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Ch 14. Acids and Bases
Chem 30A
Acids and Bases
Acids and Bases
• Acids
– Sour taste
– Dissolve many metals
– Turn litmus paper red.
– Egs. Ace9c acid (vinegar),
citric acid (lemons)
• Bases
– Bi>er taste, slippery feel
– Turn litmus paper blue.
– Egs. Drano, ammonia, caffeine
Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases
Based on H+ or OH- Produc9on in Water
• Acid: Substance that produces H+ ions (protons) in
aqueous solu9ons
§ HCl (aq) à H+ (aq) + Cl– (aq)
§ HNO3 (aq) à H+ (aq) + NO3
– (aq)
• Base: Substance that produces OH- (hydroxide)
ions aqueous solu9ons
§ NaOH (aq) à Na+(aq) + OH–(aq)
• Defn is limited– restricted to reac9ons in water
only
Bronsted-Lowry Definition of Acids and Bases
Based on Proton Transfer:
• Acids: Proton donors
HCl à H+ + Cl-
• Bases: Proton acceptors
NH3 + H+ à NH4
+
Bronsted-Lowry Acid
• An acid must have an acidic proton that can be
donated.
acidic proton
Bronsted-Lowry Base
• A base must have a lone pair to accept a
proton.
• A base can be neutral or nega9vely charged.
Number of Acidic Protons on a Molecule
• An acid molecule can be monopro9c, dipro9c, or
tripro9c (based on number of acidic protons).
Water Acts as Both Acid and Base (Amphoteric)
• Water can act as a base, accep9ng a proton from
an acid à Forms hydronium ion H3O+.
• Water can act as an acid, dona9ng a proton to a
base à Forms hydroxide ion OH-
The Proton in Water
• A H+ ion in water is not isolated! A H+ ion in
water a>racts the nega9ve pole of water
molecule so strongly that it forms a covalent
bond to water.
HCl (aq) + H2O(l) à H3O+ (aq) + Cl– (aq)
hydronium ion (hydrated proton)
*Also wri>en as: HCl (aq) à H+ (aq) + Cl– (aq)
Bronsted-Lowry Acid and Base Work Together
• An acid and base must always work together
to transfer a proton!
In aqueous solu9ons of acids or bases, water acts as
the base or acid “partner”:
§ HCl + H2O à Cl- + H3O+ (HCl à Cl- + H+)
acid base
§ NH3 + H2O à NH4
+ + OH- (NH3 à NH4
+ + OH-)
base acid
Acid-Base Reactions Don’t Have to Involve Water
• A Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reac9on does not
always occur in water.
Ex Probs
List of Common Acids and Bases
Strong Acids
HCl hydrochloric acid
HBr hydrobromic acid
HI hydroiodic acid
HNO3 nitric acid
H2SO4 sulfuric acid
HClO4 perchloric acid
Strong Bases:
Metal Hydroxides of
Group 1A ca9ons
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, etc.
and
Heavier Group 2A ca9ons:
Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
Common Weak Acids
HC2H3O2 or CH3COOH
ace9c acid
H2CO3 carbonic acid
Common Weak Base
NH3 ammonia
Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
Conjugate Acid-Base Pair
• NH3 and NH4
+ are a conjugate acid-base pair.
• H2O and OH– are a conjugate acid-base pair.
Conjugate acid-base pair: two substances
whose formulas differ by only a hydrogen ion
Conjugate Acid-Base Pair
• H2SO4 and HSO4
– are a conjugate acid-base
pair.
• H2O and H3O+ are a conjugate acid-base pair.
Conjugate Acid-Base Pair
Example Problems
Which of the following represent conjugate acid-
base pairs?
a. HF, F-
b. NH4
+, NH3
c. HCl, H2O
d. HClO4, ClO4
-
e. HCl, ClO-
f. H2PO4
-, HPO4
2-
g. HNO3, NO3
-
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
Ex Probs
Reactions of Acids and Bases
Acid-Base Reaction: Neutralization
Neutraliza9on: a reac9on in which an acid and
base react quan9ta9vely with each other
Acid-Base Reaction: Acid + Strong Base
When an acid and a strong base (metal
hydroxide) react, they form water and a salt
(ionic compound).
• HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) à H2O (l) + NaCl (aq)
Net ionic eqn: H+(aq) + OH-(aq) à H2O (l)
Acid-Base Reaction: Gas-Forming
When an acid and a bicarbonate (HCO3
–) or
carbonate (CO3
2–) react, water and gas are formed.
• HCl (aq) + KHCO3(aq) à KCl(aq) + [H2CO3(aq)] à
KCl + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
H+(aq) + HCO3
–(aq) à [H2CO3(aq)] à H2O(l) + CO2(g)
• 2HCl (aq) + K2CO3(aq) à2KCl(aq) + [H2CO3(aq)] à
2KCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
2H+(aq) + CO3
2–(aq) à [H2CO3(aq)] à H2O(l) + CO2(g)
Reaction of Acids with Metals (Redox Rxn)
• Acids dissolve many metals: Acids oxidize
metals, causing metals to go into solu9on.
• 2HCl(aq) + Mg(s) à H2(g) + MgCl2(aq)
acid metal H2 gas salt
• H2SO4(aq) + Zn(s) à H2(g) + ZnSO4(aq)
acid metal H2 gas salt
Titration
• Titra9on: Determina9on of the concentra9on
of a solu9on with an unknown concentra9on
(analyte) by combining it with a standard
solu9on of known concentra9on (9trant).
Acid-Base Titration
• Equivalence point: the point where enough
9trant has been added to react exactly with the
analyte present
• Indicator for acid-base 9tra9on: Compound
whose color is different in acid than in base
• Endpoint: the point at which the indicator’s signal
is triggered (The endpoint may or may not come
exactly at equivalence point).
mole H+ = mole OH–
Acid-Base Titration
(titrant)
(analyte)
CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) à H2O(l) + Na+(aq) + CH3COO-(aq)
Acid-Base Titration
• Acid-base 9tra9on problems are stoichiometry
problems (solu9on stoichiometry).
Ex Probs
Acid Strength
Acid Strength
• Strong acid: Completely ionized (dissociated).
HCl(aq) H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
• Weak acid: Most of the acid molecules remain
intact.
CH3COOH(aq) H+(aq) + CH3COO-(aq)
equilibrium arrow
Acid Strength
Strong Acid Solutions
• Strong acids ionize completely:
HCl à H+ + Cl-
So: 0.01 M HCl à 0.01 M H+ + 0.01 M Cl-
0.5 M HCl à 0.5 M H+ + 0.5 M Cl-
• Weak acids do not ionize completely:
Acids as Electrolytes
Electrolyte: a solu9on of free ions, conducts
electricity
Weak acid
Weak electrolyte
Strong acid
Strong electrolyte
List of Common Acids and Bases
Strong Acids
HCl hydrochloric acid
HBr hydrobromic acid
HI hydroiodic acid
HNO3 nitric acid
H2SO4 sulfuric acid
HClO4 perchloric acid
Strong Bases:
Metal Hydroxides of
Group 1A ca9ons
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, etc.
and
Heavier Group 2A ca9ons:
Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
Common Weak Acids
HC2H3O2 or CH3COOH
ace9c acid
H2CO3 carbonic acid
Common Weak Base
NH3 ammonia
Some Weak Acids and Weak Bases
Ex Probs
Ion-Product Constant for Water
Water as an Acid and Base
• Water is amphoteric: can react as either an acid or
base
• Water undergoes auto-ioniza9on:
H2O(l) + H2O(l) à H3O+ + OH-
• For pure water, 25°C: [H3O+] = [OH–] = 1.0 × 10–7 M
• Ion-product constant for water (Kw)
Kw = [H3O+] [OH–] = 1.0 × 10–14 at 25°C
*True for pure water and all aqueous solu9ons!
Relationship between [H+] and [OH-]
We can relate [H+] and [OH-] through Kw:
Kw = [H+][OH–] = 1.0 x 10-14
for water and all aqueous solu9ons
Definitions: Neutral, Acidic, Basic
• Neutral solu9on: [H+] = [OH–]
• Acidic solu9on: [H+] > [OH–]
• Basic solu9on: [H+] < [OH–]
In each case, however,
Kw = [H+][OH–] = 1.0 × 10–14
for water and all aqueous solu9ons
Ex Probs
pH and pOH
The pH Scale
pH = – log[H+]
• A compact way to represent solu9on acidity.
eg. pH = - log (1.0 x 10-7 M) = 7
Logarithmic Function
y = log x à 10y = x
pH = -log [H+]
-pH = log [H+] à 10-pH = [H+]
• As [H+] increases, pH decreases.
pH Range
pH 7 [H+] = [OH-] Neutral
pH < 7 [H+] > [OH-] Acidic
pH > 7 [H+] < [OH-] Basic
• Lower the pH, more acidic the solu9on.
• Higher the pH, more basic the solu9on.
pH Range
10-pH = [H+]
Every 9me pH drops
by 1, there is 10x
increase in [H+].
Calculating pH and [H+]
• To get pH from [H+]:
pH = -log [H+]
• To get [H+] from pH:
pH = -log[H+]
-pH = log[H+]
Inverse log (-pH) = inverse log (log [H+])
Inverse log (-pH) = [H+]
OR 10-pH = [H+]
Ex Probs
pOH
pH = -log[H+]
pOH = – log[OH-]
Calculating pOH and [OH-]
• To get pOH from [OH-]:
pH = -log [OH-]
• To get [OH-] from pOH:
Inverse log (-pOH) = [OH-]
OR 10-pOH = [OH-]
Ex Probs
Relationship Between pH and pOH
1.0 x 10-14 = [H+][OH–]
log 1.0 x 10-14 = log[H+] + log[OH–]
-14.00 = –log[H+] – log[OH–]
14.00 = log[H+] + log[OH–]
14.00 = pH + pOH
Ex Probs
Equations for pH Calculation Problems
1. pH = -log[H+] (analogous for pOH)
2. Inv log [-pH]= [H+] (analogous for [OH–])
3. 1.0 × 10–14 = [H+][OH–]
4. 14.00 = pH + pOH
Ex probs
Determining pH in Laboratory
Buffers
Buffers
• Buffer: a solu9on that contains both an acid and
a base, thus resists pH change
• Buffers contain significant amounts of both a
weak acid and its conjugate base.
• The weak acid neutralizes added base.
The conjugate base neutralizes added acid.
• Eg. of buffer: CH3COOH and CH3COO-
(CH3COO- comes from NaCH3COO)
Water vs. Buffer

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Acids-Bases-1.pdf

  • 1. Ch 14. Acids and Bases Chem 30A
  • 3. Acids and Bases • Acids – Sour taste – Dissolve many metals – Turn litmus paper red. – Egs. Ace9c acid (vinegar), citric acid (lemons) • Bases – Bi>er taste, slippery feel – Turn litmus paper blue. – Egs. Drano, ammonia, caffeine
  • 4. Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Based on H+ or OH- Produc9on in Water • Acid: Substance that produces H+ ions (protons) in aqueous solu9ons § HCl (aq) à H+ (aq) + Cl– (aq) § HNO3 (aq) à H+ (aq) + NO3 – (aq) • Base: Substance that produces OH- (hydroxide) ions aqueous solu9ons § NaOH (aq) à Na+(aq) + OH–(aq) • Defn is limited– restricted to reac9ons in water only
  • 5. Bronsted-Lowry Definition of Acids and Bases Based on Proton Transfer: • Acids: Proton donors HCl à H+ + Cl- • Bases: Proton acceptors NH3 + H+ à NH4 +
  • 6. Bronsted-Lowry Acid • An acid must have an acidic proton that can be donated. acidic proton
  • 7. Bronsted-Lowry Base • A base must have a lone pair to accept a proton. • A base can be neutral or nega9vely charged.
  • 8. Number of Acidic Protons on a Molecule • An acid molecule can be monopro9c, dipro9c, or tripro9c (based on number of acidic protons).
  • 9. Water Acts as Both Acid and Base (Amphoteric) • Water can act as a base, accep9ng a proton from an acid à Forms hydronium ion H3O+. • Water can act as an acid, dona9ng a proton to a base à Forms hydroxide ion OH-
  • 10. The Proton in Water • A H+ ion in water is not isolated! A H+ ion in water a>racts the nega9ve pole of water molecule so strongly that it forms a covalent bond to water. HCl (aq) + H2O(l) à H3O+ (aq) + Cl– (aq) hydronium ion (hydrated proton) *Also wri>en as: HCl (aq) à H+ (aq) + Cl– (aq)
  • 11. Bronsted-Lowry Acid and Base Work Together • An acid and base must always work together to transfer a proton! In aqueous solu9ons of acids or bases, water acts as the base or acid “partner”: § HCl + H2O à Cl- + H3O+ (HCl à Cl- + H+) acid base § NH3 + H2O à NH4 + + OH- (NH3 à NH4 + + OH-) base acid
  • 12. Acid-Base Reactions Don’t Have to Involve Water • A Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reac9on does not always occur in water. Ex Probs
  • 13. List of Common Acids and Bases Strong Acids HCl hydrochloric acid HBr hydrobromic acid HI hydroiodic acid HNO3 nitric acid H2SO4 sulfuric acid HClO4 perchloric acid Strong Bases: Metal Hydroxides of Group 1A ca9ons LiOH, NaOH, KOH, etc. and Heavier Group 2A ca9ons: Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2 Common Weak Acids HC2H3O2 or CH3COOH ace9c acid H2CO3 carbonic acid Common Weak Base NH3 ammonia
  • 15. Conjugate Acid-Base Pair • NH3 and NH4 + are a conjugate acid-base pair. • H2O and OH– are a conjugate acid-base pair. Conjugate acid-base pair: two substances whose formulas differ by only a hydrogen ion
  • 16. Conjugate Acid-Base Pair • H2SO4 and HSO4 – are a conjugate acid-base pair. • H2O and H3O+ are a conjugate acid-base pair.
  • 18. Example Problems Which of the following represent conjugate acid- base pairs? a. HF, F- b. NH4 +, NH3 c. HCl, H2O d. HClO4, ClO4 - e. HCl, ClO- f. H2PO4 -, HPO4 2- g. HNO3, NO3 - ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ Ex Probs
  • 19. Reactions of Acids and Bases
  • 20. Acid-Base Reaction: Neutralization Neutraliza9on: a reac9on in which an acid and base react quan9ta9vely with each other
  • 21. Acid-Base Reaction: Acid + Strong Base When an acid and a strong base (metal hydroxide) react, they form water and a salt (ionic compound). • HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) à H2O (l) + NaCl (aq) Net ionic eqn: H+(aq) + OH-(aq) à H2O (l)
  • 22. Acid-Base Reaction: Gas-Forming When an acid and a bicarbonate (HCO3 –) or carbonate (CO3 2–) react, water and gas are formed. • HCl (aq) + KHCO3(aq) à KCl(aq) + [H2CO3(aq)] à KCl + H2O(l) + CO2(g) H+(aq) + HCO3 –(aq) à [H2CO3(aq)] à H2O(l) + CO2(g) • 2HCl (aq) + K2CO3(aq) à2KCl(aq) + [H2CO3(aq)] à 2KCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) 2H+(aq) + CO3 2–(aq) à [H2CO3(aq)] à H2O(l) + CO2(g)
  • 23. Reaction of Acids with Metals (Redox Rxn) • Acids dissolve many metals: Acids oxidize metals, causing metals to go into solu9on. • 2HCl(aq) + Mg(s) à H2(g) + MgCl2(aq) acid metal H2 gas salt • H2SO4(aq) + Zn(s) à H2(g) + ZnSO4(aq) acid metal H2 gas salt
  • 24. Titration • Titra9on: Determina9on of the concentra9on of a solu9on with an unknown concentra9on (analyte) by combining it with a standard solu9on of known concentra9on (9trant).
  • 25. Acid-Base Titration • Equivalence point: the point where enough 9trant has been added to react exactly with the analyte present • Indicator for acid-base 9tra9on: Compound whose color is different in acid than in base • Endpoint: the point at which the indicator’s signal is triggered (The endpoint may or may not come exactly at equivalence point). mole H+ = mole OH–
  • 26. Acid-Base Titration (titrant) (analyte) CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) à H2O(l) + Na+(aq) + CH3COO-(aq)
  • 27. Acid-Base Titration • Acid-base 9tra9on problems are stoichiometry problems (solu9on stoichiometry). Ex Probs
  • 29. Acid Strength • Strong acid: Completely ionized (dissociated). HCl(aq) H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) • Weak acid: Most of the acid molecules remain intact. CH3COOH(aq) H+(aq) + CH3COO-(aq) equilibrium arrow
  • 31. Strong Acid Solutions • Strong acids ionize completely: HCl à H+ + Cl- So: 0.01 M HCl à 0.01 M H+ + 0.01 M Cl- 0.5 M HCl à 0.5 M H+ + 0.5 M Cl- • Weak acids do not ionize completely:
  • 32. Acids as Electrolytes Electrolyte: a solu9on of free ions, conducts electricity Weak acid Weak electrolyte Strong acid Strong electrolyte
  • 33. List of Common Acids and Bases Strong Acids HCl hydrochloric acid HBr hydrobromic acid HI hydroiodic acid HNO3 nitric acid H2SO4 sulfuric acid HClO4 perchloric acid Strong Bases: Metal Hydroxides of Group 1A ca9ons LiOH, NaOH, KOH, etc. and Heavier Group 2A ca9ons: Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2 Common Weak Acids HC2H3O2 or CH3COOH ace9c acid H2CO3 carbonic acid Common Weak Base NH3 ammonia
  • 34. Some Weak Acids and Weak Bases Ex Probs
  • 36. Water as an Acid and Base • Water is amphoteric: can react as either an acid or base • Water undergoes auto-ioniza9on: H2O(l) + H2O(l) à H3O+ + OH- • For pure water, 25°C: [H3O+] = [OH–] = 1.0 × 10–7 M • Ion-product constant for water (Kw) Kw = [H3O+] [OH–] = 1.0 × 10–14 at 25°C *True for pure water and all aqueous solu9ons!
  • 37. Relationship between [H+] and [OH-] We can relate [H+] and [OH-] through Kw: Kw = [H+][OH–] = 1.0 x 10-14 for water and all aqueous solu9ons
  • 38. Definitions: Neutral, Acidic, Basic • Neutral solu9on: [H+] = [OH–] • Acidic solu9on: [H+] > [OH–] • Basic solu9on: [H+] < [OH–] In each case, however, Kw = [H+][OH–] = 1.0 × 10–14 for water and all aqueous solu9ons Ex Probs
  • 40. The pH Scale pH = – log[H+] • A compact way to represent solu9on acidity. eg. pH = - log (1.0 x 10-7 M) = 7
  • 41. Logarithmic Function y = log x à 10y = x pH = -log [H+] -pH = log [H+] à 10-pH = [H+] • As [H+] increases, pH decreases.
  • 42. pH Range pH 7 [H+] = [OH-] Neutral pH < 7 [H+] > [OH-] Acidic pH > 7 [H+] < [OH-] Basic • Lower the pH, more acidic the solu9on. • Higher the pH, more basic the solu9on.
  • 43. pH Range 10-pH = [H+] Every 9me pH drops by 1, there is 10x increase in [H+].
  • 44. Calculating pH and [H+] • To get pH from [H+]: pH = -log [H+] • To get [H+] from pH: pH = -log[H+] -pH = log[H+] Inverse log (-pH) = inverse log (log [H+]) Inverse log (-pH) = [H+] OR 10-pH = [H+] Ex Probs
  • 45. pOH pH = -log[H+] pOH = – log[OH-]
  • 46. Calculating pOH and [OH-] • To get pOH from [OH-]: pH = -log [OH-] • To get [OH-] from pOH: Inverse log (-pOH) = [OH-] OR 10-pOH = [OH-] Ex Probs
  • 47. Relationship Between pH and pOH 1.0 x 10-14 = [H+][OH–] log 1.0 x 10-14 = log[H+] + log[OH–] -14.00 = –log[H+] – log[OH–] 14.00 = log[H+] + log[OH–] 14.00 = pH + pOH Ex Probs
  • 48. Equations for pH Calculation Problems 1. pH = -log[H+] (analogous for pOH) 2. Inv log [-pH]= [H+] (analogous for [OH–]) 3. 1.0 × 10–14 = [H+][OH–] 4. 14.00 = pH + pOH Ex probs
  • 49. Determining pH in Laboratory
  • 51. Buffers • Buffer: a solu9on that contains both an acid and a base, thus resists pH change • Buffers contain significant amounts of both a weak acid and its conjugate base. • The weak acid neutralizes added base. The conjugate base neutralizes added acid. • Eg. of buffer: CH3COOH and CH3COO- (CH3COO- comes from NaCH3COO)