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  1. 1. * GB786184 (A) Description: GB786184 (A) ? 1957-11-13 An arrangement for photographic cameras Description of GB786184 (A) PATENT SPECIFICATION Date of Application and filing Complete Specification: Jan 16, 1956. Application made in Germany on Feb 1, 1955. Complete Specification Published: Nov 13, 1957. Index at acceptance:-Class 98 ( 1), A 12 A(i:i 4). International Classification:-O 03 b. COMPLETE SPECIFICATION An Arrangement for Photographic Cameras We, HANS DECKEL, of Waakirchnerstrasse 7-13, M Unich 25, Germany, and FRIEDRICH WILHELM DECKEL, of Haus Lorettoh Ohe, Zug, Switzerland, both of German Nationality, do hereby declare the invention, for which we pray that a patent may be granted to us, and the method by which it is to be performed, to be particularly described in and by the following statement: - Developments in the field of photographic technique have shown that the operator of a photographic camera should be relieved of all unnecessary mental effort This can be attained, in particular by automatically maintaining as far as is possible the requisite relationships corresponding to the conditions for photographing between time or shutter speed, stop aperture and range or distance settings. An object of the present invention is to obtain such a reciprocal interaction of the setting elements when setting the camera preparatory to making an exposure. According to the invention this object is attained in that the stop aperture setting element is selectively coupled with the one or the other of the elements for setting the exposure time or shutter speed and the range of distance respectively. A further feature of the invention is the provision of selectively acting coupling means enabling either of these coupling positions to
  2. 2. be preset By such means it is simply and rapidly possible to prepare and preset the camera for any anticipated conditions of photographing. The accompanying drawings represent by way of example some forms or embodiments of the invention. Fig 1 is a plan view of a camera embodying the invention; Figs 2 to 6 show various details on a larger scale, and Fig 7 shows the gearing system for the control numbers indicator, which is the sub786,184 No 1398/56. ject of our pending Application No. 3451/56 (Serial No 786,185). Referring to the drawings, the front plate of a camera 11 of known kind is provided with a flange 12 having a screw 50 threaded portion 14 Into this threaded portion a threaded focusing ring 16 can be screwed A lens tube 18 is rotatably fitted within the setting ring 16 and is secured to two supporting rings 20, 22 by means of 55 screws 24 An internal collar or flange 26 of this focusing ring 16 engages in an annular space 28 between the tube 18 and the ring 20 The camera front plate 10 further carries an attached guide plate 30 which 60 projects into an axial slot 32 of the tube 18. By virture of the described arrangement a screwing motion of the threaded focusing ring 16 causes the lens tube 18 with the rings 20, 22 to move backwards or forwards along 65 the optical axis. The ring 22 carries the shutter housing 34 which is of the usual cylindrical form and is attached to the ring by means of a nut 36 threaded on the rear lens tube 38 in the shut 70 ter housing 34 The shutter housing 34 contains the elements of the shutter mechanism of known kind and manner of action, actuating and controlling the shutter blades or sectors (not shown) The actuating elements of 75 the shutter, in particular its setting and/or releasing element(s) may consist of axially parallel, telescoping spindles leading outwards to the rear and linked with driving means on the camera The shutter housing 80 further accommodates in known manner the camera lens or mount. The shutter housing 34 contains an aperture stop arrangement, such as an iris diaphragm stop of known kind and manner of 85 action This is actuated by means of a ring which is rotatably attached to the rear end of the shutter housing 34 The front end of the shutter housing 34 carries a rotatably fitted exposure time or shutter speed setting 90 786,184 ring 42 which is further attached to a short tube 44. Coupling means are provided between the exposure time or shutter speed setting ring 42 of the lens shutter and the stop setting ring 40 by which means these two rings can be coupled in different relative positions for the purpose of being conjointly actuated. Such coupling means (Figs 2 to 6) include a coupling ring 48 rotatably
  3. 3. mounted between the short tube 44 and the raised rim of the ring 20 Two snap rings 50, 52 or the like lock the coupling ring 48 axially in position This coupling ring 48 carries a reversing claw 54 which is axially movable with reference to the coupling ring This axial motion is enabled by two guide pins 56, 58 on the reversing claw 54 that enters into axial slots 60, 62 of the coupling ring. The guide pin 56 is equipped with an actuating knob 64 for manually operating the reversing claw 54. The stop setting ring 40 carries on the side of its periphery farthest from the reversing claw 44 an arm 90 (Fig 4) engaging in a slot 92 of the coupling ring 48 This effects the rotational linkage or coupling between the stop setting ring 40 and the coupling ring 48. If the reversing claw 54 is now set (Fig 3) in such a manner that its end face projections 126 engage with coupling notches or slots 46 on the short tube 44, the stop setting ring becomes coupled with the time or speed setting ring 42. A follower ring 94 is further provided which is arranged coaxially with the setting rings 40, 42 and is rotatable about the optical axis inside the ring 20 The rotational motion of this follower ring for the purpose of setting the range or distance is controlled by the threaded focusing ring 16, in particular through the intermediary of a motion conversion mechanism which ensures that on rotation of the ring 16, the follower ring 94 and consequently also the stop setting ring turn through an angle which is directly proportional to the distance indicated on the focusing scales This mechanism will presently be described in detail For the immego diate purpose, the essential feature is that the ring 94 moving in conjunction with the focusing ring 16 can be coupled with the stop setting ring 40 to which end it is provided on its periphery with a number of coupling notches 124 which are located on the same pitch circle as the coupling notches 46 on the short tube 44 of the time setting ring 42 The reversing claw 54 has on its end facing the ring 94 a number of corresponding coupling 6 o teeth 128 which engage in the notches 124. if consequently the reversing claw 54 is so set that it engages vith the follow er ring 94. the stop setting ring 10 becomes coupled -:with the follower ring 94 and correspondingly with the focusing ring 16 (Figs 2 and 5) The connection between the stop setting ring 40 and the time setting ring 42 is at the same time interrupted. Reversing, i e, the axial displacement of the reversing claw 54 from the one coupling 70 position into the other, is performed by a declutching element (Figs 5 and 6) This consists essentially of a declutching slide block 66 movably guided inside the coupling ring 48 by pins 68 and 70 engaging in guide 75 slots 72, 74 An actuating knob
  4. 4. 76 on the guiding pin 70 is employed for manually controlling the declutching slide block 66 which moves in the peripheral direction of the coupling ring 48 This declutching slide block 80 is bent in the middle to pass clear of the reversing claw 54 A control spring 78 is fitted between the slide block 66 and the coupling ring 48, so-as to swing or rock on a pivot 80 of the coupling ring 48 The end 82 of this 85 spring engages in a recess 84 of the reversing claw 54 A driving pin 86 on the contiol spring 78 slides in an oblique camwav 88 of the slide block 66 When the declutching slide block 66 is displaced peripherally the 90 camway 88 consequently causes the control spring 78, 82, to swing or rock about its pivot pin 80 and thus displace the reversing claw 54 forwards or backwards along the optical axis 95 It should be mentioned that the reversing claw 54 can be released from its instantaneous coupling position by actuating its corresponding setting knob 64 when the coupling ring 48 becomes freely rotatable Stops 130 100 132 on the declutching slide block 66 working in corresponding recesses 134 136 of the long sides of the reversine claw 54 restrict the setting range in such a manner that while the connection with the one coupling inem 105 ber is released, a connection with the other coupling member cannot be effected For instance, as shown in Fi R 2, while the connection between the parts 94 and 54 can be interrupted, owing to the locking action of 110 the elements 130, 134 a connection between the parts 54 and 44 cannot be made. The motion conversion mechanisrn between the follower ring 94 and the focuising ring 16 will now be explained As show N in 115 Fig 7, this mechanisin comprises a driving pin 96 which is fixed in the focusing ring 16. projects through a curved slot 98 in the nonrotating ring 20, and forms a pivot point 100 for a rocking lever 102 This rocking lev er 120 carries a follower pin 104 working in a radial slot 106 in the follower ring 94 and a driv'e pin 108 working in a camt slot 110 in tue rinz 20 Consequently, upon rotatine t Ve focusing ring 16 a corresnondingly trans 125 formed rotary motion is inmar-d to the ft Ilower ring 94. The follower rina 94 has a radial beet arm 112 (see also Fig 4) classing tlirough a slot in the ring 2 and enterine a slot 116 in 130 786,184 3 an index ring 118 rotatably fitted on the pcri i phery of the ring 20 This index ring 118 1 carries a reference mark or pointer 120, ( working over a graduated scale 122 on the I periphery of the coupling ring 48 This graduated scale bears a series of guide or control numbers The general term " cnsntrol number" corresponds to a numerical value bearing a particular relationship to the factor influencing a flashlight exposure such as flash lamp current value,
  5. 5. film emulsion sensitivity, reflector intensifying factor, etc. In the case of flash light photographs it is sufficient to resolve the relationships expressed by this " control number" into two single factors, viz, distance and stop aperture, or to take these correspondingly into consideration; since with reference to the camera, the control number represents the product of distance and stop setting. The arrangement of the scales is best seen on Fig 1 The non-rotatable ring 20 carries a principal reference mark or master pointer 138 which works over a linearly divided stop setting scale 140 on the periphery of the coupling ring 48 and a likewise linearly divided scale 142 on the periphery of the short tube 44 The coupling position of the coupling ring 48 relatively to the time setting ring 42 and stop setting ring 40 is adjustable by means of a scale 144 with exposure values on the short tube 44 and a setting mark 146 on the coupling ring 48 The coupling position of the coupling ring 48 relatively to the stop setting ring 40 and the focusing ring 16 is adjustable by means of the already mentioned control number scale 122 and the setting mark 120 The distance is set by means of the scale 148 on the periphery of the focusing ring 16 which also works in conjunction with the principal reference mark or master pointer 138 The actuating knob of the declutching or setting slide block 66 of the reversing device carries two symbols-the flashlight symbol 150 and the sunlight symbol 152 In the first case, the setting for flashlight is obtained, while the second position indicates the setting for daylight photography. The arrangements on the camera thus described are operated as follows:If it is intended to make a flashlight exposure the setting knob 76 is first set on the flashlight symbol 150 The changeover arrangement 66 to 82 now brings the reversing claw 54 into engagement with the following ring 94 Thereupon the predetermined control number can be set This is performed by manually actuating the setting ( 1 knob 64 to interrupt temporarily the linkage between the reversing claw 54 and the follower ring 94 against the action of the spring 78 and rotating the coupling ring 48 with the scale 122 until the mark 120 registers on the correct control iumber, in the particular instance, the conrol number i' 28 2 " Upon releasing the knob 54 the spring 78 ensures repeated engagenent of the linkage between the parts 54 and 94 70 In this relative position, determined by the control number " 28 ", of the coupling between the stop setting ring 40 and the focusing ring 16 it is sufficient to set the focusing ring to the required distance at, for instance, 75 metres, when the coupled stop mechanism will automatically be set to the appropriate aperture value, e g, the stop setting 5 6 It is obviously possible, conversely, first to select a particular stop setting, when the cor 80 responding range
  6. 6. or distance will be automatically preset. The operator now only requires to select a suitable exposure value (shutter speed), e g, 1/15 sec, by rotating the time setting ring 85 42, which completes the presetting of the photographing factors and enables the exposure to be made in the customary manner. If on the contrary a photograph is to be taken by daylight, the operator has to move 90 the setting knob 76 in the direction of the sunlight symbol 152 The coupling between the stop setting ring 40 and the focusing ring 16 is now completely broken, instead of which a connection is made between the stop 95 setting ring 40 and the time setting ring 42. In this case the scale 144 is used to select according to the exposure factors, the coupling between the ring 48 and the short tube 44 After the requisite coupling position 100 has been obtained, combined rotation of the time setting ring 42 and the stop setting ring past the reference mark 138 enables any desired combination of exposure time and stop aperture value to be preset Setting of 105 the distance by means of the focusing ring 16 is now performed independently of the stop setting. From the above it follows that the operation of the exposure time or shutter speed 110 setting element, the stop aperture setting element and the distance setting element on the camera is materially simplified by the arrangement according to the invention, in that the stop setting element can be selec 115 tively coupled with either of the other setting elements The control or changeover device provided with the appropriate symbols at the same time enables the selection of either flashlight or daylight exposure, i e, the re 120 versal of the two coupling arrangements, to be very rapidly and conveniently performed. It should be mentioned in conclusion that the embodiments described and illustrated are merely examples of forms of the inven 125 tion The structural features can of course be given other forms, in particular, the individual details and gearing means may be different It is furthermore directly possible to incorporate the described and illustrated em 130 786,184 786,184 bodiments in some interchangeable part of the camera, and as an interchangeable lens system or mounting. * Sitemap * Accessibility * Legal notice * Terms of use * Last updated: 08.04.2015 * Worldwide Database * 5.8.23.4; 93p
  7. 7. * GB786185 (A) Description: GB786185 (A) ? 1957-11-13 Improvements in photographic cameras Description of GB786185 (A) PATENT SPECIFICATION Date of Application and filing Complete Specification: Feb 3, 1956. Application made in Germany on Feb 14, 1955. ____ Complete Specification Published: Nov13, 1957. Index at acceptance -Class 98 ( 1), A 12 A( 1:4). International Classification:-C 03 b. COMPLETE SPECIFICATION Improvements in Photographic Cameras We, HANS DE Ci EL, of Waakirchnerstrasse 7-13, Miunich 25, Germany, and F Rr EDRICH WISD Or M D Ec Kmr, of Haus Lorettoh 6 he, Zug, Switzerland, both of German Nationality, do hereby declare the invention, for which we pray that a patent may be granted to us, and the method by which it is to be performed, to be particularly described in and by the following statement The present trend of development in photographic technique is directed towards eliminating all mental effort in preparing a photographic camera for makingr an exposure To this end the setting of the relative values resulting from the particular conditions of exposure, such as the exposure time or shutter speed, the lens stop aperture, and the range or distance, is interconnected or coupled, either automatically or by a simple follow up action of automatic indicating devices. In the case of exposures by flashlight related settings of distance and lens stop values are obtained with respect to the characteristic of the flashlight constants by employment of the so-called "flashlight factor" or "guide member", which is arithmetically represented by the product of stop aperture and distance The setting of a camera possessing the various, generally-used, scales thus still requires a mental effort. The present invention provides a photographic camera having an arrangement for indicating the flashlight factor or guide number
  8. 8. according to the position of the stop setting element and the focussing element, characterised in that a scale member and a member carrying a pointer form a reading device and in that one of said members is directly actuated by the stop setting element while the other is actuated by the focussing element through the intermediary of a motion conversion lPrice 3/63 mechanism such that on rotation of the focussing element the stop setting element is turned through an angle which is directly proportional to the distance indicated by the focussing element 50 By way of example one embodiment of the invention is illustrated on the accompanying drawings. Fig 1 is a plan view of the camera. Fig 2 an exploded view showing the 55 principle of the motion conversion mechanism. Figs 3 to 7 show various details of the camera on a larger scale. The photographic camera 10, 11 (Fig 1) 60 is of the kind described in the specification of our application 1398/56 (Serial No. 786,184) The camera is equipped with a focussing ring 16 as well as a stop setting ring 48; it is further provided with a 65 graduated scale 122 and an indexing mark or reference mark 120 for the flashlight factor which is coupled in a manner presently to be explained with the focussing ring 16 and the stop setting ring 48 70 The graduated scales as represented in Fig 1 show that the distance scale 148 is hyperbolically divided On the stop setting scale 140, on the contrary, equal angular divisions correspond to equal 75 variation factors of the aperture (i e, light intensity) values In order to bring the distance and the lens aperture into proper relationship with reference to an indicated flashlight factor, the invention provides 80 for the interposition between the distance setting element 16 and the corresponding indicating elements 118, 120, of a motion conversion mechanism such as shown diagrammatically in Fig 2 85 The front plate 10 of the camera (Fig. 3) carries a flange or collar 12 having a screw threaded portion 14 This threaded portion receives the screw threaded focussing ring 16 This focussing ring 16 90 7869185 No 3451/56. 786,185 receives internally a rotatable lens tube 18, to which two rings 20, 22 are attached by a number of screws 24 The inner flange 26 of the focussing ring 16 fits in an annular space 28 between the lens tube 18 and the ring 20 Further, the camera front plate 10 carries a driving lug 30 engaging in an axial slot 32 of the lens tube 18 Bv virtue of this arrangement. when the threaded focussing ring 16 is screwed in or out, the lens tube 18 with the rings 20, 22 is moved forwards or backwards in the direction of the optical axis. The ring 22 carries the shutter housing 34 which is of the usual
  9. 9. cylindrical form and is attached to said ring by means of a union nut 36 threaded on to the rear lens mounting tube 38 of the shutter housing The shutter housing contains the shutter mechanism of any known kind and manner of action, actuating and controlling the shutter blades (not shown) The shutter actuating means, i e, the setting and/or releasing elements, may in such case be given the form of axially-parallel, telescoping spindles leading out to the rear and coupled with driving means on the camera The lens system comprising the components 39 a and 39 b is mounted inside the shutter housing in any known manner. The shutter housing 34 accommodates a lens stop arrangement similarly of known kind and manner of action This is actuated or controlled by means of a lens stop ring 40 rotatably fitted on the rear end of the shutter housing The front end of the shutter housing carries a rotatable time or shutter speed setting ring 42 The rim of this timne-setting ring 42 is attached to a short tube 44, the inner end of which is provided with a number of coupling notches 46. The stop setting ring 48 is rotatably mounted between the short tube or collar 44 and the raised rim of the ring 20 This stop setting ring is held axially in position by two split locking rings 50, 552 and carries a coupling claw 54 which is axially movable with reference to the stop setting ring This axial displacement is enabled by two guide pins 56, 58 on the coupling claw 54 that works in axial slots 60, 62 of the stop setting ring The guide pin 56 is equipped with an actuating knob or button 64 for manually shifting the coupling claw 54. A selector mechanism (Fig 6 and 7) is provided for controlling the shifting of the coupling Claw 54 This mechanism comprises a selector slide 66 carried by guide pins 68, 70 in guide slots 72, 74 on the inside of the stop setting rin 48 and movable circumferentially thereon An actuating button or knob 76 on the guide pin 70 enables manual operation of the selector slide 66 This selector slide is bent up in the middle in order to be able to pass over the coupling claw a 54 Between 70 the selector slide 66 and the stop setting ring 48 there is a control spring 78, 82 pivoted on a pin 80 on the ring 48 The end 82 of this spring enters a recess 54 in the coupling claw 54 A guide pin 5675 on the control spring 78, 82 slides in a skew notch or camway 88 of the selector slide 66 When the slide 66 is moved circumferentially the cainway 88 causes the spring 78, 82 to turn on its pivot 580 and move the coupling claw 54 forwards or backwards in the direction of the optical axis of the camera. The lens stop ring 40 has on the side of its periphery opposite to the coupling claw 85 54 an arm 90 (Fig 5) which engages in a follower slot 92 of the stop setting ring 48.
  10. 10. By this means the lens stop ring 40 is coupled with the stop setting ring 45, with which it can rotate 90 A follower ring 94 is also provided: it is coaxial with the ringes 40, 42 and 45 and rotatable about the optical axis within the fixed ring 20 This follower ring 94 is actuated by the rotation of the focussing 95 ring 16 specifically in accordance with the invention through the intermediary of the before mentioned motion conversion mechanism which ensures that on rotation of the focussing ring 16, the follower ring i 00 94 and consequently also the stop setting ring 40 coupled therewith turn through an angle which is directly proportional to the distance indicated on the focussilng scale 105 In accordance with Fig 2 the motion conversion mechanism comprises a drive pin 96 fixed in the movable setting focussing ring 16 and forming at its other end a pivot 100 for a motion conversion 11 element 102 having the form of a rocking lever 102 A curved slot 9 S in the fixed ring 20 allows free passage for the pin 96. to move in conjunction with the focussing ring 16 The rockino lever 102115 carries a follower pin 104 which enters a radial slot 106 in the follower ring 94, and a setting pin 108 which works in conjiunction with a camway or cam slot 110 in the fixed ring 20 120 The follower ring 94 has a radial, bent arm 112 (Figs 2 and 5) which projects through a slot in the ring 20 into a slot in an indexing ring 118 which is rotatably fitted over the circumference of 125 the ring 20 This indexing ring ll B carries an indexing mark 120 working over an indexing scale 122 on the periphery of the stop setting ring 48 This scale 122 bears a series of flashlight factor numbers The 130 786,185 general term "factor number" or "guide number" is intended to represent a numerical value l)earing a particular relationship between the influencing factors of a flashlight exposure such as flashlight lamp current intensity, film emulsion sensitivity, reflector amplification factor, etc In the case of flashlight exposures it suffices to resolve the relationship indicated by this "factor number" into the two component factors of "distance" and "stop aperture", or to consider them otherwise In the camera, consequently, the factor number is the product of distance and stop setting (Factor number L = distance E x stop aperture f). The motion conversion mechanism of the invention thus ensures that when the focussing ring 16 is rotated through a particular angle, the motion conversion element 102, is likewise caused to follow through the same angle but is also given a supplementary swinging or rocking motion by the action of the camway 110. These two superposed motions thus produce a resultant motion of the ring 94 driven by the follower pin 104, the angular value of which is different from the angular value of the motion of the focussing ring
  11. 11. 16 The camway 110 must in this regard be so dimensioned and shaped that it converts the motion of the focussing ring 16 into a motion of the indexing part 118, 120 corresponding to the motion of the stop setting ring 48 By this means the stop setting ring 48 and the indexing part 118, 120 are made to move in unison, as is requisite in order that, starting from the factor number indication on the scale 12 '2 and the index mark 120, the individually corresponding pairs of stop and distance values may be ascertained and coupled. The circumference of the follower ring 94 has a number of coupling notches 124 having the same pitch circle as the coupling notches 46 on the short tube or collar 44 of the time setting ring 42 The coupling claw 54 has at both its ends coupling teeth 126 and 128 which respectively engage the coupling notches 46 and 124 of the tube 44 and the ring 94, according to the position occupied by said coupling claw 54. The coupling claw 54 can be moved out of its instantaneous setting position by actuating its button 64 by which it is released, and the stop setting ring 48 can so then be freely rotated Stops 130, 132 on the selector slide 66 engaging recesses 134, 136 on the long sides of the coupling claw 54 limit the setting range thereof in such a manner that when the linkage with the one coupling member is interrupted, it cannot yet be effected with the other coupling member For instance, according to Fig 6, the coupling between the ring 94 and the coupling claw 54 has been released, but owing to the action of the 70 stops 130, 134 the coupling between the claw 54 and the tube 44 cannot yet be engaged. The arrangement of the graduated scales can best be seen in Fig 1 The 75 fixed, non-rotatable ring 20 carries a principal index mark 138 working over the linearly divided stop aperture scale 140 on the periphery of the stop setting ring 48 and a time or shutter speed scale 142 on 80 the periphery of the short tube or collar 44 The coupling position of the coupling ring 94 relatively to the time setting ring 42 and the stop setting ring 48 is adjustable by means of a scale 144 bearing sum 85 mary exposure values on the short tube or collar 44 and an index mark 146 on the ring 48 The coupling position of the focussing ring 16 can be set by the already mentioned, linearly divided scale of flash-90 light factors 122 and the index mark 120. The setting of the distance is effected on a, e g, hyperbolically divided range scale 148 on the peripherv of the focussing ring 16 which likewise works in conjunction 95 with the principal index mark 138 The actuating button 76 of the selector slide 66 is associated with two symbols, the flashlight symbol 150 and the sunlight symbol 152 In the first ease, the selector gear is 100 set for flashlight exposure; in the second ease, the mechanism is set for daylight
  12. 12. exposure. The arrangements on the camera thus described are operated in the following 105 manner:If it is intended to make a flashlight exposure, the actuating knob 76 of the slider 66 is first set to the position marked by the flashlight symbol 150 The selector 110 elements 66 to 82 thereupon engage the coupling claw 54 with the follower ring 94. The required or selected flashlight factor number can now be set This is done by manually actuating the setting knob 64 to 115 interrupt the engagement of the coupling claw 54 with the follower ring 94 temporarily against the action of the spring 78, 82 and then rotating the stop setting ring 48 with the scale 122 that it bears 120 until the index mark 120 on the ring 118 registers with the desired flashlight factor number of that scale; in the case illustrated, the number " 28 " Upon releasing the knob 64 the spring 78, 82 again couples 125 the claw 54 with the follower ring 94. In this coupling position, determined by the flashlight factor number " 28 " of the stop setting ring 48 relatively to the focussing ring 16, it is now sufficient 130 786,185 merely to set focussinrg ring to the required distance e g, 5 metres, whereupon the coupled stop setting device becomes automaticallv set to the corresponding stop aperture, e g, the stop aperture 5 6 (Flashlight factor number 28 = distance 3 x stop 56 If, with the same factor number of 28 the distance is changed e g, to 2 metres, the focussing ring 16 is correspondingly moved and the ring 48 coupled with it is so dependently adjusted that a stop aperture of 14 is obtained Factor number 28 = distance 2 x stop 14 l This linked setting of the distance and stop value controlling elements is obtained by means of the motion conversi Ol mechanism already described, which ensures that on rotation of the focussing ring 16, the follower ring 94 turns through an angle which is directly proportional to the distance indicated on the focussing seale 148. It is of course possible, conversely, first to select a particular stop value, aecording to which the corresponding distance or range is then automatically set. The operator, after setting the distance and the stop value now only has to select a suitable exposure time or shutter speed, e _, 1/15 sec, by rotating the time setting ring 42; whereby the setting of the exposure factors is completed and the exposure itself can be made in the usual war. If, on the other hand, it is desired to make an exposure by daylight, the operator must turn the actuating button 76 to the sunlight symbol 152 The coupling between the stop setting ring 48 and the -focussing ring 16 is completely broken and instead the stop setting ring 48 is coupled wv.-ith the time setting ring 42 In this case, the scale 144
  13. 13. of exposure values will selectivelv determine the relative couplink position between the ring 48 and the short tube or collar 44, pairs of time or shutter speed and stop values then result, one of which is preset by rotating the time setting ring 42 past the principal indexing mark 138 Distance setting by means of the focussing ring 16 is now performed independently of the stop setting. To conclude, it should be mentioned that the use of the arrangement according to the invention is not restricted to the particular embodiment described and shown It is also possible, for instance, by omittin a coupling between the flashlight factor number indicating elements and the stop settingf to obtain a simple follow u Lp action of the stop setting element with reference to the distance setting element according to the particular flashlight factor number used Further, the simple and advantageous factor number indicatin device described and shown can obviously be used in a similar manner for cameras of other forms of construction; it can also be fitted to any other part of the camera 7 ( * Sitemap * Accessibility * Legal notice * Terms of use * Last updated: 08.04.2015 * Worldwide Database * 5.8.23.4; 93p * GB786186 (A) Description: GB786186 (A) ? 1957-11-13 Overvoltage protection device Description of GB786186 (A) A high quality text as facsimile in your desired language may be available amongst the following family members: FR1111572 (A) US2862152 (A) FR69918 (E) US2878428 (A) FR1111572 (A) US2862152 (A) FR69918 (E) US2878428 (A) less Translate this text into Tooltip
  14. 14. [85][(1)__Select language] Translate this text into The EPO does not accept any responsibility for the accuracy of data and information originating from other authorities than the EPO; in particular, the EPO does not guarantee that they are complete, up-to-date or fit for specific purposes. PATENT SPECIFICATION Date of Application and filing Complete Specification: March 20, 1956. 786,186 No 8620156. I pplication made in Sweden on March 23, 1955. Complete Specification Published: Nov 13, 1957. Index at acceptanoe:-Class 38 ( 4), A 5 B. International Classification:-HO 2 j. COMPLETE SPECIFICATION Overvoltage Protection Device We, ALLMANNA SVENSKA ELEKTRISKA AKTIEBOLAGET, a Swedish Company, of Vasteras, Sweden, do hereby declare the invention, for which we pray that a patent may be granted to us, and the method by which it is to be performed, to be particularly described in and by the following statement:- In the Specification of our co-pending Application No 22881/54 (Serial No 751,443) there is described an overvoltage protection device designed for the protection of electrical equipment against high power frequency currents of the kind comprising a plurality of series spark gaps, forming a main diverter across said equipment, and a plurality of impedance elements in series connection arranged to form a voltage divider across said main diverter. According to the said Specification a precision spark-over gap in series with a valve type resistor is connected in parallel with at least one of said impedance elements. The present invention relates to an improved overvoltage protection device of the kind referred to. According to the invention an overvoltage protection device of the kind referred to comprises a precision spark-over gap connected in an impedance network which is connected to the main diverter, the impedance network being of such a nature that upon break-down of the precision sparkover gap the voltage at one point of connection of the impedance network to the main diverter increases with respect to the voltage at another point of connection of the impedance network to the main diverter In such a device the voltage division across the series-connected gaps is changed when the precision spark-gap breaks down and initiates the proceeding break-down of the series-connected
  15. 15. gaps. One form of overvoltage protection device will now be described with reference to the lPrice accompanying drawing. In the drawing, the equipment to be protected by the overvoltage protection is denoted by 1 This equipment is connected to the electrical power by means of con 50 nectors 2 and 3 The equipment 1 is protected by the main diverter 4 arranged' in parallel, which consists of the series-connected spark gaps 4:a, 4:b, 4:c and 4:d. In parallel with this main diverter there is 55 connected a voltage divider 5 consisting of elements 5:a, 5:b, 5:c and 5:d of mainly the same size A precision spark-over gap or auxiliary gap 6 is connected in an impedance network consisting of two branches 60 One of these consists of an impedance 15 and a capacitance 17, the other of an impedance 16 and a capacitance 18 This impedance network is connected to the point X in the voltage divider 5 via an impedance 1965 and is directly connected to a point C in the main diverter 4 The impedances 15 and 16 are, with advantage, designed as lowohmic resistances The impedance 19, as a rule, is designed as a resistance or an induct 70 ance of a low value. In order to understand the operation of the device illustrated it will be assumed that the entire main diverter with its four seriesconnected spark gaps has to limit the volt 75 age across the equipment 1 to a value of units It will also be assumed that each of the series-connected gaps has a breakdown voltage off 30-40 units When the total voltage across the equipment 1 is 100 units, 50 a voltage of only 25 units would exist across each series-connected gap if there was no impedance network with the auxiliary gap 6, and thus none of the gaps would breakdown The auxiliary gap 6 is assumed to 85 have a break-down voltage of 50 units If now a total voltage of 100 units arises across the equipment 1, half of this value, i e, 50 units, is applied between the terminals H and X of the voltage divider The capaci 90 786,186 tances 17 and 18 are charged with this voltage At the points to which the auxiliary gap 6 is connected, the capacitance 17 has a potential equal to the potential of the point H, while the capacitance 18 has a potential of 50 units On account of this potential difference the auxiliary gap 6 breaks-down, connecting the capacitances 18 and 17 in series As a result the impedance network injects a voltage at the point C of the main diverter, which voltage has a value of 100 units in relation to the point A If the voltage divider 5 is considered to predominate over the impedance network, the following voltage distribution is now obtained across the series-connected spark-gaps: 25 units across the gap 4: a, 75 units across the gap 4: b, minus 25 units across the gap 4: c and plus 25 units across the gap 4: d On account of the high voltage, the spark
  16. 16. gap 4: b then breaks-down definitely A new voltage distribution now sets in Presuming again that the voltage divider predominates, there are still 25 units across the spark gap 4: a and across the spark gap 4: d while 50 units are obtained across the spark gap 4: c The last mentioned gap now breaks-down and in the following period 50 units are obtained across each of the spark gaps 4: a and 4: d. s O Therefore these gaps also break-down definitely The entire main diverter is now conducting and the over-current is unloaded from the equipment 1 The conditions will be still more favourable if it is presumed that the voltage distribution after the first ignition is determined by the voltage divider and the impedance network in combination In this case the series voltages across the series-connected gaps will be higher and these will break-down still more definitely. In the above described device the voltage divider 5 may be composed of different kinds of impedance elements, preferably resistances and capacitances The invention is not restricted to the illustrated method of connecting the impedance network Thus the impedance network may be connected to other points than C and X The connection of the impedance network to the main diverter may also be made via an additional auxiliary spark gap Furthermore the impedance network may have more than two branches In this way more than two capacitances can be connected in series upon the ignition of more than one auxiliary gap and the voltage at the injection point will then be further increased Furthermore the voltage divider 5 may be divided up into several chains connected in parallel as described in the Specification of our co-pending Application No 8619/56 (Serial No. 785,187) of even date. The overvoltage protection device described above may be further improved by connecting the voltage divider to the series-65 connected spark gaps of the main diverter through coupling impedances, instead of directly The advantage of this is that the voltage dividers will be coupled weakly with the main gap circuit so that their voltage 70 distribution will not be too heavily influenced by the proceeding break-down process in the main diverter The coupling impedances, preferably consisting of resistances and/or capacitances, are connected between 75 the voltage divider and the connecting terminals of the series-connected spark gaps. * Sitemap * Accessibility * Legal notice * Terms of use
  17. 17. * Last updated: 08.04.2015 * Worldwide Database * 5.8.23.4; 93p * GB786187 (A) Description: GB786187 (A) ? 1957-11-13 Improvements in or relating to weighing mechanism Description of GB786187 (A) COMPLETE SPECIFICATION. improvements in or relating to Weighing Mechanism. We, MOLINS MACHINE COMPANY LIMITED, a British Company, of 2 Evelyn Street, Deptford, London, S.E.8, do hereby declare the invention, for which we pray that a patent may be granted to us, and the method by which it is to be performed, to be particularly described in and by the following statement : The invention concerns improvements in or relating to wire tensioning devices, for example for tensioning a wire on which is pivoted a weighbeam in weighing mechanism, and relates to an improvement in or modification of the mechanism disclosed in British Patent Specification No. 745,419. The latter Specification discloses a device for adjustably tensioning a wire (e.g. a wire for pivoting a weighbeam) comprising a pair of support members spaced a fixed distance apart about which the wire is passed, and a differential pulley to which the ends of the wire are attached so as to permit fine adjustment of the tension in the wire on rotation of the pulley. The present invention provides a device for enabling the tension in the wire to be adjusted to a desired standard. According to the present invention there is provided a device for facilitating adjustment of the tension in a wire looped about a pair of pulleys mounted on a support, said wire being connected to an adjusting pulley whereby its tension can be adjusted, one of the pulleys being movable away from the other against the tension of the wire, said device comprising pressure-means adapted to engage the support and said one pulley so as to urge the latter in a direction
  18. 18. away from the other pulley, the said pressuremeans exerting a desired pressure on the pulley in relation to the required tension in the wire, so that the tension in the wire can be adjusted by means of the adjusting pulley so as to balance the pressure of the said pressure-means. A device in accordance with the invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawing, in which: Figure 1 Is a plerspective view of the device; and Figure 2 shows a set of gauges used with the device. Figure 1 shows a mounting for a wire 2 on which a beam (such as a weighbeam) is mounted. The wire is looped about pulleys 3 and its opposite ends are secured to a differential pulley 27 which can be rotated for adjusting the tension in the wire. The differential pulley 27 is fixed on a tubular support 4, and the trunnions 103 of the pulleys 3 are support in grooves in the ends of the support 4 as shown in Figure 1. This arrangement as so far described is the same as that disclosed in the Specifications and drawings of British Patent Specification : ! ! No. 745,419. The present invention provides a device for enabling the tension in the wire to be adjusted to a desired standard. The device, illustrated in Figure 1, comprises a member 115 provided at opposite ends with abutments 116 and 117 between which a pressure element can be accommodated. The abutment 116 is forked, the forks being notched on their inner surfaces so as to be capable of being hooked on to the ends of the trunnions 103 of one of the pulleys 3, as shown in Figure 1, the trunnions being extended for the purpose. The pressure element comprises a compression spring 118 arranged to be located between the two abutments 116 and 117. At one end of the spring is a pressure block 119 arranged to bear against the abutment 117. Another block 120 is adapted to be caused to press against the end of the tubular support 4, and is provided with a locating register 121 capable of entering the forks in the end of the support 4. When the device is thus brought into engagement with the trunnions of the pulley 3, and with the end of the support 4, as just described and as illustrated in Figure 1, the effect of the compression spring 118 is to tend to urge the pulley 3 lengthwise of the support 4 in a direction such as to urge the trunnions 103 out of their seating in the forks in the end of the support 4, since the forked abutment 116 hooked over the trunnions is spring-urged in one direction while the support 4 is springurged in the opposite direction. The tension in the wire 2, of course, opposes this movement. The compression spring 118 is preadjusted so as to exert a desired force which is determined in relation to the degree of tension which
  19. 19. it is desired that the wire 2 should have. When the device is in place, the differential pulley 27 is first turned so as to adjust the tension in the wire, against the pressure of the spring 118, until the trunnions 103 bear on their forked seatings in the support 4. The resulting tension in the wire will then probably be in excess of that required. To determine the correct setting feeler gauges 122 (Figure 2) of suitable thickness are provided, the appropriate combination of the leaves of which can be selected to equal the distance between the trunnions 103 when they are in their seatings as mentioned above, and the locating register 121 of the pressure block 120 which presses on the support 4. By turning the differential pulley 27 slightly so as to slacken off the wire 2, the distance between the trunnions and the locating register of the pressure block 120 can be reduced until the previously selected combination of feeler leaves will not enter the gap between the trunnions 103 and the locating register 121. If now the pulley 27 is carefully turned so as to tighten the wire until the selected combination of feeler leaves will just enter the gap just mentioned this will be the point at which the trunnions are just contacting their seatings and the tension of the wire just balances the force of the compression spring 118. The tension of the wire 2 will now be at the desired standard and the screw on which the differential pulley 27 rotates is tightened to clamp the pulley. The device for setting the desired tension may now be removed. What we claim is : - 1. A device for facilitating adjustment of the tension in a wire looped about a pair of pulleys mounted on a support, said wire being connected to an adjusting pulley whereby its tension can be adjusted, one of the pulleys being movable away from the other against the tension of the wire, said device comprising pressure-means adapted to engage the support and said one pulley so as to urge the latter in a direction away from the other pulley, the said pressure-means exerting a desired pressure on the pulley in relation to the required tension in the wire, so that the tension in the wire can be adjusted by means of the adjusting pulley so as to balance the pressure of the said pressuremeans. * Sitemap * Accessibility * Legal notice * Terms of use * Last updated: 08.04.2015 * Worldwide Database * 5.8.23.4; 93p
  20. 20. * GB786188 (A) Description: GB786188 (A) ? 1957-11-13 Improvements in and relating to the manufacture of filled, sealed containers of flexible material Description of GB786188 (A) COMPLETE SPECIFICATION. Improvements in and relating to the Manufacture of Filled, Sealed Containers of Flexible Material. We, JOHN TYE & SON LIMITED, a British Company, of 4571461 Caledonian Road, London N.7, do- herebv declare the invention, for wliich we pray that a patent may be granted to us, and the method by which it is to be performed, to be particularly described in and by the following statement: This invention relates to the production of filled sealed containers of thermoplastic material. In Specification No. 599,174, there is disclosed a method of making such containers which consists essentially in filling a thermoplastic tube and sealing it at intervals along its length by bringing its walls together and thus causing the contents of the tube to be displaced and applying heat to the walls so as to cause them to weld. A string of filled containers is thus produced from which sealed single containers can be obtained by cutting through the transverse welds. The Specification also discloses the manufacture of the tubing from strips of material welded together along their edges. In that case, the tube has a pair of longitudinal fins and the finally produced containers are finned along all four sides. The present invention is concerned smith the production of containers by the method set out above starting from longitudinally finned tubing made either from two strips of sheet material welded together or by extrusion. According to the invention, at least one of the longitudinal fins is made of sufficient width to enable it to be provided with holes for engagement by pills, sprocket teeth or the like serving to locate the
  21. 21. tube in a working position and is scored or other'rise weakened along a longitudinal line so that -the holes are in a strip which can ultimately be stripped from the tube while leaving tile tube +ith a longitudinal fin of a width adequate to ensure secure sealing. The provision of locating holes in a longitudinal fin is of very substantial practical importance. If containers of the same size are to be consistently produced, the filled tube must be accurately positioned relatively to the welding tools by means of which the transverse welds are formed. If the longitudinal fin is punched with uniformly spaced locating holes, the tube can be accumately located in the welding position rith the utmost ease. It is generally required that the containers in question bear an indication of their contents or advertising or other matter which can be printed on their external surface. When the tube is filled, it no longer has a fiat surface to which such matter can be applied. The locating holes, however, enable the tube to be printed before it is filled, i.e. while it is still fiat, while ensuring that the printed matter will be accurately positioned relatively to the transverse wdds to be made after the tube has been filled. Preferably, both the longitudinal fins are provided with locating holes in a strip which can ultimately be detached, this having the advantage that the tube can be held more positively in a working position. The invention will now be further explained by reference to the accompanying drawings in which Figure 1 shows a short length of tubing in accordance with the invention having t'vo parallel channels enabling two strings of sealed containers to be produced simultaneously; and Figure 2 shows a string of sealed containers produced from the tubing of Figure 1. The tubing 10 shown in Figure 1 can be considered to have been made by extrusion. It has two channels 10a and 10b. Along its edges, the tubing has fins lla and the two channels are connected together by a strip 11b. Each of the fins 11a has a line of weakening 16 running parallel to the axis of the tubing and the strip llb has two similar lines of
  22. 22. weakening 16. These lines are situated so that when the outer portions 20 of the fins 11a and the centre portion 21 of the strip 11b are removed by tearing or cutting along the lines 16, the channels 10a and 10b ill each be bounded by fins 12 which are of sufficient width to ensure that they are securely sealed along their sides. In the portions 20 and 21 there are formed holes 23 at regular intervals for a purpose which will be explained. When the tubing is made, be it by welding two strips together or by extrusion, the channels 10a, 10b will not be as shown in the drawing. The tubing will be flat throughout its width and length. If made by extrusion, it can be produced in substantial lengths in roll form. To convert the tubing into a string of filled containers, or, in the case under consideration into two laterally joined strings of containers, the channels 10a and 10b are filled and the tubing is welded transversely at appropriate intervals along its length, the channels then assuming a cross-section somewhat like that shown in Figure 1. If the containers are to bear printed matter on their external surface which is to be in register with the containers themselves, the procedure can be as follows: At the printing station, one, two or three pairs of locating pins can be arranged, the pins in each pair being spaced at the pitch of the holes 23 and the pairs being spaced in accordance with the spacing of the three rows of holes 23. The tubing, in the flat, unfilled condition, is located at the printing station by causing the pins to be engaged in the holes 23. A printing having been effected. the tubing is displaced longitudinally so that a further pair or pairs of holes are engaged bv the pins and a further printing effected. The whole length of tubing can thus be printed at accurately regular intervals. The tubing is then filled with the material which is to form the contents of the containers and is taken to the welding station. Here, there are locating pins similar to those at the printing station and by engagement of these pins in successive pairs of holes 23 in the tubing, it can be ensured that the welds are effected at the same accurately regular intervals as the printings. The pitch of the holes 23 and the spacing of the locating pins at the printing and welding stations will, of course, be determined in accordance with the size of container which is to be produced. It then remains only to strip off the portions 20 of the fins of the tubing and the central portion 21. That can be effected by manual tearing or by cutting with scissors or by means of a stationary or rotary blade according to convenience. Figure 2 shows a string of filled containers from which the strips 14
  23. 23. and 21 are being removed. To produce the finally desired single containers, the transverse welds 25 are cut along the lines 26. It nill be clear without further explanation, that the single string of containers shou'n in Figure 2 can be produced from a length of tubing equivalent to that produced by removing the channel 10b from the tubing 10 shown in Figure 1. The welding is preferably effected by high frequency dielectric heating and the invention extends to tubes of thermoplastic materials such as polyvinyl chloride which can be welded bv that method. The tubing can, if desired, be passed through one or more working stations mechanically, its fins being then provided with holes in which driving members can be engaged. For example, the holes 23 could be formed lilie the sprocket holes in a einemato. graphic film and the tubing be intermittcntlg driven by appropriate sprockets. What we claim is: 1. A tube of thermoplastic material adapted, after being filled, to be converted into a string of filled containers by being transversely welded at intervals along its length, the tube having a pair of longitudinal fins lying in the same plane of which at least one is scored or otherwise weakened along a longitudinal line situated so that on the side of the line remote from the tube there is left a strip of a width great enough to enable it to be provided with holes for engagement by pins, sprocket teeth or the like serving to locate the tube in a working position and on the other side of the line a strip of a width adequate to ensure sealing of the tube when the outer part of the fin is stripped off. 2. A tube of thermoplastic material according to Claim 1 in which the tube has a single channel bounded by two longitudinal fins each adapted to be provided with locating holes in a separable part. 3. A tube of thermoplastic material according to Claim 1 in which the tube has two channels side by side for the simultaneous production of two strings of scaled containers. 4. A tube of thermoplastic material according to Claim 3 in which the tube is bounded by fins as defined in Claim 1 and

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