” * maximizes height Box Trailer Double Drop Trailer
  19. 19. INTRODUCTION 48’-0” 80’-0” 8’-6” DETERMINANTS 8’-6” 14’-0” 45,000 lbs. 48,000 lbs.* Trailer Stretched maximizes length 8’-6”Flatdeck Oversized Load 10’-0” 48’-0” DEPLOYMENT 63’-0” 8’-6” 8’-6” 10’-0” 16’-0” 48,000 lbs. * Oversized Load 43,000 lbs. 8’-6” permits requiredSingle Drop Trailer Stretched Way CONTEXT 10’-0” 50’-0” 8’-6” 11’-6” 9’-0” PRECEDENTS 10’-0” 40,000 lbs.* maximizes height 8’-6” * dimensions contrained by road restrictions of local municipalitesDouble Drop Trailer Stretched Super Oversized Load Transportation • 16
  20. 20. Roadway Design & ObstaclesRoadway design can either help or hinder thetransport of prefab elements to site by truck.Outlined below are the guidelines for thedimensions of driving and parking lanes in a city. a1 b1 c b2 a2
  21. 21. INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS Landscape Street Furniture Signage Pedestrian Utilities DEPLOYMENT CONTEXTTruck Turning Obstacles PRECEDENTS‘Making the turn’ is one of the challeneges oftruck transport when building in an urbanenvironment. The many obstacles the citypresents (parked cars, telephone poles, stopsigns, etc.) make routing a truck to site one of the City Utilities Lighting Parallel Parkingmost important parts of the process. Transportation • 18
  22. 22. Truck Turning RadiiThe swept path a truck takes as it makes a right Swept path of truck 60°turn is a critical moment. To the right is a diagramthat explains the logics of how a truck makes aturn.The most common trucks used for transport inthe city are the standard semi-truck and the 60’ radiussingle unit truck. The paths for oversized loads from point on sidewalkneed to be considered if larger elements need toget to site. Critical points that determine swept path Truck Making 60° Turn 60° 60° 90° 90° a a b b 180° 180° a: 53’-0” a: 53’-0” b: 8’-6” b: 8’-6” critical swept path critical swept path Standard Semi-Truck Single Unit Truck
  23. 23. INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT 60° 60° 60° CONTEXT 90° 90° 90° a a a b *cannot make a 180° b PRECEDENTS b with a 60’ radius 180°a: up to 80’-0” a: 48’-0” a: 75’-0” or 1/3 truck bed length 180°b: 8’-6” b: 16’-0” b: 8’-6” critical swept path critical swept path critical swept pathStretch Semi-Truck Oversized Load (Width) Oversized Load (Length) Transportation • 20
  24. 24. by WaterVessels used for transport range in size based onthe depth of water being traveled. The prefabcomponent’s size, if only traveling by water, isrestricted by the smallest body of water it travelsthrough.The size of the locks in at the Panama Canaldetermine the size of the ships allowed through.Each lock is 1,050 ft long, 110 feet wide. TheBridge of the Americas at the Pacific Entrance tothe canal is the height determinate; 201 ft at hightide. These dimensions set the maximum size ofship elligible to travel through the canal known asthe Panamax. A typical Panamax Container shipholds about 4,400 TEUs.Container ship unit of measure: World’s Largest Ports (ranked by container traffic, 2006)TEU, twenty-foot equivalent units:containers measuring 20ft L x 8ft W x 8.5ft H 1. Singapore 2. Hong Kong 3. Shanghai 4. Shenzhen 140 million 5. Busan 6. Kaohsiung containers shipped worldwide each year 7. Rotterdam 8. Dubai 9. Hamburg 10. Los Angeles 22. New York/ New Jersey 28. Port SaidRo-RO Ship passing through a lock at - Dampierthe Panama Canal - Newcastle
  25. 25. INTRODUCTIONSize Comparison Boeing 757-200PF Cargo Freight: 155 feet long, 125 feet wing span DETERMINANTS World’s largest container ship, Emma Maersk: 1,302 feet long, 184 feet wide 11,000 full TEU 14-ton containers Football field: DEPLOYMENT 300 feet longTransport Ships TypesName Water Type Qualities CONTEXTRO-RO Roll-on/Roll-Off varies by size subdivided into multiple types, many carry vehicles and containers Sto-Ro off wheel cargo, brought on board by a ramp at stern or side entry Container/Ro-Ro flexibile storage- containers on + under deck forward, ramps at stern for aft underdeck. Ro-Ro cargo is often construction equipment Ferry Shallow transport distance less than 300miles, often personal vehicles and rail carsHeavy Lift Deep capable of unloading/loading heavy/bulky components - typical single lift of 100 tons Crane Ship off-load containers from non self-sustaining ships offshore or underdeveloped ports PRECEDENTS FLO-FLO Float-On/Float-Off submerges open deck entirely under water surface, smaller cargo ship is floated over, water is pumped out of ballast tanksBarge Carrier Ships Shallow very long length compared to width, hard to handle and off-load toContainer Ships Deep containers stack 5 or 6 high, twelve across and interlocked with fittings- typically rely on shore cargo handling gear for unloading/loading Transportation • 22
  26. 26. by AirIt may be cost effective to transport by air using afreight aircraft if the elements are small enoughand light enough to fit inside a cargo hold.Utilizing an air crane, despite its hourly cost, may container / palettebe necessary if the urban site is particularlydifficult to access by truck and standard cranes.The boom height necessary to place a prefab large main-deckcomponent may require too large of a crane for cargo doorthe adjacent street size. In this instance lifting aprefab unit as large as many typical single familyhomes may be the efficient option for transport. Cargo Freight Specs: Boeing 757-200PF Cargo Freight: Length: 155 feet Tail Height: 44 feet Wing span: 125 feet Max takeoff weight: 250,000 lb - 255,000 lb Main deck capacity: 15 max containers/palette Palette size: 7’-4” x 10’-5” Main deck volume: 6,600 cubic ft (palette loads) Size Comparison Upper deck volume: 1,830 cubic ft (bulk loads) Football field: Cruise Speed: 530 mph 300 feet long Range: 2,900 miles Rate of climb: 1,3330 ft/min Ceiling: 12,800 ft Cargo Freight Air Crane / Skycrane Must land to transport
  27. 27. INTRODUCTIONdifficult accessurban site DETERMINANTS 23 0m im DEPLOYMENT ax im um dis t an ce Air Crane / Skycrane Specs: CONTEXT Length: 70 feet Height: 18ft 7 inches Empty Weight: 19,234 lb Max takeoff weight: 42,000 lb prefab component Max Speed: 126 mph extracted from fabricator, Range: 230 mi PRECEDENTS truck/rail/water transport Rate of climb: 1,3330 ft/min vessel Ceiling: 9,000 ft Cost: $5,000 per hour able to hover over site for delivery Transportation • 24
  28. 28. TransportationSourceshttp://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ship/sealift-ships.htmhttp://earthpulse.nationalgeographic.com/earthpulse/earthpulse-maphttp://www.massfreightandrailplan.com/documents/rail_plan/Draft%20MA%20State%20Rail%20Plan090910.pdfhttp://www.stevenswest.com/trailer_selector.shtmlhttp://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/trucks/trucksize/height.htmImage Credits:http://crcyc.railfan.net/wall/other/frye-beacon.jpghttp://www.hankstruckpictures.com/pix/trucks/george_fiebe/2008/08-12/file002.jpghttp://www.billemory.com/blogimg02/k639b4-semi-franklin.jpghttp://www.flickr.com/photos/36722129@N06/4168030601/
  29. 29. Site Access + AssemblySite Access + Assembly • 26 PRECEDENTS CONTEXT DEPLOYMENT DETERMINANTS INTRODUCTION
  30. 30. Site AccessThere are several logical reasons for usingcranes in prefab construction. Sites completelysurrounded are rendered inaccessible to bulkyconstruction equiptment.Other existing siteconditions like single access to site, corner site,or narrow site greatly limit the access points tobring in construction equiptment and modules.Buildings can be constructed on these accessible(but difficult) sites and open sites using stickframe methods, but in some cases the speed ofprefabricated construction methods can expeditethe process. courtyard crane necessary for construction surrounded site single access to site
  31. 31. INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT alley crane necessary for speed CONTEXT PRECEDENTScorner site narrow site full access to site Site Access + Assembly • 28
  32. 32. Crane Operation + Extents Special crane components There are some extra equiptment items that make craning a module more efficient and precise. Rigging keeps the forces of tension perpindicular to the module, reducing the bending forces on the unit. An antirotation device helps control a crane’s motion and the way the module shifts from pickup Winch up to placement. Winch Wood frame modules are best moved withWinch right strapping and rigging. Steel frame modules use left Crane school hooks and holes intentionally in the design of Winch down Heavy equiptment training school is essential for modular structures to pick up the unit (as in crane training and operation. It involves written shipping containers). tests based on state laws and practical Emergency examinations employing students’ skilled Outriggers extending from the crane vehicle are stop manipulation of the crane operations. necessary to temporarily ground the module toStart Stop the site. Jog Reset The jib is very useful to hold the modular unit in an almost upright position. It has the potential to resolve design issues thanks to its ability to Crane cab controls suspend the module in a way different from the way a crane typically does. Rigging for wood frame module
  33. 33. INTRODUCTIONSmall And Large Crane ExtentsTelescopic Boom Crane All Terrain CraneNational Crane 1395 Tadano ATF 110G-520 Ton capacity 130 Ton capacity jib 20° 20° 143 80° DETERMINANTS jib 122 44° 95 20° 80° DEPLOYMENT 42 72 101 130 170 56 CONTEXT 24-7" 340-0" outrigger190-0" 20-0" outrigger PRECEDENTS 360° 360° work area work area Site Access + Assembly • 30
  34. 34. Crane + ObstaclesHand signals Permitting obstaclesHand signals are necessary for communication Permits in Boston one must obtain through thebetween the crane operator and the individual on Inspectational Services Department include: longsite guiding the placement of the crane. These form permit, amendment, use of premise permitsimple gestures are necessary for several (for using open space), electrical & fire alarmreasons. Construction sites are often loud. There permits, plumbing, gas, and sprinkler installationis a lot of space between the crane operator and permits.the individual conducting the crane’s motions.The dual perspectives of crane operator and Call Boston Public Works Department 24 hoursconductor are critical in ensuring safety and prior to work to get a permit. Coordinate withprecision. recycling, santiation, and street sweeping. Signs must be posted near the sitewith the construction schedule. In addition to this, it may be required to hire an officer to direct traffic. Hoist Lower Raise Boom Lower Boom Swing Raise Boom + Lower Boom + Stop Lower Load Raise Load Hand signals
  35. 35. INTRODUCTIONObstacles on a construction siteThere are a variety of existing physical barriersthat must be worked around. These can lead tointeresting, even fruitful design moves. Theyincludew but are not limited to: Utility poles DETERMINANTS Power lines Lamp posts Trees Fire hyrdants Subterranian utilities DEPLOYMENT CONTEXT PRECEDENTS Site Access + Assembly • 32
  36. 36. Off Frame AssemblySite Dimensions Determined byTruck TurnTruck turn dimensions can influence the decisionto use a site or not. Sometimes scale and cost 20can dictate the use of an off frame assemblysystem. Often obstacles, like powerlines, can 6make modular construction on a site unfeasible 52without the use of an off frame solution. Still otherobstacles, like sidewalks and buildings 6surrounding the site (both immediately and acrossthe street), can impact the delivery of an off framemodular unit.Knowing the limits and minimum site dimensionscan transform a once unusable site into avaluable piece of real estate. Standard Semi Truck minimum site dimensionsEfficiency 20’ wide x 53’ deepEfficiency percentage is calculated by dividing the module dimensions 8’-6” wide x 53’ deeparea of the module by the area of the smallestpossible rectangular site. It is clear that the mostdense and efficient module-site relationshiphappens when the module is shorter and wider,as in the case of the oversized load (width)example. Module Site 43 %
  37. 37. INTRODUCTION 41 25 17 DETERMINANTS 6 6 653 53 53 6 6 6 DEPLOYMENT Stretch Semi Truck Oversized Load (Width) Oversized Load (Length) minimum site dimensions minimum site dimensions minimum site dimensions 41’ wide x 80’ deep 25’ wide x 48’ deep 17’ wide x 63’ deep module dimensions module dimensions module dimensions 8’-6” wide x 80’ deep 16’ wide x 48’ deep 16’ wide x 48’ deep CONTEXT 21 % 64 % 50 % PRECEDENTS Site Access + Assembly • 34
  38. 38. Off Frame AssemblyFrom Truck to Site Off-Frame Modular Delivery Module delivery is possible without a crane. The truck begins its delivery by backing into the site. Next jacks are placed underneath the module, taking the load off of the transportation chassis. The chassis is then removed by pulling it out into the street. In some cases, like the illustrated scenario, a chassis must be cut into pieces because the distance between the in place module and existing structure across from the site does not allow its removal. Backing up Entering site
  39. 39. INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXTPlacing jacks under module Removing chassis from site Breaking up chassis PRECEDENTS Site Access + Assembly • 36
  40. 40. Site Access + AssemblySourcesRent A Crane, Inc. http://www.rentacraneinc.com/equipment.htmlCapitol Building Supply. 2008. http://cbsigms.com/pricing/cranecharges.pdfPacific Northwest National Laboratory. September 2010. http://www.pnl.gov/contracts/hoist_rigging/mobile_cranes.asp#cranetypesWikipedia. 2010 2, November. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crane_(machine)National Modular Housing Council. http://www.manufacturedhousing.org/mc/admin/template/brochures/70temp.pdfCity of Boston.2010. http://www.cityofboston.gov/isd/building/boa/permittypes.aspCity of Boston. 2010. http://www.cityofboston.gov/transportation/Star-Flite Systems. http://www.flickr.com/photos/starflite-systems/4930960368/sizes/m/in/photostream/California Crane School. 2004-2010. http://www.californiacraneschool.com/Pennsylvania Crane School. 2009. http://www.pennsylvaniacraneschool.com/crane_practical_test.aspGokturk, Nurhan. Personal Interview. 13 October 2010.Curbed Los Angeles. http://la.curbed.com/archives/2008/01/watching_a_pref.phpUniversity of Arkansas. http://architecture.uark.edu/719.htm
  41. 41. Modular StrategiesModular Strategies • 38 PRECEDENTS CONTEXT DEPLOYMENT DETERMINANTS INTRODUCTION
  42. 42. LogisticsModule Allowable WidthsModular strategies provide several benefits to the Module Allowable Widths 12’-0” standardconstruction process. The use of modules greatlyreduces time for the construction schedule (see 12’-0” standardbelow) by allowing builders to worksimultaneously on and off site. In workingprimarily off-site, negative impacts on theenvironment 8’-6” post-construction sitepermitting required (standard) and no revival 12’-0” permit required (wide)are greatly reduced. 14’-0” escort required (wide) special route required (oversize) 8’-6” no permitting required (standard) 16’-0”Module dimensions are determined by the 12’-0” permit required (wide) 14’-0” escort required (wide)Massachusetts Department of Transportation. special route required (oversize) 16’-0”MassDOT codes restrict travel of certain trucksand load sizes during high volume traffic hours.Module Allowable Lengths Module Allowable Lengths standard 12’-0” standard oversize maximum 40’-0” 53’-0” standard oversize 76’-0” 40’-0” 53’-0”Site Built Construction Schedule 76’-0” DESIGN PERMITING ON-SITE ON-SITE ON-SITE schematics + documents submission + approvals preparation + foundation building construction site restorationModular Construction Schedule DESIGN PERMITING ON-SITE ON-SITE TIME SAVED schematics + documents submission + approvals preparation + foundation site restoration schedule reduced by 30% to 50% OFF-SITE building construction
  43. 43. INTRODUCTIONSteel Frame Modular steel form deck 6” ceiling joists DETERMINANTS HSS frame steel form deck 3” concrete HSS frame steel studs gwb cladding DEPLOYMENTSteel framed modules are constructed with ahollow structural steel frame that is infilled withlight gague steel studs. The modules arrive onsite with interior and exterior finish materialsinstalled, are fastened to one another andfinishing touches are made. The steel moduleshown to the right allows for the construction of amaximum twelve story building. CONTEXT exploded axonometric mate-line concrete floor mate-line PRECEDENTS gwb ceiling 2 layers type x gwb mineral wool fire stop firesafingmarriage wall section Modular Strategies • 40
  44. 44. LogisticsWood Frame Modular gwb ceiling 2 x 6 ceiling joists gwb finish wall (2) 2 x 12 beam floor sheathing 2x4 studs (2) 2 x 10 beam 2x10 floor joists 2x6 studs sheathing claddingWood framed modules are built using typicalwood construction methods. Wood beams andstuds act as the main structure, with exteriorsheathing to prevent racking. Interior and exteriorfinishes come installed in the module. Woodmodules are often limited in height by local codesfor wood construction. gwb finish wall osb sheathing exploded axonometric 2 x 10 joists (2) 2x12 beam air space 2 x 6 ceiling joists gwb finish ceiling 2 x 4 stud wallmarriage wall section
  45. 45. INTRODUCTIONShipping Container Modular steel corrugated roof corrugated side wall steel square tube steel block DETERMINANTS steel post steel channel 1” plywood floor steel joists rubber gasket securing barsShipping container modules can come from steel doorsactual recycled shipping containers, or can becustom constructed for specific projects. DEPLOYMENTShipping containers are intended to be stackedfor the transportation of goods, and thereforestack easily as well to form buildings. Thecorrugated side walls provide a lot of thecontainers strucural capacity, and need to bereinforced with columns if sections are removedas shown above exploded axonometric CONTEXT steel angle below steel channel at plywood seam corrugated side wall steel joists below corrugated end wall steel permieter beam 1” plywood floor PRECEDENTS steel bottom block steel vertical supportstructure detail plan Modular Strategies • 42
  46. 46. Site Placement StrategiesOn-Frame Modularchassis set module on piers detach chassisThere are two main strategies for placing modular Off-frame construction (see below) is commonlybuildings on to a site. On-frame construction (see used for multi-story buildings. The module isabove), also known as mobile homes, is limited to placed onto the back of a flat-bed truck forsingle story structures. Modules are placed on a shipment, and is craned into its site upon arrival.chassis, hitched to a truck, and brought to site. The modules can be stacked according to localThe chassis is lowered onto a set of piers and zoning and codes, as well as the structuraldetached from the truck. The chassis and wheels integrity of the system. Off-frame systems areare left beneath the module, making the structure typically viewed as permanant.temporary in natureOff-Frame Modularflat-bed truck strap module to crane place module on foundation
  47. 47. INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTSanchor module to ground add skirting DEPLOYMENTcraning sequence CONTEXT PRECEDENTSanchor module to foundation Modular Strategies • 44
  48. 48. Aggregation TechniquesThere are several ways modules can be Non-attached Semi-attachedaggregated to form a building. Modules can benot attached, semi attached, or attached as seenin the diagrams to the right. Here are severalexamples of how modules can be aggregatedwithin the different levels of attachment. Theexamples listed are existing aggregationtechniques in their simplest form.The ability of modules to be stacked and shiftedis reliant on their structural integrity. Differentconstruction methods will allow for smaller or Solo Frameworklarger cantilever dimensions and variable buildingheights. The height of modular buildings is alsoreliant on local zoning codes for specific materials Field Field jointPuma City, to the right, is a great example ofaggregated modules where one can actually seethe aggregation technique clearly. Modulesoberseve stack : shift relationships as well asmate and bridge.
  49. 49. INTRODUCTIONAttached : Mate Attached : Stack Attached : Void DETERMINANTSMate Stack Void : Bridge DEPLOYMENT CONTEXTMate : Shift Stack : Shift Void: Bridge PRECEDENTSMate : Turn Stack : Turn Modular Strategies • 46
  50. 50. Mechanical Systems Modular Building PartsAs the number of modules in a modular buildingincreases, the complexity by which they areattached also grows. A solo module arrivesready for use, and must only be tied into thefoundation. As more modules are introducedthere is a system by which their mechanicalcomponents are connected. Stacked modulesrequire shafts, similar to that of standardbuildings, to carry mechanical lines. Large in-site foundation typical module interstitial modulebuildings with high volume HVAC and plumbingsystems can introduce interstitial modules toallow lateral movement of systems in betweenstacked modules.Mechanical + Modular Connectionssolo module adjacent modules stacked modules
  51. 51. INTRODUCTION Shipping Container Connections DETERMINANTSshaft space mechanical systems DEPLOYMENT electrical connection CONTEXT PRECEDENTS shipping container mechanical unitsstacked : adjacent modules individual container mechanical box Modular Strategies • 48
  52. 52. Modular StrategiesSourcesGokturk, Nurhan. Personal Interview. 13 October 2010.“Distill Studio: Projects.” 2009.http://distillstudio.com/?page_id=9 (accessed Oct. 2010).Garrison,James. Modular Architecture Manual. Kullman Offsite Construction. Lebanon:Kullman Buildings Corp, 2008.Modular Building Institute, “Permanant Modular Construction: Annual Report.”2010.http://www.modular.org/documents/document_publication/permanent2010.pdf (accessed Oct. 2010).“LOT-EK.” http://www.lot-ek.com/ (accessed Oct. 2010).“Shipping Container Drawings.” Oct. 27, 2009. http://www.arktist.com/ArkPhoenix/ShippingContainerDwgs/containerdwgs.html (accessed Oct. 2010).ImagesMelissa GoldfarbJohn Wildehttp://www.lot-ek.comhttp://www.kullman.com
  53. 53. Component StrategiesComponent Strategies • 50 PRECEDENTS CONTEXT DEPLOYMENT DETERMINANTS INTRODUCTION
  54. 54. DefinitionsPrefab construction is often associated withwhole modules or shipping container architecture.However, there are other component strategiesthat qualify as prefabicated construction.Fabricated Unit Panel System Precast ConcreteFabricated units as defined by this section are Panel systems contain integrated systems within Precast concrete is fabricated in a multitude oftypically made of extruded or poured metal one component. Often included are structural, sizes. Precast components are comprised of an(aluminum or steel) The units range in scale from thermal/waterproofing, electrical, mechanical internal steel rebar framework and high tolerancea small fasteners to steel bridge trusses. For the systems. Made up of a sandwich of concrete. Concrete is meant to withstandconsideration of construction and design logics, complementary materials. How the panels are transport to and movement on site. Units aremetal fabricated components from the single stud handled on site is dependent on the weight and limited in weight and dimensions based on theto the 300’-0” bridge truss are in this category. size of each piece. smallest unit of transportation. Refer to the Transportation chapter for size limitations.
  55. 55. INTRODUCTION DETERMINANTS DEPLOYMENT CONTEXTKit-of-PartsThe Kit-of-Parts is a packaged set of componentsthat results in a cohesive end product, notcategorized by materiality; often the shipping PRECEDENTSpackage is used as a portion of the finishedproduct. It can include any number andcombination of the fabricated unit, the panelsystem, or precast components. Coordination ofproducts is done off-site then delivered. Component Strategies • 52
  56. 56. On-Site Labor The benefit of prefabricated systems is mostly realized in the reduction of construction on-site labor. Prefabricating components, panels, or modules can significantly reduce the amount of time workers are present at the site. The reduction of on-site time obviously reduces construction labor cost but also has the potential to reduce the amount of errors experienced at the construction site. However, a consequence of prefabrication is that the building components grow in size. Increased sizes result in the need to utilize more man-power and exra equipment. Transport equipment maximum loads need to be considered in the design of the components. Logistics in transfer are key limitations to designing structurally sound pieces that can handle transport and the loads inherent in the building design. Extra time is needed than on-site construction calculating and coordinating the connecting components because on-site flexibility is severly decreased. Increased coordination is then necessary for any building components not built as part of the prefabricated system, ie: the foundation. Since prefabrication alters the time and means for on-site labor it is important to understand the relationship of on-site personnel to the size and type of prefabricated component.launching and construction ofBailey Bridge with manual labor
  57. 57. INTRODUCTIONRelationship of On-site Labor and Component Transfer Labor Personnel Component Max. Weight Dimensions 51 lbs 2” H × 4” W x 8’-0” L DETERMINANTS 150 lbs 10’-0” H x 4’-0” W x 6” L 577 lbs 5’-0” H x 1’-0” W x 10’-0” L DEPLOYMENT < 2,000 lbs 4’ H x 4’ W x 3’-4” L < 2,000 lbs 5’-0” H × 4’-0” W × 8’-0” L CONTEXT 20,000 lbs 11’-6” H x 8’-0” W x 48’-0” L PRECEDENTS 25,000 lbs 15’-0” H x 60’-0” W x 9’-0” L Component Strategies • 54
  58. 58. Fabricated UnitsFabricated units have the advantage of beingconstructed in a controlled environment.Compared to stick-built methodology, fabricationgroups the individual studs, beams and joistswithin a factory setting. Instead of installing andconnecting each stud to the foundation throughthe footer of a wall, the framing is made into acomponent that includes the header, footer andall the studs for a predetermined length of wall.Degrees of Prefabrication Stud Stud Panel Bridge Trusselevationplan
  59. 59. INTRODUCTION Roof Structure Interior Finish PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT Floor Slab DETERMINANTS Framing Column-Beam Connection DEPLOYMENT Cladding Apetures CONTEXT FoundationFabricated Unit Logic PRECEDENTSSteel Frame ConstructionFabricated Units compose the structural framing.Other systems, energy, aesthetics, and openingsare additive to the unit. Component Strategies • 56 PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT
  60. 60. Panel System 3 4 2Panellized construction minimizes on-siteconstruction. Construction materials typically 1fastened on-site are compiled into a componentconstructed in the controlled factory environment.Most common type of panel system is SIPs,structural insulated panels.SIPs are comprised of a thick layer of insulationbetween two layers of OSB, oriented strandboard. A basic SIPs panel is composed of bothstructure and insulation layer.Panel systems may increase material cost by upto 50% but on-site labor cost can potentially Panel Connectionsdecrease by 50%. The benefit exists in the Connections Fastener Spacingprecision of factory controlled construction withisolation from problems that exist at the site. 1. Track to Level Platform countersunk screw 2 screws per 24” 1 screw in betweenInstallation of the panels is based on 2. Track to Panel screw 2 screws per studmethodology developed for the specific system. 3. Panel to Panel screw (ex: wafer head) 12” OCDifferent systems will have different advantages: 4. Track to Panel* screw 2 screws per studwhether the panel is lightweight or resistent to *upper track connected after 12’-0” of panels installedweather, earthquakes, winds, insects, debris.
  61. 61. ODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT Last Panel Initial Panel Panel Installation SequenceComponent Strategies • 58 PRECEDENTS CONTEXT DEPLOYMENT DETERMINANTS INTRODUCTION
  62. 62. Precast Concrete Structural Components 1 2 3 4 Slabs length factor by function of service width by transportation restriction 5 6 7 Beams depth is dependent on length 10 length is function of capacity load Columns 1. Solid height is dependent on the width 2. Hollow Core 8 9 3. Single TeePrecast concrete construction is most readily 4. Double Teeseen within the city as infrastructure. It is a 5. Rectangularversitile construction type. Any shape and size is 6. Inverted Teepossible as long as the overall component 7. L-shapedconforms to the smallest restrictions on size 8. Round|Rectanglebased on transportation used to get from 9. Squareprecaster to the job site. Refer to the 10. Double HeightTransportation Sub-Chapter for restraints, pertransport type.The efficiency of precast concrete units becomesapparent in the repeatability of the shape. Composition of PrecastFormwork is expensive to fabricate. The more materials and accessories rebarsophisticated the form the higher the cost. Similar concrete: portland cement, water,shapes with minimal pour adjustments will result air, aggregatein the most cost efficient use of the form. formwork positive/negative connection keysUtilizing precast as a technology will add epoxy cementitious grout:additional time to the initial phase of the project between precast segments/for design/calculations and decrease on-site time. components

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