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  1. 1. * GB786214 (A) Description: GB786214 (A) ? 1957-11-13 Improvements in or relating to sliding door assemblies Description of GB786214 (A) We, ALBION MOTORS LIMITED, a British Company, and FREDERICK JOHN KENNEDY, of British nationality, both of the Company's address, at South Street, Scotstoun, Glasgow, Scotland, do hereby declare the invention, for which we pray that a patent may be granted to us and the method by which it is to be performed, to be particularly des- cribed in and by the following statement:- This invention relates to improvements in sliding door assemblies and has for its primary object to provide a sliding door which can be opened and closed by the driver of a mechanically-propelled vehicle, without necessity for the driver to dismount from the vehicle for the purpose of opening and closing the door manually. The invention also aims to enable pedestrians to open the door manually, the door being self-closing, whether opened manually or by power; or the door may be both opened and closed manually without extra provision for adjustments. An assembly according to the invention consists of a door suspended from a beam pivoted at one end to a bracket attachable to a wall of the structure presenting the doorway, tracks carried by the beam, and valve-controlled means attachable to said wall, operatively connected to the other end portion of the beam and adapted, when actuated, to move said last-mentioned end portion of the beam in a vertical direction. A sliding door assembly according to the invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings in which:Fig 1 is a front elevation of the sliding door assembly. Fig 2 is an end elevation. Fig 3 is a front elevation of operating means for the sliding door. Fig 4 is an inverted plan view. Fig 5 is an end elevation.
  2. 2. Referring to the drawings, 1 denotes a F Price 3 s 6 d 1 786,214 beam pivoted at 2 for movement about a 4,5 horizontal axis to a bracket 3 attachable to a wall, 4 'of a building structure 5 denotes a track depending from the beam 1 6 denotes a door suspended from the track 5 by hangers 7 carried by rollers of F 50 a type known per se adapted to travel on the track 5 The end of tfie beam 1 remote from the pivot 2 is mounted for vertical movement in a guide bracket 8 fixed to the wall and is connected to the lower end of ist the piston rod 9 of a piston reciprocable in a vertically disposed cylinder and piston assembly 10 operable by pressure fluid and carried by a bracket 11 attachable to the wall 4 ( 60 The mid-point of the guide bracket 8 is in horizontal alignment with the axis of the pivot 2 of the beam 1 The door 6 is free to travel from one end of the track to the other within limits determined by door stops 65 6 a, 6 b, fixed to the wall 4. The guide bracket 8 is provided at the top and at the bottom with adjustable stops (not illustrated) adapted to determine the limits of vertical travel of the associated end 70 portion of the beam 1. 12 denotes a valve intercalated in a supply line 13 leading from a source of pressure fluid supply (not illustrated) such as a compressed air line The valve 12 is adapted to 7,5 be actuated by a lever 14 which is operable in turn by a rod 15 movable vertically in a guide 16 secured to a plate 17 attachable to the wall 4 and carrying the valve 12. 18 denotes a cranked lever, which may 80 be a bell-crank lever, pivoted at 19 to the plate 17 for movement about a horizontal axis The upper arm of the lever 18 is formed with a latch 20 for engagement by the lever 14 855 Carried by the rod 15 is a horizontal spring-loaded trigger 21 Presenting a curved under face 22 and engageable with the PATENT SPECIFICATION Date of filing Complete Speciflcation March 7, 1956. gag X Application Date March 9, 1955 No 6903/55. Complete Specification Publi 8 hed, Nov 13, 1957. Index at Acceptance -Class 65 ( 1), A( 2 B: 2 D 3). International Classification:-E 05 f. COMPLETE SPECIFICATION. Improvements in or relating to Sliding Door Assemblies. underside of the lever 14 to raise the lever 14 into engagement with the latch 20, when the rod 15 is raised 23 (Fig 4) denotes a cam carried by the guide 16 and adapted to a disengage the trigger 21 from the lever 14. 24 denote operating handles located at a distance from each face of the door 6 and each attached to a cord 25 passing through guides 26, 27 and over a guide 28, which may be a tube or a pulley wheel The cord is attached to the upper end of the rod 15.
  3. 3. The valve 12 is formed with an inlet port 29, an outlet port 30, and an exhaust port 31 to which is fitted an adjustable exhaust 1 i 5 control valve 32. The door 6 is provided with windows 33 so that approaching vehicles or pedestrians are visible from either side of the door. The lower portion of the door 6 is movable between guide rollers 34 mounted on vertical spindles 35 journalled in supports -mounted on the ground and serving to maintain the door in vertical position, while the door is in motion, and to prevent the door from swinging under the influence of wind pressure. While the door illustrated is a single leaf door, it is to be understood that the door may consist of two leaves, to provide for ease of opening the door if the operating mechanism for the door is, for any reason, inoperative The end of the beam 1 remote from the pivot 2 is provided with a projecting trip bar 36. In practice, when it is desired to open the door 6 mechanically, one of the handles 24 is pulled downwards, thus causing the rod to move vertically upwards in the guide 16 As the rod 15 moved upwards, the associated trigger 21 engages the lever 14 and raises the lever 14 into engagement with the latch 20 of the lever 18. The rod 15 continues to be raised and the trigger 21 is engaged by the cam 23 and is forced in opposition to its associated spring out of engagement with the lever 14 which remains in engagement with the latch 20. Upward movement of the lever 14 opens the inlet port 29 in the valve 12, to permit flow of compressed air to the underside of the piston in the assembly 10. The piston and the associated piston rod 9 are moved upwardly, thus raising in the guide bracket 8 the end portion of the beam 1 attached to the piston rod 9, the beam 1 swivelling about its pivot 2 and presenting a positive or reverse incline down which the door carrying rollers travel, carrying with them the door 6 which, on coming to No rest against the door stop 6 b, arrives at its fully opened position The upward speed of the end of the beam 1 remote from the pivot 2 is controlled by means of an adjustable restricting valve (not illustrated) inter4 i 5 calated in the air supply line 13 upstream of the valve 12 Varying the upward speed of the beam 1 in this manner controls the speed at which the door 6 opens. The slight effort required to lift the rod 15, with the associated trigger 21, and the 70 natural human action of pulling the handle 24 until the rod 15 reaches the upper limit of its travel ensure that the valve 12 is not held open by hand, and the valve control lever 14 can only be returned to its bottom 75 position by mechanical means as described below.
  4. 4. Automatic closing of the door 6 is effected when the trip bar 36 carried by the beam 1 contacts and lifts the lower arm of 80 the cranked lever 18 The lever 18 swivels about its Divot 19, thus causing the upper arm of the lever 18 to move its associated latch 20 away from the lever 14, which being thus released and unsupported, falls down 85 to its bottom position and actuates the valve 12 to close the inlet port 29 and to open the exhaust port 31 Compressed air under the piston in the cylinder assembly 10 is released to atmosphere through the port 31 90 and the valve 32, the Diston, the Diston rod 9 and the associated end portion of the beam 1 moving downwards The beam 1 then presents a negative incline and the doorcarrying rollers roll on the track 5 and carry W 5 the door to its closed position against the door stop 6 a. The dwell during which the door 6 remains in open position is determined by adjustment of the control valve 32 fitted to loo the exhaust port 31, through which Dort 32 compressed air exhausted from the cylinder assembly 10 passes to atmosphere Adjustment of the control valve 32 controls the rate of flow of the exhausted air from the cylinder 105 thus controlling the speed at which the piston and the Diston rod 9 lower the associated end portion of the beam 1, and thus shortening or lengthening the period during which the beam 1 is changing position from 110 presenting a positive incline to Presenting a negative incline Until the incline achieves an appreciable negative slope, the door 6 remains in o Den Dosition. * Sitemap * Accessibility * Legal notice * Terms of use * Last updated: 08.04.2015 * Worldwide Database * 5.8.23.4; 93p * GB786215 (A) Description: GB786215 (A) ? 1957-11-13 New diamines and salts thereof Description of GB786215 (A)
  5. 5. Translate this text into Tooltip [75][(1)__Select language] Translate this text into The EPO does not accept any responsibility for the accuracy of data and information originating from other authorities than the EPO; in particular, the EPO does not guarantee that they are complete, up-to-date or fit for specific purposes. COMPLETE SPECIFICATION New Diamines and Salts thereof We, ALLEN & HANBURYS LIMITE, a British Company, of Three Colts Lane, Bethnal Green, London, E. 2, do hereby declare the invention, for which we pray that a patent may be granted to us, and the method by which it is to be performed, to be particularly described in and by the following statement :- This invention relates to new organic bases and salts thereof. The novel compounds of the present invention are bases of the general formula :- <img class="EMIRef" id="026415655-00010001" /> and their salts (other than penicillin salts), where a is an integer of from 1 to 3 inclusive, b and c are integers of from 1 to 3 inclusive, and may be the same or different ; and R is hydrogen, an alkyl group containing not more than three carbon atoms, or an alkoxy, hydroxy or halogeno group. The compounds of the present invention are useful as intermediates for the preparation of substances having therapeutic activity. The present invention also includes a process for the preparation of the compounds of the present invention wherein a Schiff's base of the general formula :- <img class="EMIRef" id="026415655-00010002" /> where w is an integer of from 0 to 2 inclusive; the meaning given above, or of the general x and y may be the same or different and are formula :- integers of from 1 to 3 inclusive, and R has <img class="EMIRef" id="026415655-00010003" /> where wl is an integer of from 1 to 3 inclusive; xl and yl may be the same or different and are integers of from 0 to 2 inclusive, and R has the meaning given above, is subjected to reduction. The reduction may be effected. by means of hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst such as platinum, palladium or Raney nickel, at a pressure between atmospheric pressure and 1350 lbs. per square inch. The catalytic reduction is carried out with the
  6. 6. Schiff's base in solution in an organic solvent such as an aliphatic alcohol, benzene, pyridine or acetic acid. The solvent is selected for its ability to dissolve the compound to be reduced and in those cases where the preferred solvent is relatively non-polar, the polarity of the system may be advantageously increased by the addition of a second solvent which is more polar than and miscible with the first. The reduction may also be effected by means of sodium and a lower aliphatic alcohol or by other known methods. The Schiff's base may be prepared by the reaction of a compound of the general formula :- <img class="EMIRef" id="026415655-00020001" /> where w is an integer of from 0 to 2 inclusive and R has the meaning given above, with a compound of the general formula :- <img class="EMIRef" id="026415655-00020002" /> where x and y are the same or different and are each integers of from 1 to 3 inclusive, or by the reaction of a compound of the general formula :- <img class="EMIRef" id="026415655-00020003" /> where wl is an integer of from 1 to 3 inclusive and R has the meaning given above, with a compound of the general formula :- <img class="EMIRef" id="026415655-00020004" /> where xl and yl are the same or different and are each integers of from 0 to 2 inclusive. This reaction is preferably carried out by heating a mixture of the two reactants or by refluxing the mixture in the presence of an organic solvent such as an anhydrous lower aliphatic alcohol or benzene, for a period of half-an-hour to three hours. The following examples illustrate the invention :- EXAMPLE 1. Preparation of N. Nl-dibenzyl-p-xylylene- diamine dihydrochloride. 5.0 Gm. of terephthaldehyde and 9.1 gm. of benzylamine were refluxed together in 30 ml. of absolute ethanol for two hours. The precipitate obtained on cooling was filtered off and crystallised from absolute ethanol. The resulting crystalline substance (melting point 104105 C.) was dissolved in 350 ml. of a mixture of six parts of absolute ethanol and one part of benzene and reduced over Adams platinum catalyst (0.5 gm.) under a pressure of 750 lbs. per square inch of hydrogen. The uptake of hydrogen ceased after ten minutes. The solution was then filtered to remove the catalyst and the nitrate evaporated to dryness. The residual pale yellow oil which solidifie on standing was crystallised from water to give fawn coloured crystals of N. N'-dibenzyl-p- xylylene-diamine. Melting point 4851 C.
  7. 7. This compound was dissolved in ethanol and treated with dry hydrogen chloride and the precipitate recrystallised from water. The product consisted of white crystals. Melting point > 384 C. EXAMPLE 2. Preparation of N. Nl-dibenzyl-p-xylylene diamine diacetate. 1.0 Gm. of N. Nl-dibenzyl-p-xylylene- diamine, prepared as described in Example 1, was dissolved in 10 ml. of absolute ethanol and 0. 76 gm. of glacial acetic acid was added. The resulting white precipitate was removed by filtration and crystallised from absolute ethanol. The product was a white crystalline substance. Melting point 162-163 C. EXAMPLE 3. Preparation of N. Nl-bis-(ss-phenylethyl)-p- xylylene-diamine. 6. 0 Gm. of ss-phenylethylamine and 3.0 gm. of terephthaldehyde were refluxed together in 100 mL of absolute ethanol for one hour. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool, the precipitate collected by filtration and crystallised from absolute ethanol. The product, which was a white crystalline solid having a melting point of 123124 C., was dissolved in 300 ml. of a mixture of five parts of absolute ethanol and one part of benzene and reduced over Adams platinum catalyst (0.25 gm.) at room temperature, under an initial pressure of 1350 lbs. per square inch of hydrogen. The uptake of hydrogen ceased after ninety minutes. The solution was then filtered to remove the catalyst and the filtrate evaporated to dryness. The residue was crystallised from water, the product being a white crystalline solid. Melting point 6465 C. EXAMPLE 4. Preparation of N. Nl-bis-(ss-phenylethyl)-p- xylylene-diamine dihydrochloride. 1. 0 Gm. of N. Nl-bis-(ss-phenylethyl)-pk xylylene-diamine, prepared as described in Example 3, was dissolved in 25 ml. of absolute ethanol and ethanolic hydrogen chloride added. The resulting precipitate, a white crystalline solid, was collected by filtration. Melting point > 380 C. EXAMPLE 5. Preparation of N. Nl-bis-(B-phenylethyl)-p- xylylene-diamine diacetate. 1.0 Gm. of N. Nl-bis-(ss-phenylethyl)-p- xylylene-diamine prepared as described in Example 3, was dissolved in 25 ml. of absolute ethanol and an excess of glacial acetic acid added. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration and crystallised from absolute ethanol. The product was a white crystalline solid, Melting point 144-145 C.
  8. 8. EXAMPLE 6. Preparation of N. Nl-bis- (p-methylbenzyl)-p- xylylene-diamine. 6.1 Gm. of p-methylbenzylamine and 3.3 gm. of terephthaldehyde, were refluxed together in 50 ml. of absolute ethanol for one hour. The precipitate obtained on cooling was collected by filtration. 9.0 Gm. of the resulting crystalline substance (melting point 146147 C.) was dissolved in 250 ml. of a mixture of equal parts of benzene and absolute ethanol and reduced over Adams platinum catalyst (0. 25 gm.) at room temperature, under an initial pressure of 700 lbs. per square inch of hydrogen. When the uptake of hydrogen had ceased, the solution was filtered to remove the catalyst, the filtrate was evaporated to dryness and the residue was crystallised from aqueous ethanol. The product was a white crystalline solid and had a melting point of 6365 C. EXAMPLE 7. Preparation of N. Nl-bis-(p-methylbenzyl)-p- xylylene-diamine diacetate. 5. 4 Gm. of N. Nl-bis- (p-methylbenzyl)-p xylylene-diamine, prepared as described in Example 6, was dissolved in 30 mI. of warm absolute ethanol and 2 ml. of glacial acetic acid was added. The solution was cooled and the resulting precipitate collected by filtration. The product was a white crystalline solid, melting point 169-171 C. EXAMPLE 8. Preparation of N Nl-bis-(p-methylbenzyl)-p- xylylene-diamine dihydrochloride. 2.0 Gm. of N. Nl-bis-(p-methylbenzyl)-p- xylylene-diamine, prepared as described in Example 6, was dissolved in 30 ml. of absolute ethanol and an excess of alcoholic hydrogen chloride was added. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration and crystallised from water to give a fine white powder, melting point > 360 C. EXAMPLE. 9. Preparation of N. Nl-bis-(^y-phenylwn- propyl)-p-xylylene-diamine. 5. 0 Gm. of 1/-phenyl-epropylamine and 2.5 gm. of terephthaldehyde were refluxed together in 125 ml. of benzene for three hours, and the water produced in the reaction was entrained. The solution was then evaporated to dryness to give a solid which after crystallisation from ethanol had a melting point of 82-83 C. 5. 4 Gm. of the product was dissolved in 200 MI. of absolute ethanol and reduced over Adams platinum catalyst (0.25 gm.), at room temperature, under an initial pressure of 720 lbs. per square inch of hydrogen. After the uptake of hydrogen had ceased, the solution was filtered to remove the catalyst
  9. 9. and the solvent removed from the filtrate by evaporation. The product was an orange coloured oil. EXAMPLE 10. Preparation of N. Nl-bis-(y-phenyl-n-propyl)- p-xylylene-diamine dihydrochloride. 4.0 Gm of N. Nl-bis-(7-phenyl-n-propyl)-p- xylylene-diamine was dissolved in 50 ml. of absolute ethanol and an excess of alcoholic hydrogen chloride was added. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration and crystallised from water to give a white crystalline product having a melting point > 360 C. EXAMPLE 11. Preparation of N. N'-bis- (y-phenyl-n-propyl)- p-xylylene-diamine diacetate. 1.0 Gm. of N. N-bis- ('y-phenyl-K-propyl)- p-xylylene-diamine was dissolved in 50 ml. of absolute ethanol and an excess of glacial acetic acid was added. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration and crystallised from benzene to give a product consisting of white crystals. Melting point 130 C. EXAMPLE 12. Preparation of assl-dibenzylamino-4-ethyl~ toluene. 6. 4 Gm. of a. ssl-diamino-4-ethyl-toluenel and 9.6 gm. of benzaldehyde were refluxed together in 100 ml. of absolute ethanol, for one hour. The solutions obtained from two such experiments were mixed and then shaken at room temperature with Adams platinum catalyst (0. 25 gm.) under an initial pressure of 930 lbs. per square inch of hydrogen. When the uptake of hydrogen had ceased, the solution was filtered to remove the catalyst, and the solvent was removed from the filtrate by evaporation. The product was an orange coloured oil. EXAMPLE 13. Preparation of a. ssl-dibenzylamino-4-ethyl- toluene dihydrochloride. 0. 5 Gm. of a. ssl-dibenzylamino-4-ethyl- toluene was dissolved in 30 ml. of absolute ethanol and an excess of alcoholic hydrogen chloride was added. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration and crystallised from water. The product was an amorphous solid. (Melting point > 360 C.). EXAMPLE 14. Preparation of et. ssl-dibenzylamino-4-ethyl- toluene diacetate. 24.5 Gm. of ct. -dibenzylamino-4-ethyl- toluene was dissolved in 100 ml. of absolute ethanol, 12 ml. of glacial acetic acid was added and the mixture was refluxed for five minutes. The solid which separated on cooling was collected by filtration, crystallised from benzene and
  10. 10. recrystallised from a mixture of ethanol and ether. The product, a white crystalline solid, had a melting point of 131.5-132 C. EXAMPLE 15. Preparation of 81-bis- (p-methyl-benzyl- amino)-4-ethyl-toluene. 5.0 Gm. of assl-diamino-4-ethyl-toluene and 8.0 gm. of p-tolualdehyde were refluxed together in 25 ml. of absolute ethanol for two hours. After cooling, the resulting precipitate was collected by filtration and crystallised from absolute ethanol. 12 Gm. of the product, a white crystalline substance (melting point 104105 C.) was dissolved in 100 ml. of a mixture of three parts of benzene and seven parts of absolute ethanol, and reduced over Adams platinum catalyst (0.25 gm.) at room temperature, under an initial pressure of 825 lbs. per square inch of hydrogen. When the uptake of hydrogen had ceased, the solution was filtered to remove the catalyst and the solvent removed from the filtrate by evapora tion. The product was an orange coloured oil. EXAMPLE 16. Preparation of a. ssl-bis-(p-methyl-benzyl~ amino)-4-ethyl-toluene diacetate. 11 Gm. of c-bis- (p-methyl-benzylamino)- 4-ethyl-toluene was dissolved in 50 ml. of absolute ethanol and 4 ml. of glacial acetic acid was added. The mixture was warmed, an excess of acetone was added, and the mixture allowed to cool. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration and crystallised from a mixture of acetone and ethanol. The product, a white granular solid, had a melting point of 152153 G EXAMPLE 17. Preparation of . ssl-bis-(p-methoxy-benzyl~ amino)-4-ethyl-toluene. 2.5 Gm. of K./-diamino-4-ethyl-toluene and 4 gm. of anisaldehyde were refluxed together in 15 ml. of absolute ethanol for two hours. The mixture was cooled, the resulting precipitate was collected by filtration and crystallised from a mixture of petroleum ether and alcohol. 2.5 Gm. of the product (melting point 83-84 C.) was dissolved in 100 ml. of absolute ethanol and reduced over Adams
  11. 11. platinum catalyst (0.25 gm.) at room tem perature, under an initial pressure of 680 lbs. per square inch of hydrogen. When the uptake of hydrogen had ceased, the catalyst was re moved by filtration and the solvent removed from the filtrate by evaporation. The product was a green coloured oil. EXAMPLE 18. Preparation of a. ssl bis-@-methoxy-benzyl- amino)-4-ethyl-toluene diacetate. 2.4 Gm. of a. ssl-bis-(p-methoxy-benzyl- amino)-4-ethyl-toluene was dissolved in 100 ml. of absolute ethanol and 2 ml. of glacial acetic acid was added. The resulting solution was evaporated to dryness to give a solid which was crystallised from ethyl acetate. The product was a white crystalline substance. Melting point 138 C. EXAMPLE 19. Preparation of ss. ssl-dibenzylamino-1, 4-diethyl benzene diacetate. 6.5 Gm. of ss. ss'-diamino-1, 4-diethyl- benzene and 9.8 gm. of benzaldehyde were refluxed together in 200 ml. of benzene for two hours, and the water produced in the reaction was entrained. The solution was then evaporated to dryness to give a solid which, after crystallisation from ethanol, had a melting point of 113-114 C. 8.4 Gm. of this compound was dissolved in a mixture of 40 ml. glacial acetic acid and 200 ml. of absolute ethanol and reduced over Adams platinum catalyst (0. 25 gm.) at room temperature, under an initial pressure of 630 lbs. per square inch of hydrogen. When the uptake of hydrogen had ceased, the solution was filtered to remove the catalyst, and the alcohol removed from the filtrate by evaporation. The acetic acid was then removed by azeotropic distillation with benzene to give a solid which was crystallised from a mixture of benzene and acetone. The product was a white crystalline solid. Melting point 154-155 C. EXAMPLE20. Preparation of ss. yl-bis-(dibenzylamino)-4- ethyl-n-propyl-benzene dihydrochloride. 3.3 Gm. of ss. yl-diamino-4-ethyl-n-propyl- benzene and 4 gm. of benzaldehyde were dissolved in 40 ml. of benzene and 2 ml. of absolute ethanol and allowed to stand at room temperature for two days. The solution was then evaporated to dryness to give an orange coloured
  12. 12. oil. 6.7 Gm. of this compound was dissolved in 200 ml. of absolute ethanol and reduced over Adams platinum catalyst (0.25 gm.) at room temperature under an initial pressure of 720 lbs per square inch of hydrogen. When the uptake of hydrogen had ceased, the solvent was removed by evaporation to give an orange coloured oil. This compound was dissolved in ether and an excess of alcoholic hydrogen chloride was added. The resulting precipitate was extracted with boiling absolute ethanol and the residue was crystallised from aqueous acetone. The product was a white crystalline substance, melting point 307 -308 C. EXAMPLE 21. Preparation of N. NI-bis-(p-chlorobenzyl)-p- xylylene-diamine dihydrochloride. 2.5 Gm. of p-chlorobenzylamine and 4.5 gm. of terephthaldehyde were refluxed together in 100 ml. of absolute ethanol for thirty minutes. The solution was filtered hot and allowed to cool. The precipitate which formed on cooling was collected by filtration and crystallised from absolute ethanol. 0.6 Gm. of the product, which consisted of white needles, (melting point 152153 G.) was dissolved in 150 ml. of a mixture of one part benzene to four parts of absolute ethanol and reduced over Adams platinum catalyst (0.1 gm.) at room temperature, under an initial pressure of 750 lbs. per square inch of hydrogen. After ninety minutes, the solution was filtered to remove the catalyst, and the solvent removed from the filtrate by evaporation. The product, a yellow coloured oil, was dissolved in absolute ethanol and an excess of alcoholic hydrogen chloride was added. The warm reaction mixture was filtered and the precipitate dried. The product which was a white amorphous solid sintered at 340 C. EXAMPLE 22. (a) Preparation of N, Nl-bis-(p-hydroxybenzyl)- p-xylylenediamine. 2.9 Gm. of p-xylylenediamine and 5. 2 gm. of p-hydroxy-benzaldehyde were refluxed together in 50 ml. of absolute ethanol for 90 minutes and the reaction mixture allowed to stand overnight. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration, washed with absolute ethanol and dried. The product, N, NI-bis (phydroxy-benzylidene)-p-xylylenediamine consisted of fawn coloured crystals which decomposed at 240241 (:. 1.8 Gm. of this substance was dissolved in 50 ml. o dimethyl formamide and reduced over Adams platinum catalyst (0.25 gm.) at room temperature, under an initial pressure of 225 lbs. per square inch of hydrogen. When the uptake of hydrogen had ceased, the solution was filtered to remove the catalyst and the solvent was removed from the filtrate by distillation. The
  13. 13. product was a redcoloured oil. (b) Preparation of N, Nl-bis-(pyhydroxybenzyl)- p-xylylenediamine diacetate. 1.0 Gm. of NNI-bis- (p-hydroxybenzyl)-p- xylylenediamine, prepared as in (a) above, was dissolved in 50 ml. of absolute ethanol and 0.5 ml. of glacial acetic acid was added. The solid which precipitated on standing was collected by filtration. The product consisted of colourless crystals. Melting point 184-185 C. (c) Preparation of N, Nl-bis-(p-hydroxybenzyl)- p-xylylenediamine dihydrochloride. 0.5 Gm. of N, Nl-bis-(p-hydroxybenzyl)-p- xylylenediamine, prepared as in (a) above, was dissolved in 25 ml. of absolute ethanol and an excess of ethanolic hydrogen chloride was added. The precipitate which formed immediately was collected by filtration, washed with acetone and dried. The product was a fawncoloured amorphous solid. Melting point greater than 360 C. What we claim is: 1. Bases of the general formula : <img class="EMIRef" id="026415655-00050001" /> * Sitemap * Accessibility * Legal notice * Terms of use * Last updated: 08.04.2015 * Worldwide Database * 5.8.23.4; 93p * GB786216 (A) Description: GB786216 (A) ? 1957-11-13 Safety razor Description of GB786216 (A) PATENT S PE CI FI CA TO N L < PATENT SPECIFICATION 7865216 Date of Application and filing Complete Specification: April
  14. 14. 4, 1955. No 9724/55. Application made in United States of America on April 26, 1954. Complete Specification Published: Nov 13, 1957. Acceptance:-Class 30, C( 3 A 3 B 1 A: 3 D 2: 3 E: 413: 6 A: 6 83 B: 6 C). International Classification:-B 26 b. COMPLETE SPECIFICATION SPECIF'ICATION NO 78 e,216 By a direction Eiven under Section 17 ( 1) of the Patents Act 1949 this tion proceeded In the name of Eversharp, Inc, a corporation organised and under the laws of the State of Delaware, United States of America, of 350, Avenue, N Zew York, State of Ni"e, York, United States of America. ME PATENT OFDIE, loth January, 1958 applicaex Istin,, Fifth DB 018631 i( 7) /626 150 1/58 R 1111 b Allyll Lixill 1 klat DO Dtmt 1-VXD L O the type used in combination with a magazine, the razor and magazine being separable, however having co-acting parts for not only positioning the parts for the loading operation but which parts have an additional function in enlarging the blade channel of the razor to enable a blade to be easily and smoothly fed into the razor from the magazine and at the same time, ensuring that the cutting edge of the blade will travel free. When it is desired to wash the lather and hair particles from the blade of a razor of this type either during or between shaves difficulty is usually experienced in clearing the blade because of the close fit of the blade in the head of the razor between the cap and the seat, and if the blade is removed by hand from the head it is not only dangerous to handle but difficult if not impossible to replace. The object of the present invention is to provide an improved razor of the type referred to in which the blade can be quickly and easily rendered accessible for washing either during or between shaves while remaining locked with respect to the head of the razor, which added feature will not interfere in any way with the insertion of a new blade or the ejection of the used one by means of the usual blade-changing mechanism. lPrice 3 s 6 d l shaving, means within the razor for separating the cap and seat to unclamp the blade to permit of a limited movement thereof between the cap and seat and for bringing the cap and seat together again to reclamp the blade, and means for loosely engaging the blade to lock the same against removal when the cap and seat are separated and for releasing the blade when the cap and seat are brought together again. A preferred embodiment of the invention is presented herein by way of exemplification but it will of course be appreciated that the
  15. 15. invention is susceptible of incorporation in other structurally modified forms coming equally within the scope of the appended claims. In the accompanying drawings: Fig 1 is a side view of a razor constructed in accordance with the invention; Fig 2 is a front view of the razor; Fig 3 is a rear view of the same; Fig 4 is a top view of a blade suitable for use in the razor; Fig 5 is a side view of a blade magazine suitable for use in inserting new blades into the razor; Fig 6 is a vertical sectional view through the razor in its closed blade clamping position; Fig 7 is a similar view through the razor in its open blade washing position; ,'I 1 PATENT SPECIFICATION 786,2 Date of Application and filing Complete Specification: April 4, 1955. No 9724/55. Application made in United States of America on April 26, 1954. Complete Specification Published: Nov 13, 1957. Index at Acceptance:-Class 30, C( 3 A: 31 81 A: 3 D 2: 3 E: 41: 6 A: 6 831 B: 6 C). International Classification:-B 26 b. COMPLETE SPECIFICATION Safety razor We, CARL GEORGE PREIS and LEOPOLD KARL Ku IHNL, citizens of the United States of America, of P O Box 36, Seffner, State of Florida (formerly of 60 Greenway South, Forest Hills, State of New York), and 44 Lawlor Terrace, Stratford, State of Connecticut, respectively, United States of America, do hereby declare the invention, for which we pray that a patent may be granted to us, and the method by which it is to be performed, to be particularly described in and by the following statement:- This invention relates to safety razors of the type used in combination with a magazine, the razor and magazine being separable, however having co-acting parts for not only positioning the parts for the loading operation but which parts have an additional function in enlarging the blade channel of the razor to enable a blade to be easily and smoothly fed into the razor from the magazine and at the same time, ensuring that the cutting edge of the blade will travel free. When it is desired to wash the lather and hair particles from the blade of a razor of this type either during or between shaves difficulty is usually experienced in clearing the blade because of the close fit of the blade in the head of the razor between the cap and the seat, and if the blade is removed by hand from the head it is not only dangerous to handle but difficult if not impossible to replace. The object of the present invention is to provide an improved razor of the type referred to in which the blade can be quickly and easily rendered accessible for washing either during or between shaves while
  16. 16. remaining locked with respect to the head of the razor, which added feature will not interfere in any way with the insertion of a new blade or the ejection of the used one by means of the usual blade-changing mechanism. lPrice 3 s 6 d l While the foregoing statements are indicative in a general way of the nature of the invention, other more specific objects and advantages will be apparent to those skilled in the art upon a full understanding of the construction and operation of the novel means provided for rendering the blade accessible for washing. With the above and other objects in view, this invention accordingly consists in a safety razor of the type described, comprising a blade cap and a blade seat between which a blade is adapted to be fed from the magazine and clamped in position for shaving, means within the razor for separating the cap and seat to unclamp the blade to permit of a limited movement thereof between the cap and seat and for bringing the cap and seat together again to reclamp the blade, and means for loosely engaging the blade to lock the same against removal when the cap and seat are separated and for releasing the blade when the cap and seat are brought together again. A preferred embodiment of the invention is presented herein by way of exemplification but it will of course be appreciated that the invention is susceptible of incorporation in other structurally modified forms coming equally within the scope of the appended claims. In the accompanying drawings: Fig 1 is a side view of a razor constructed in accordance with the invention, Fig 2 is a front view of the razor; Fig 3 is a rear view of the same; Fig 4 is a top view of a blade suitable for use in the razor; Fig 5 is a side view of a blade magazine suitable for use in inserting new blades into the razor; Fig 6 is a vertical sectional view through the razor in its closed blade clamping position; Fig 7 is a similar view through the razor in its open blade washing position; E 7 Fig 8 is a similar view through the razor in its partially closed position; Fig 9 is a perspective view of the various parts which make up the head of the razor; andFig 10 is a fragmentary sectional view through the cap of the razor. As will be observed in the drawings, the new razor includes a handle 10 of suitable 1 o form and a head 11 in which a blade 12 is adapted to be positioned for shaving. The head 11 of the razor includes a substantially rigid main frame 13 The lower portion of the frame 13 extends downwardly into a complementary slot 14 in the upper end of the handle 10, where it is fixedly secured to the handle by a rivet 15, while the upper portion of the frame 13 is curved forwardly at 16 and terminates in a narrow forwardly and downwardly projecting flange 17, which flange
  17. 17. constitutes the cap or cover against which the blade 12 is adapted to be clamped The cap 17 covers the rear portion only of the blade 12, leaving the cutting edge 18 of the blade exposed. Immediately beneath and behind the cap 17 the frame 13 is provided with a flat section 19, which section forms the rear stationary wall of an expansible channel 20 in which the positioning key 21 of the usual blade magazine 22 is adapted to be inserted. The bottom of the channel 20 is formed by two forwardly and upwardly turned ears 23 at the ends of the section 19 Below the section 19 the frame 13 is abruptly reduced in width and tapers downwardly into the handle 10 The side edges of the tapered portion of the frame 13 are provided with narrow forwardly turned edge flanges 24, which flanges are bevelled off at their upper ends. In front of the frame 13 the head 11 of the razor is provided with a forwardly and downwardly shiftable plate 25 of generally L-shaped cross section The upper portion of the plate 25 consists of a flat forwardly projecting flange 26, which flange underlies the cap 17 on the frame 13 and constitutes the seat for the blade 12 The seat 26 terminates at its front edge in a downwardly curved longitudinally serrated formation 27, which formation constitutes the guard rail for the blade on the seat Behind the guard rail 27 the seat 26 is provided with a clearance opening 28. Immediately beneath and behind the seat 26 the plate 25 is provided with a flat section 29, which section is disposed in forwardly spaced relation to the flat section 19 of the frame and forms the front forwardly shiftable wall of the expansible channel 20 for the key 21 of the blade magazine Below the flat section 29 the plate 25 terminates in two laterally spaced downwardly tapering end portions 30, which portions are located between the upper ends of the edge flanges 24 on the correspondingly tapered portion of the frame 13 Above and outwardly of the end portions 30, the ends of the flat 70 section 29 of the plate 25 present downwardly facing shoulders 31, which shoulders overlie the bevelled upper ends of the edge flanges 24 on the frame 13 when the razor is in its closed position, which is the position 75 shown in Fig 6. The blade seat 26 on the plate 25 is provided adjacent its ends with small upwardly projecting stops 32, which stops are adapted to engage with the front edge 80 of the blade 12 close to the ends of the latter The blade 12, when clamped in shaving position between the cap 17 and the seat 26, is accurately positioned relative to the guard rail 27 on the seat 26 by the 85 stops 32, which stops press the blade rearwardly against a small centrally located forwardly projecting boss 33 on the frame 13 at the rear edge of the underside of the cap 17 The seat 26, which normally 90 assumes the blade clamping position shown in Fig 6,
  18. 18. is shiftable downwardly and forwardly from that position into the position shown in Fig 7. The seat 26 is resiliently held in its blade 95 clamping position by a main spring 34 acting as a seat-supporting member which is located in front of the frame 13 The plate 25, which carries the seat 26, is loosely mounted on the upper end of the spring 34, 100 and the upper end of the spring 34 is movable, with the plate 25, toward and away from the flat section 19 of the frame 13. When the spring 34 is moved toward the frame it acts to close the head of the razor o O s and clamp the seat 26 upwardly and rearwardly against the cap 17 on the interposed blade 12, as shown in Fig 6, whereas when the spring 34 is moved away from the frame it acts to open the head of the razor and i 1 permit the seat 26 to drop downwardly and forwardly, as shown in Fig 7. The lower portion 35 of the spring 34 tapers downwardly like the lower portion of the frame 13 and fits between the 115 inturned edge flanges 24 on the frame in a position just below that assumed by the laterally spaced lower end portions 30 of the plate 25 The spring 34 is hingedly connected with the frame 13 by small 120 trunnions 36 on the lower end of the spring, which trunnions pass through bearing apertures 37 provided in the edge flanges 24 on the frame This hinge connection permits the upper portion 38 of the spring 34 to 125 move bodily toward and away from the frame 13. The upper portion 38 of the spring 34 is abruptly reduced in width just below the lower edges of the end portions 30 of the 130 786,216 of the nose first forcing the spring rearwardly and then flexing it in its rearward position. The rearward movement of the spring 34 by the compression lever 44 serves to move 70 the blade seat 26 rearwardly, while the final movement and flexure of the spring 34 by the compression lever 44 serves to resiliently clamp the seat 26 both upwardly and rearwardly against the overlying cap 17, thereby 75 at the same time clamping the interposed blade between the laterally spaced front stops 32 on the seat and the boss 33 at the back of the cap 17. The lift lever 43 when pressed down not 80 only operates the underlying compression lever 44 to force the spring 34 toward the frame 13, but during the forepart of its downward movement serves to raise the then lowered seat 26 from the wide open blade 85 locking position shown in Fig 7 to the raised but still unclamped intermediate position shown in Fig 8 This is accomplished by engagement of the inner end 54 of the lift lever 43 with the lower end of a 90 tongue 55, which tongue extends downwardly from the center of the flat section 29 of the plate 25 on which the seat 26 is mounted and projects downwardly and forwardly at an angle through the previously
  19. 19. 95 mentioned slot 48 in the spring 34 The tongue 55 is provided at its lower end with a reversely bent foot 56, which foot is located directly above the inner end 54 of the lift lever 43 100 When the head 11 of the razor is in its open blade locking position, as shown in Fig 7, downward pressure on a finger piece formed by the then forwardly projecting outer end 57 of the lift lever 43 will rock 105 the lift lever on the then forwardly projecting compression lever 44, from the position shown in Fig 7 to that shown in Fig 8. This preliminary movement of the lift lever 43 will bodily lift the tongue 56, and 110 consequently the seat 26, from the position shown in Fig 7 to one approximating that shown in Fig 8. Further downward movement of the outer end 57 of the lift lever 43 will cause the 115 same to bottom at 58 on the outer end of the compression lever 44, after which the compression lever 44 will swing downwardly as a unit with the lift lever, the -inner end 54 of the lift lever riding freely 120 out from under the then fully elevated foot 56 on the tongue 55 Continued downward movement of both levers, with the seat 26 raised, will then first move the spring 34 rearwardly and thereafter flex it, with the 125 seat 26 properly positioned and clamped against the blade 12 in readiness for shaving. In the closed or shaving position of the head 11, the rearward movement and flexing of the spring 34 during the closing of the head 130 plate 25 and extends upwardly through a narrow laterally elongated slot 39 in the rear portion of the seat 26 At its upper end the upper portion 38 of the spring terminates in two small laterally spaced upwardly projecting prongs 40, which prongs track within shallow grooves 41 in the underside of the cap 17 when the upper portion 38 of the spring 34 is in its forward position, which is the position shown in Fig 7 When the upper portion 38 of the spring 34 is moved rearwardly, however, from the position shown in Fig 7 to that shown in Fig 6, the prongs 40 on the upper portion of the spring will retract from the underside of the cap 17 a distance somewhat greater than the thickness of the blade 12. The blade 12 is provided with laterally spaced holes 42, which are slightly larger than the prongs 40, and the prongs 40 extend through the holes 42 in loosely but securely interlocked engagement with the blade when the spring is in its forward position. The head 11 of the razor is opened and closed by means of a small lever 43 which is conveniently located at the front of the razor just below the head When the lever 43 is flipped up, from the vertical position shown in Fig 6 to the horizontal position shown in Fig 7, the head 11 will open, and when the lever 43 is pressed down again, into the position shown in Fig 6, the head 11 will close. The lever 43, which will be referred to as the lift lever, is
  20. 20. pivotally mounted intermediate its ends on the free end of a second underlying lever 44, by means of a pin 45, and this second lever 44, which will be referred to as the compression lever, is pivotally mounted at its other end on the front end of a forwardly projecting stud 46, by means of a pin 47 The stud 46 passes through the lower end of a vertically elongated slot 48 in the spring 34 at the center of the latter and through a small aperture 49 in the frame 13 The stud 46 is provided at its rear end with a head 50 which engages with the back of the frame 13 and locks the stud against forward movement. The pivoted end of the compression lever 44 is provided with a cam-shaped nose 51, which nose contacts and operates against the front face of the spring 34 The nose 51 has a flattened low portion 52 and a flattened high portion 53 When the head 11 of the razor is in its open position, as shown in Fig 7, the spring 34 is permitted by the low portion 52 of the nose to assume its forwardly swung position, whereas when the head 11 is in its closed position, as shown in Fig 6, the spring 34 is held flexed in its rearwardly swung position by the high portion 53 of the nose, the high portion 53 786,216 will act to retract the locking prongs 40 from the holes 42 in the blade 12 and move them into a position even with or just below the upper face of the seat 26, as shown in Fig 6, the withdrawal of the prongs being due in part to the angular disposition of the cap 17 relative to the pivotal axis 36 of the spring 34 and also in part to the shortening of the spring 34 resulting from its flexure. When the lift lever 43 is flipped up and moves from the position shown in Fig 6 to that shown in Fig 7, the spring 34 will unflex and swing forwardly, causing the prongs 40 to be projected into the holes 42 in the blade 12 At the same time, the forward movement of the spring 34 will release the plate 25 on which the seat 26 is mounted and will permit the seat to drop down into the position shown in Fig 7, leaving the blade loosely but securely locked on the prongs 40, in which position the blade can be easily and thoroughly washed on both sides by holding the opened head 11 under a stream of water To insure the spring 34 moving forwardly as far as it will go into a position wherein the prongs reach the forward ends of the grooves 41 in the underside of the cap 17, a light bowed leaf spring 59 is preferably positioned between the main spring 34 and the frame 13, astraddle the stud 46 In the closed position of the razor this small spring 59 is collapsed flatly between the main spring 34 and the frame 13, as shown in Fig 6. When the seat 26 drops down into the position shown in Fig 7 the rear portion of the blade 12 will be held in an elevated position relative to the rear portion of the seat by reason of its engagement with the horizontal upper edge 60 of the spring 34.
  21. 21. After the head 11 of the razor has been closed the prongs 40 will no longer interlock with the holes 42 in the blade 12 and the blade can be changed in the usual manner, by inserting the key 21 of the magazine 22 in the channel 20. When the key 21 is inserted in the channel 20 it will act to pry the front wall 29 of the channel forwardly against the resistance offered by the main spring 34, thereby moving the seat 26 forwardly far enough to withdraw the stops 32 from engagement with the front edge of the blade. With the seat 26 in its forward position, a new blade can be fed endwise from the magazine 22 between the cap 17 and the seat 26, which new blade will at the same time push the used blade out. The end of the plate 25 against which the magazine 22 is pressed is provided with a downwardly and outwardly inclined wing portion 61 for camming coaction with the usual embossment 62 on the key 21 of the magazine, and the other end of the plate 25 is also provided with a similar wing portion. These two wing portions 61 assist in guiding the plate 25 in its movement between the positions shown in Figs 6 and 7. The locking holes 42 in the blade 12 have nothing to do with the registration which is effected between the front edge of the blade and the guard rail 27, this being done entirely by the front stops 32 and the rear boss 33 The holes 42 are so located in the blade as to become hooked on the moving prongs 40 as the latter travel upwardly and forvardly relative to the cap 17, and the holes 42 are therefore somewhat larger in size than the prongs 40. * Sitemap * Accessibility * Legal notice * Terms of use * Last updated: 08.04.2015 * Worldwide Database * 5.8.23.4; 93p * GB786217 (A) Description: GB786217 (A) ? 1957-11-13 Food product and method of making same
  22. 22. Description of GB786217 (A) PATENT SPECIFICATION 786217 Date of Application and filing Complete Specification: April 28, 1955. No 12312/555. Complete Specification Published: Nov 13, 1957. Index at acceptance:-Class 49, B 1 (F: J: W). International Classification:-A 231. COMPLETE SPECIFICATION Food Product and method of making same I, DIETZ NEWLAND, a citizen of the United States of America, of 1512 Mount Vernon Avenue, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, United 'States of America, do hereby declare the invention, for which I pray that a patent may be granted to me, and the method by which it is to be performed, to be particularly described in and. by the following statement: - This invention relates to a coated food product and a process for making same. Various food combinations have been developed, but it has been my observation that the present-day market does not include a full meal which may 'be served as a single item. The present invention therefore sets out to provide such an item of food and a process for making it. According to one aspect of the invention there is provided a food product comprising an edible meat base and a coating of precooked potato formed about said edible meat base. According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a process for making a food product comprising the steps of dipping an edible meat base in a batter and cooking it so as to form' a rough surface on the edible meat base, preparing a thick edible coating of precooked potatoes, blending said potatoes to form a homogeneous mass and coating said prepared edible meat base with said homogeneous mass. The invention will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:Figure 1 is a low diagram of a process according to this invention; Figure 21 is a flow diagram of a modification of the invention; and Figure 3 ' is a partially cut-away drawing of the product according to the process of this invention. Figure 3 illustrates a particular product that may be made according to the principle of this invention and comprises a 'base material 12 made of meat, and which might, in fact, comprise a wiener. A stick or handle 131 may be inserted in one end of the wiener 12 to
  23. 23. provide suitable lPl handle It is to be realized: of course, that the stick 13 ' need not be used. The wiener 12 is coated by a suitable roughening layer 11 which might comprise a batter of mill, 'eggs and flour. Substantially covering the wiener is a coating of potato. The finished product, when served, comprises a substantially complete meal, As an item of commerce it may be frozen and distributed, and later reheated. Figure 1 discloses, a process for making the product shown in, Figure 3 and it is to be noted that the left side of the diagram illustrates a first step wherein a meat base, such as ham, hamburger, wieners, sausages, etc is selected'. For purposes of illustration herein, a wiener will be used, but it is to be realized that numerous other meat bases may be utilized in this process. Wieners have a generally non-adherent surface which makes it difficult to apply a thick coating of material, such as potatoes For this reason, a precooking preparation is included and comprises, coating the wiener with a thin adhesive coating comprising a batter which might be made, for example, from milk, eggs and flour The dipped wiener is then cooked for a short time so as to harden the thin coating of batter which forms a rough surface, and to which the mashed potato may be attached. A finishing step is next accomplished where the meat may be cooled or the sticks 13 may be inserted'. The right portion of the flow-diagram illustrates the preparation of the potato It will' be noted that the potatoes, are prepared for cooking, which preparation might comprise peeling, washing and cutting. The next step is to cook the potatoes which may be accomplished in deep fat 'by frying them until all of the water is removed Cooking should not continue beyond this point. The next step' is to 'blend the cooked potatoes by grinding, mashing, or breaking them up and blending seasoning, such as salt and pepper, therewith. In the next step the processed potato and meat is joined to form the product shown in Figure 3 The machine may be a press or may be a machine constructed according to the requirements of this particular product The potatoes may also be manually applied. The finished product is fed from the machine where it may be packed for future sale If desired, the finished product may be rolled in cracker crumbs The product, thus formed, may later be browned in deep fat just before eating. Figure 2 illustrates a modification of this invention wherein the meat
  24. 24. is processed in the same manner as shown in Figure 1, but dehydrated powdered potatoes are used These are prepared by grinding cooked potatoes and then drying to a powder This material is blended with suitable seasoning and liquid and formed about the meat by the machine. * Sitemap * Accessibility * Legal notice * Terms of use * Last updated: 08.04.2015 * Worldwide Database * 5.8.23.4; 93p * GB786218 (A) Description: GB786218 (A) ? 1957-11-13 Improvements in or relating to voltage control devices Description of GB786218 (A) PATENT SPECIFICATION 786,218 Date of Application and filing Complete Specification: May 3, 1955. No 12779155. Application made in United States of America on May 13, 1954. Complete Specification Published: Nov 13, 1957. Index at Acceptance-Classes 38 ( 4), A 6 B, 'R( 4: 21 A 2: 67: 68), and 40 ( 4), F 9 J. International Classification:-GO 5 f H 02 j H 03 f. COMPLETE SPECIFICATION Improvements in or relating to Voltage Control Devices. We, WAGNER ELECTRIC CORPORATION, a conditions, the magnitude and direction of corporation organised under the laws of the the adjusting voltage being determined' by State of Delaware, United States of America, the impedance values of the arms of the of 6400 Plymouith'Avenue, City of St Louis, bridge circuit; State of Missouri, United States of America, At the present time, the output voltage of
  25. 25. 50 -do hereby declare the invention, for which a transformer is usually regulated by means we pray that a patent may be granted to us, of a tap changing device associated with and the method by which it is to be per either the primary or secondary windings of formed, to be particularly described in and the transformer, or by varying the impedance by the following statement: of a coil connected in one of the supply 55 The present invention relates generally to leads or in the output leads of the transthe voltage regulator art and more particu former, larly to a novel voltage control device by The tap changing construction has the diswhich the output voltage of a transfor advantage that it requires numerous switches mer can be held constant or can be varied which are subject to arcing, and wear and 60 in any desired manner regardless of limited tear, and a rather complicated mechnical variations of the supply voltage thereto, and control for operating the switches It also which regulates said output voltage-smoothly results in a stepwise regulation of the output and practically instantaneously with _the voltage caused by abrupt changes in -the demand therefor: connections of the, aforementioned corm 65 The present invention provides, a voltage ponent circuit parts Furthermore, the best regulating-device inserted in one lead of a available regulation employing tap changers pair of leads, for connecting a power source is in the nature of A, ths of 1 % of normal, to a load, comprising a Wheatstone type and the regulation is effected only after the bridge circuit containing at least four reactors controlled voltage has been at an abnormal 70 connected' together to provide two sets of value i e, more than %, for an appreciable opposed corners and two sets of opposed period of time. reactors; means for impressing a voltage The construction employing a variable across one set of corners; means connecting impedance connected -in series with the supthe other corners in the one lead; and means ply line -has the disadvantage, that the 75 for varying the impedance of one or both voltage across the primary can never be sets of reactors ' greater than the supply voltage. Briefly, the present invention comprises a Therefore, one of the objects of the control device in combination with a trans present invention is to provide a voltage former, the control providing variable com control device for use with a transformer 80 pensating or adjusting voltage which is whereby, the output voltage of the transsuperposed on either the input or the output former can be held substantially constant voltage of the transformer so as to maintain or changed to any desired value regardless the output voltage at the desired value of changes in the supply voltage within preregardless of changes in the supply voltage determined limits More particularly, it
  26. 26. is 85 within predetermined limits In the pre an object to provide such a device in which ferred construction, the adjusting voltage is the load voltage can be maintained constant developed in a bridge circuit which includes within -A' of 1 % of normal when the input -four saturable core reactors whose im voltage varies between 90 % and 110 % of pedances are responsive to selected external normal 90 lPrice 3 s 6 d l Another object of the present invention is to provide a voltage control device for regulating the output voltage of a transformer without interrupting the normal flow of power either on the primary or secondary side of the transformer More particularly, it is an object to provide such a device whereby the controlled voltage is varied smoothly as distinguished from " stepwise" or " increment " variation, and whereby the variation is substantially instantaneous with the demand therefor. Further objects and advantages of the present invention will be readily apparent from the following detailed description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings wherein preferred embodiments of the present invention are shown. In the drawings: Fig 1 is a schematic wiring diagram of the preferred circuit construction in which a correcting winding is provided on the main transformer core. Fig 2 is a simplified schematic diagram of the circuit in Fig 1, in which all four reactors are shown to be of substantially the same size, thereby diagrammatically indicating that they have about the same reactance value In this situation, the effective adjusting voltage " e " is zero, and the supply voltage and the input voltage to the transformer are substantially equal. Fig 3 is a schematic diagram similar to Fig 2 but in which the reactance values of two series connected reactors are unequal. In this situation, the adjusting voltage " e" is bucking or opposing the supply voltage. Fig 4 is a schematic diagram similar to Fig 2 and Fig 3 but in which the adjusting voltage " e " is shown diagrammatically as aiding the supply voltage. Fig 5 represents the same circuit components and connections as shown in Fig 2 except the transformer core is shown in a vertical position. Fig 6 is a first modified circuit construction, wherein the correcting winding on the main transformer core (Fig I) is replaced by the secondary winding of a separate or auxiliary transformer whose primary winding is connected across the secondary leads of the main transformer. Fig 7 differs from Fig 6 in that the primary winding of the separate or auxiliary transformer is connected across the supply line instead
  27. 27. of across the output leads of the main transformer. Fig 8 is a further modified construction, wherein the adjusting voltage is superposed on the output voltage, and the correcting winding is wound around the core of the main transformer. Fig 9 is another modification, in which the correcting winding is located on a separate or auxiliary transformer and the primary winding of the separate transformer is connected directly across the terminals of the secondary winding of the main transformer ahead of the bridge circuit. Fig 10 is a modification of Fig 9 It 70 differs therefrom in that the primary winding of the separate transformer is connected across the secondary circuit of the main transformer on the load side of the bridge circuit 75 Fig 11 is a vector diagram showing the voltage and current conditions in the Wheatstone bridge when the load current is in phase with the transformer voltage, and Figs 12 and 13 are vector diagrams illus 80 trating how the adjusting voltage developed in the bridge circuit adds vectorially to the supply voltage. Referring to the drawings more particularly by reference numerals, specifically Fig 85 1, the numeral 12 indicates a conventional power transformer (shown schematically) which includes a secondary winding 14, two primary windings 16 and 18, and a correcting winding 20 shown on the primary side 90 but which functions as another secondary, as will be described more fully hereinafter. Load leads 22 and 24 are connected to the secondary winding 14, and supply leads 26 and 28 are connected to the primary 95 windings 16 and 18 The impressed supply voltage is indicated as V 1 and the secondary voltage is indicated as V 2. A network circuit 30 which controls the magnitude and direction, i e, the phase rela 100 tion, of an adjusting voltage "e," comprises four saturable core reactors 32, 34, 36, and 38 containing laminated iron cores Each of the saturable reactors includes a DC winding and AC winding In the description the 105 AC and DC windings will be referred to as 32 AC, 32 DC, 34 AC, 34 DC, and so on. The AC windings of the four reactors are connected together in a so-called Wheatstone bridge circuit, the windings 38 AC and 110 32 AC being connected together at a corner 40, the windings 32 AC and 34 AC being connected together at a corner 42, the windings 34 AC and 36 AC being connected together at a corner 44, and the windings 36 AC and 115 38 AC being connected together at a corner 46. A conductor 48 connects the corner 46 with one side of the primary winding 16, and a conductor 50 connects the corner 42 1-20 f with one side of the primary winding 18. The other two corners of the bridge circuit, i e, corners 40 and 44,
  28. 28. are connected to the correcting winding 20 through conductors 52 and 54 respectively 125 As briefly mentioned hereinabove, the impedances of the reactors in the legs of the bridge circuit are controlled so that diametrically opposite arms of the bridge have substantially the same impedance In order 130 786,218 turns," depending upon whether the ampere turns of the correcting winding are either " aiding " or " opposing ' the ampere turns of the windings, 16 'and 18 and the extent of the flux changes it causes, or it can be 70 ' described from the standpoint of having the voltage " e" 'appearing across the points 46-42 of the bridge circuit superposed on or injected into the impressed supply voltage in series "aiding " or " opposing" 75 depending upon the relationship of the impedances of the reactors in the bridge circuit. Because of the difficulty of computing the various voltages and currents when the " effective ampere turn " approach is used, 80 the other approach has been deemed to be more advantageous, and is the one which will be, used. In the following discussion, the transformers will be considered as "ideal " 85 transformers, i e, as not having any resistance or reactance. Referring to Figs 1 and 2, the problem is to maintain constant, the load voltage V across the secondary winding 14, regard 90 less of variations in the voltage V, across the supply leads 26 and 28 This requires that the magnetic flux in the core of the transformer 12 ' be maintained constant, which in turn requires that a constant volt 95 age E be induced in the primary windings 16 and 18 of the transformer and another constant voltage be induced in the correcting winding 20 Thus, the problem resolves itself into maintaining the voltage impressed 100 across the primary winding 16 and 18 constant, and equal and opposed to the induced voltage E, regardless of variations in, the slupply voltage V, across the leads 26 and 28. Referring now to Fig 2 let us assume 105 that the supply voltage V, is normal; therefore, if the load voltage V is to be normal, it is necessary that the supply voltage V, equal the induced voltage E. Assuming that the voltage induced in the 110 correcting winding 20 is in the direction so that the right-hand end is at a higher potential than the left-hand end thereof, the conductor 52 and the corner 40 of the bridge circuit 30 will be at a higher potential than 115 the conductor 54 and the corner 44 of bridge circuit However, if the impedances of all the reactors 32, 34, 36, and 38 are equal (as shown diagrammatically in Fig 2), the voltage drops across -the reactors 32 and 38 120 will be the same; and, if they are also in phase, the corners 46 and 42 will be at the same potential, and the adjusting voltage " e " (which is across the corners 42 and 46) will be zero The
  29. 29. voltage E equals the 125 voltage V, plus or minus the voltage " e," and, inasmuch as' the voltage " e" is zero, the voltage E equals the voltage V 1 As mentioned above, the voltage "e" is zero provided the voltage drops across the re 130 to accomplish this result, the windings 38 DC and 34 DC are connected together in series, and are connected in series with a DC power source 56 and a variable resistor 57, through conductors 58 and 60. In like manner, the windings 32 DC and 36 DC are connected together in series, and in series with a DC power source 62 through conductors 64 and 66. Thus, it will be apparent that by adjusting the variable resistor 57, the direct current passing through the windings 38 DC and 34 DC can be controlled so as to simultaneously vary the AC impedance of the reactors 38 and 34 For -example if the variable resistor 57 is adjusted so that a relatively small direct current flows through the windings 38 DC and 34 DC, the AC' impedance of the reactors 38 and 34 will be relatively high On the other hand, if the direct current flowing through the windings 38 DC and 34 DC is relatively large, the AC impedance of the reactors 38 and 34 will be relatively low. In like manner, the impedances of the reactors 32 and 36 can be controlled by adjusting the variable resistor 63. Although the variation of the impedances of the reactors 32, 34, 36 and 38 has been described as being accomplished by controlling the flow of direct current through the DC windings, it will be apparent from the present disclosure that the same result can be accomplished by mechanical means, as for example by physically changing the longitudinal position of an iron core mounted within each reactor coil. Furthermore, the impedance of the various reactors can be varied automatically responsive to any selected external condition such as, for example, supply current, load current, output voltage, or the like. Hereafter, in the description of the operation of the device, the impedance of the various reactors will be referred to as being relatively high or relatively low, without mentioning how the change of impedance has been accomplished, i e, whether by varying the DC current in the windings 34 DC, 38 DC and 32 DC, 36 DC as by adjusting the variable resistors 57 and 63, by mechanical means, or by automatically varying the current in the DC windings responsive to some external condition. OPERATION' As briefly mentioned hereinabove, the problem is to maintain constant, the voltage V 2 across the secondary, regardless of changes within a predetermined range in the impressed supply voltage V, across the leads 26 and 28.
  30. 30. The 'operation of the device can be described either from the standpoint of'the primary winding of the transformer having a certain number of "effective ampere 786,218 actors 32 and 38 are equal and in phase. This condition occurs when the current flowing through the windings 16 and 18 is small in comparison with the currents flowing in the reactances Conditions are considerably more complicated when this is not correct, as occurs when the transformer carries an appreciable load current This point will be discussed in more detail hereinafter. Referring next to Fig 3, let us assume that the voltage V, is 110 %,o of normal, and therefore, in order for the voltage E to be normal, it is necessary to connect in series with the supply voltage V 1, an adjusting voltage " e" which opposes or reduces it, or, stating it differently, the adjusting voltage " e" must be of such magnitude and phase relation with respect to the voltage V, that the resultant voltage E is of normal value, i e, 10 %o less than the supply voltage V 1. Stating it differently, the adjusting voltage e" must buck the supply voltage V, by an amount equal to 10 %) of normal V,. As mentioned previously, the voltage induced in the correcting winding 20 is in the direction to cause the corner 40 of the bridge to be at a higher potential than the corner 44 Therefore, when the impedance of the reactors 32 and 36 are considerably less than the impedance of the reactors 34 and 38 (Fig 3), the corner 42 will be at a higher potential than the corner 46; Thus, under these conditions, the adjusting voltage " e" across the corners 42 and 46 will be in the direction opposite to the-supply voltage V,. and the voltage E will equal the voltage V, minus the voltage " e " Consequently, if the voltage V, is 11003 of normal, and the voltage-" e " is 10 % of normal V,, the voltage E will be normal, and consequently the load voltage V, across the secondary winding 14 will also be normal It will be noted that if the impedances of the reactors 32 and 36 are considerably less than the impedances of the reactors 34 and 38, the voltage " e " across the corners 42 and 46 of the bridge is substantially equal to the voltage across the leads 54 and 52 of the winding 20. Referring to Fig 4, if the voltage V, is o, of normal, it is necessary for the adjusting voltage "e" to be 10 % of normal V, and in the direction to aid it rather than oppose it as previously described Thus, if the impedance of the reactors 32 and 36 is greater than the impedance of the reactors 38 and 34, the corner 46 of the bridge will be at a higher potential than the corner 42, and the voltage " e" across the corners 42 and 46 will aid the impressed voltage V 1. Therefore, the voltage E will equal the voltage V 1 ( 90 % of normal)
  31. 31. plus the voltage "e" ( 10 %c of normal V,), and the voltage E will be normal. Up to this point it has been assumed that the voltage drops across the bridge reactors are in phase These conditions were assumed in order to simplify the theoretical explanation of the voltages which result when the current flowing in the primary of the trans 70 former is small in comparison with the current flowing in the reactors However, in reality, these in phase voltage conditions exist only rarely When the transformer is loaded, the voltages across the different re 75 actors are no longer in phase and the voltage relations become much more complex. For example, when the four reactances have equal impedance (Fig 2) and the load current flowing from the corners 42 and 46 80 is in phase with the voltage across the leads 52 and 54, a voltage " e " appears across the corners 46 and 42 of the bridge, which is approximately at right angles to the voltage across the leads 54 and 52 of the winding 20, 85 or approximately at right angles to the voltage of E across the windings 16 and 18 In this case the voltage E equals the voltage V, in spite of the fact that a voltage " e " appears across the corners 46 and 42 of the 90 bridge. If the values of the reactances are such that the ratio of the reactance of the reactor 34 to the reactor 32, and the ratio of the reactance of the reactor 38 to the reactor 36 95 is rather small, the voltage " e " across the corners 46 and 42 of the bridge attains a nearly in phase relationship with respect to the voltage across the leads 54 and 52 of the correcting winding 20, and with respect to 100 the voltage E across the windings 16 and 18. Other and more complex relations occur when the current in the leads 28 and 26 is appreciable in comparison with the current flowing in the leads 54 and 52 These can 105 be readily determined from Fig 11 which is a vector diagram of the voltages appearing at different parts of the bridge circuit shown in Fig 2 Fig 11 also illustrates the currents flowing in the circuit when the current 110 in the leads 28 and 26 and the windings 16 and 18 are in phase with the voltage E across the windings 16 and 18. The meaning of the different vectors in Fig 11 are as follows: 115 Vector 0-2 = voltage across the correcting winding 20 0-3 = voltage across the reactor 34 2-3 '= voltage across the reactor 38 120 2-3 = voltage across the reactor 32 0-3 '= voltage across the reactor 36 3-3 Y= adjusting voltage "e" across the corners 46 and 42 of the bridge 0-a = current I in the conductors 28, 48 125 and 26 and the windings 16 and 18 0-b = current i, in the reactor 34 0-c = current i 2 in the reactor 32 It can be shown mathematically that the point 3 as well as point 3 ' travel on a para 130 786,2 > 18 38 (either manually or
  32. 32. automatically as described hereinabove) the adjusting voltage " e" across the corners 42 and 46 of the bridge is changed in its magnitude and phase relationship with respect to the voltage 70 E across the primary windings 16 and 18 of the transformer, so as to either aid or oppose the supply voltage V 1 and thereby maintain constant the voltage V, across the secondary. In like manner, the voltage E across the 75 primary windings 16 and 18 -can be made to follow any desired curve or pattern. Furthermore, this "correcting" of the impressed voltage V 1 by varying the voltage " e" is accomplished smoothly and practi 80 cally instantaneously with the demand therefor. Fig 5 is similar to Fig, 1 and Fig 2, and has been included to show another way of schematically illustrating the basic circuit 85 In the circuit previously described (Fig 1 and Figs 2-5), the voltage impressed across the corners 40 and 44 of the bridge circuit, i.e; the bridge supply voltage, was obtained from a correcting winding 20 mounted on the 90 same core with the primary windings 16 and 18 and the secondary winding 14 Also, the adjusting voltage " e " across the other corners 42 and 46 was superposed on or "injected into" a power supply lead 95 Substantially the same results can be obtained by superposing the adjusting voltage " e " developed by the bridge circuit, onto the secondary or load side of the transformer whose voltage is to be controlled (Fig 8) 100 Furthermore, a separate or auxiliary transformer across either the primary or secondary leads can be used in place of the correcting winding 20, for furnishing the " bridge supply " voltage 105 First, let us consider obtaininggthe bridge supply voltage from a source other than a correcting winding 20 mounted on the same core with the windings 16 and 18. Referring to Fig 6, there is provided a 110 main transformer 112 which is equivalent to the main transformer 12 of Fig 5, and which includes primary windings 116 and 118 and a secondary winding 114 A bridge circuit 130 complete with four reactors, as previously 115 described, is connected at the corners'142 and 146 into one of the primary leads The other corners, 140 and 144, are connected to a winding 120, but instead of this correcting winding being on the same core with the 120 windings 116, 118 and 114, it is actually the secondary of the separate transformer T, l which is connected across the output circuit of the transformer 112, i e, across the leads 124 'and 122 125 The operation of this circuit is very similar 1 to the one previously described (Fig 5) in that the impedances of the reactors are varied g to provide an adjusting voltage " e " between d the corners 142 and 146 of the bridge, and 130 bola, provided the sum of the reactances 32 and 34 remain constant and the sum of the reactances 38 and 36 remain constant, while the ratio of the reactances 32 to' 34, and 36 to
  33. 33. 38-are varied. The parabola becomes flatter as the current flowing in the leads 28 and 26, and in the windings 16 and 18 becomes smaller when compared with the current flowing in the leads 54 and 52 of winding -20 If the current in the leads 28 and 26 is very small in comparison with the current in the leads 52 and 54, the parabola becomes a straight line coinciding with the line 0-2 (Fig 11). When this occurs, the diagram represents the condition considered in the beginning of the discussion, i e, when the -magnitude of the load current is negligible in comparison with the current flowing in the reactances. It is evident that vector diagrams of the kind described can be prepared for any desired load condition. It will be noted from Fig 11 that when the ratio of the reactances is changed, the adjusting voltage " e " across the corners 46 and 42 of the bridge (represented by vector 3-3 '), changes in magnitude and phase angle with respect to the voltage across the corners 40 and 44 of the bridge (vector 0-2) and across the leads 54 and 52 of the correcting winding 20. As mentioned hereinabove, Fig 12 illustrates the situation wherein the supply voltage V 2 is smaller than the voltage E across the terminals of the primary winding of the transformer, and the adjusting -voltage " e " forms the phase angle a with the voltage E. Fig 13 illustrates the situation wherein the supply voltage V 1 is larger than the voltage E across the primary winding of the transformer and the adjusting voltage " e " forms a phase angle a with the voltage E, which in turn is in phase with the voltage across the correcting winding 20. For the extreme case wherein the reactances 32 and 36 are very small, or zero, the supply voltage V, must be great enough to create a voltage equal to the primary voltage E plus the voltage " e " across the correcting winding, a condition which is represented by line 0-1-2 -of -Fig 12 For the other extreme case wherein the reactances 34 and 38 are very small, or zero, the supply voltage is represented by 0-3. In the above discussion, it was assumed that the end of the vector representing the adjusting voltage " e " travels on a parabola. As pointed out hereinabove, this occurs wher the sum of the reactances of the reactors 32 and 34 is constant, and the sum of the react. ances of the reactors 36 and 38 is constant, while the ratio of the reactances 32 to 34 anc the ratio of the reactors 36 to 38 are varied. Thus, it will be apparent that by varyinj the impedances of the reactors 32, 34, 36 anc 786,218 S the voltage " e" is superposed on the primary voltage to provide the desired voltage across the windings 116 and 118.
  34. 34. If desired, the primary winding of the separate or auxiliary transformer T 1 can be connected across the supply leads 126 and 128 as shown in Fig 7 The operation of this circuit is closely related to that of Fig 5. The present invention also encompasses the construction wherein the adjusting voltage " e " is superposed on the output voltage of the transformer whose voltage is to be controlled, as shown in Figs 8, 9 and 10. Referring to Fig 8, there is provided a transformer 212 which contains primary windings 216 and 218, a secondary winding 214, and a correcting winding 220 A bridge control circuit 230 has its corners 242 and 246 connected in the output lead 224 (as distinguished from its position in a primary lead, as in the prior description), afd the correcting winding 220 is connected to the other corners 240 and 244 in a manner previously described. Thus, the adjusting voltage " e" developed across the corners 242 and 246, is superposed on the output voltage either to aid or oppose it depending on whether the primary voltage is below or above normal For example, if the primary voltage V, is below normal, the adjusting voltage " e" will be. controlled by varying the impedances of the reactors (as previously described) so as to aid or increase the secondary voltage V 2 and thereby maintain it at its normal or desired value If, on the other hand, the primary voltage V 1 is above normal, then the voltage " e " will be in the direction to oppose V 2 and hold it down to its normal value Then again, in those instances where V 1 is normal, the impedances of the reactors will be so adjusted that the voltage " e " will be zero, or have such a phase relationship with respect to the voltage V 1 and V 2 that these two voltages will be substantially equal. Referring next to Fig 9, this circuit combines both the separate power source for the bridge circuit and the superposing of the correcting voltage " e " on the secondary side of the regulator In short, it is somewhat similar to both the circuits shown in Figs 7 and 8 Thus, the corners 342 and 346 of the bridge circuit are connected in an output or load lead, and the other corners 340 and 344 are connected to a winding 320 which is the secondary of a separate transformer T 12 connected across the secondary leads ahead of the bridge circuit. It will be readily apparent that the transformer T 12 could be connected on the load side of the bridge circuit, as shown in Fig 10, if desirable. The descriptions considered hereinabove were directed to a Wheatstone bridge circuit containing four separate saturable core reactors It has been determined that a somewhat superior operation is obtained when the two diametrically opposite
  35. 35. reactors which comprise a set, are combined into a single "twin reactor" unit consisting of a single 70 three-legged iron core provided with two AC windings and one DC winding. The iron core of each " twin reactor " has three legs, each of the two outer legs being provided with an AC winding, and the inner 75 leg being provided with a single DC winding which replaces the 'two DC windings of the two independent reactors. In addition to providing a somewhat superior operation, the " twin reactors '' have 80 the further advantage that they require less iron and copper and occupy less space than two separate reactors Also, the "twin reactors" have a tendency to cause equal current distribution in the two AC windings 85 Thus, it is apparent that there has been provided a novel regulator circuit by which the output voltage of a transformer can be held constant or at any desired voltage, regardless of variations in the supply line 90 voltage Also, the regulation is accomplished almost instantaneously with the demand thereof, and the adjustment is made smoothly and without interrupting the normal flow of either the supply current or the load current 95 In addition, the device is relatively simple in construction and there are no mechanical switches or moving parts to become worn, or out of adjustment. It is to be understood that the foregoing 100 description and the accompanying drawing have been given only by way of illustration and example, and that changes and alterations in the present disclosure, which will be readily apparent to one skilled in the art, are 105 contemplated as within the scope of the present invention which is limited onlv bv the claims which follow. * Sitemap * Accessibility * Legal notice * Terms of use * Last updated: 08.04.2015 * Worldwide Database * 5.8.23.4; 93p

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