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  1. 1. * GB785824 (A) Description: GB785824 (A) ? 1957-11-06 Process and device for coating ingot and other moulds Description of GB785824 (A) A high quality text as facsimile in your desired language may be available amongst the following family members: BE532025 (A) FR1092373 (A) LU33123 (A) BE547876 (A) FR66139 (E) FR68481 (E) LU34373 (A) BE532025 (A) FR1092373 (A) LU33123 (A) BE547876 (A) FR66139 (E) FR68481 (E) LU34373 (A) less Translate this text into Tooltip [91][(1)__Select language] Translate this text into The EPO does not accept any responsibility for the accuracy of data and information originating from other authorities than the EPO; in particular, the EPO does not guarantee that they are complete, up-to-date or fit for specific purposes. PATENT SPECIFICATION 7859824 Date of Application and Filing Complete Specification: October 5, 1954. No 28617/54. Application made in France on October 6, 1953. Application made in France on September 6, 1954. Complete Specification Published: November 6, 1957. Index at acceptance:-Class 83 ( 1), F( 1 D: 6 BX: 11 P: u S: 13 A 3). International Classification: B 22 c, d. COMPLETE SPECIFICATION Process and Device for Coating Ingot and Other Moulds. I, Henri Jean DAUSSAN, a citizen of the French Republic, of 9, Rue de Verdun, Metz (Moselle), France, do hereby declare the invention, for which I pray that a patent may be granted to me, and the method by
  2. 2. which it is to be performed, to be particularly described in and by the following statement: The present invention relates to coating ingot and other moulds in which the molten metal is introduced by a vertical pouring jet which may come from above the mould in the case of top casting or from below in the case of bottom casting. It is known that in casting ferrous products in ingot and other similar moulds it is essential to coat the walls of the ingot mould with a more or less thick coating of suitable substances so as to protect the mould against the destructive effects of the cast metal and to prevent defects in the surface of the ingot, this being accomplished in particular by the physico-chemical action of the coating or covering on the molten metal during the casting operation. This coating is in general applied with the aid of brushes, paint brushes or more or less complicated air guns The application of the coating with brushes or paint brushes is troublesome, costly, and uncertain With regard to spraying apparatus, they are generally awkward to use Furthermore, it is not always possible to apply the coatings at the most suitable moment and harmful causes, cooling of the walls and handling of the moulds, may affect the coating before the metal is poured. There is known a method of casting pipes centrifugally which consists in first building up from the entire cylindrical surface of a pipe mould a coating of finely divided dry coating material by progressively directing a jet of a carrier gas charged with finely divided dry particles of coating material against successive areas of the cylindrical (Price 3 s 6 d) portion of the mould until the surface thereof is coated from end to end. Devices are already known which are placed on the bottom of a mould to reduce the amount of splash patches on the face 50 of the ingot by breaking or softening the fall of the teeming metal before it reaches the solid base of the mould and by taking up the swirl of the teeming metal before it reaches the sides of the mould For this 55 purpose use is made of materials either in solid or agglomerated form or in a separated state, in the form for instance of sawdust or straw, i e of rather bulky particles or elements 60 The invention has for object to provide an improved process for partially or totally applying a coating on the inner wall of an ingot mould This process, which does not possess the aforementioned disadvantages, 65 comprises placing on the bottom of the mould a charge of material which is either pasty or liquid in the form of finely divided particles or is capable of being separated in fine particles or globules, and dispersing this mat 70 erial into the atmosphere of the mould in the form of a cloud of said particles or globules, under the action of the pouring jet directed onto this material and the hot gases accompanying said jet This cloud
  3. 3. pro 75 duced by the pouring jet thereafter becomes deposited and spread partially or entirely over the walls of this mould before or during the casting operation, this deposit occupying the whole or part of the height of 80 the mould. A further object of the invention is to provide, as a new article of manufacture, a device for carrying out the aforementioned process, this device being characterized in 85 that it comprises a receptacle, at least the peripheral portion of which is made of a material of such nature that it can be destroyed more or less progressively by the cast molten metal, and, disposed in said peri 90 4-ne G fs M' r,-"; 25 p 785,824 pheral portion, a charge of one or several substances the states of which are such that under the action of the pouring jet directed onto this charge they are capable of being dispersed in the atmosphere of the mould in the form of fine particles or globules having a diameter of the order of 0 05 to 0 50 mm. A further object of the invention is to provide an ingot or other moulds of which all or a part of the inner surface is covered, by means of the aforementioned process, with a coating formed by a deposit of very fine particles or pasty or liquid globules. It is clear that the process according to the invention avoids the disadvantages of conventional methods and in particular those mentioned above. The coating according to the invention being formed under the action of the pour2 G ing jet itself, this coating is obtained at the most favourable moment, i e at the moment when no phenomenon subsequent to application of the coating is likely to harm the coating formed on the wall of the ingot mould. Other features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the ensuing description with reference to the accompanying drawings given merely by way of example and in which:Fig 1 is a diagrammatical vertical axial sectional view of an ingot mould arranged for bottom casting and provided with a device or charge according to the invention, this charge being shown in the course of dispersion; Fig 2 is a similar sectional view of the lower part of an ingot mould provided with a variant of the device or charge; Fig 3 is a vertical sectional view of the charge, to a scale larger than that of Fig. 2; Fig 4 is a corresponding plan view thereof; Fig 5 is a perspective view of a second variant of the device; Fig 6 is a plan view thereof; Fig 7 is a vertical sectional view of another variant of the charge according to the invention, which is placed at the bottom of an ingot mould shown arranged for top casting, Fig 8 is a partial vertical sectional view, to a larger scale of another device according to the invention; Fig 9 is a partial plan view thereof, and Fig 10 is a vertical sectional view of an ingot mould the bottom of which is
  4. 4. arranged to receive several superimposed devices according to the invention. According to the embodiment shown in Fig 1, the ingot mould 1 rests on a bottomcasting plate la The device according to the invention comprises a cup 2 The latter has in its bottom a portion whose combustibility or fusibility is such that the pouring jet 3, that is the molten metal entering through the passageway 4, perforates it without raising the cup 2 The latter contains a powder or pasty charge 5 70 The pouring jet 3 blows on a part of the charge 5, when it passes through or when it falls back onto the latter, so that the pouring jet and the hot gases which always accompany said jet even with deadmelted 75 steels are sufficient to project the powders or globules upwardly, the finest particles or globules of the composition being the first to rise These very small particles or globules are spread over the walls of the mould 80 1 at 6. Apart fromn the part of the bottom which is combustible or fusible, the rest of the cup 2 is of a material which is capable of burning or melting more or less rapidly so that 85 the part of the charge which is not yet blown or blasted away spreads out over the top of the bath of molten metal and the gaseous current due to the pouring jet continues to blow on this part so that event 90 ually the charge 5 progressively spreads over the entire height of the wall of the mould. Preferably and as illustrated, the lateral walls of the cup 2 are upwardly flared so that the projection of the dust particles is 95 suitably oriented as soon as this projection commences It will be observed that its bottom may be rounded in accordance with the dot-dash lines 2 a so as to have a greater quantity of powder directly under the pour 100 ing jet. In the case of top casting, i e when the pouring jet is poured from above the mould, an exactly similar device may be used However, the dispersion of the dust particles by 105 the jet is effected during the entire mould filling operation and at an intensity which is substantially constant and much greater than that pertaining to the bottom casting jet, in which the effectiveness of the jet dim 110 inishes as the level of the bath of molten metal rises in the mould. In the first variant shown in Figs 2 to 4, which relates to an ingot mould 1 similar to that shown in Fig 1, i e arranged for 115 bottom casting, the cup 2 shown in Fig 1 is replaced by an envelope or container 13 in which the charge 5 has been previously introduced This container may be of paper. It comprises (Figs 3 and 4) a paper band 120 13 which is folded along a b, c, d, e, (Fig. 3) The two edges aa and ee (Fig 4) are separated by a distance ae of several millimeters These two edges are connected by a band 14 which
  5. 5. is preferably of a material 125 which is very combustible andlor which becomes unstuck at low temperature, for example less than 100 C It may be of a kind similar to the sticky cellulose bands found on the market, which are highly in 130 rhese bands 20 and 21 are arranged in the manner of a cross (Fig 6). Preferably, as in the case of the envelope shown in the figures 2 to 4, the pouring jet which impinges on the powder charge causes 70 the dispersion of the dust particles either by passing through or falling back onto the envelope The latter is sufficiently fusible or slaggable to allow the dust particles to be given off in the required manner 75 It should be noted that Fig 5 is a perspective view of the envelope or packet without adhesive bands in the open position it assumes when the pouring jet has passed through its bottom The points of the tri 80 angular portions are obviously very rapidly burnt down to 22, 23, and 24. In the variant shown in Figs 2 to 4, the cellulose bands 14, 15, and 16 may be dispended with by arranging the envelope in 85 such manner that the end ee of the band 13 (Fig 4) overlaps the other end aa to the extent of the width of the eliminated bands. -These overlapping ends are stuck together by means of a glue or an adhesive which 90 possesses the same properties as those of the eliminated bands, i e it is highly combustible and/or looses its adhesive properties at a low temperature, this occuring owing to the evaporation of a binder (which 95 is the case as concerns cellulose or rubber glue) or by previous combustion (which is the case in respect of, for example, amylaceous glues formed by a flour, fecula or starch paste) Thus under the effect of the 100 heat of the pouring jet the envelope opens in the manner explained in respect of the envelope having bands 14, 15, and 16. The same remarks apply in respect of the example shown in Figs 5 and 6, where the 105 bands 20 and 21 may be dispensed with. Here, however, the parts to be stuck together cover one another in the manner of a postal envelope and open in the manner shown in Fig 5 110 The devices shown in Figs 2 to 6 may be used when top casting, as has been explained in respect of the mould shown in Fig. 1. Fig 7 shows a device adapted to be dis 115 posed on the bottom la of an ingot mould 1 arranged for top casting This device comprises a cup 26 the bottom 27 of which includes uneven parts or projections 28 as already disclosed by applicant in his Speci 120 fication No 754,573 This cup may be made of pressed steel, cast iron, or any other suitable cast or moulded material which is progressively melted by and mixed in the molten cast metal Powdered materials 5 are 125 disposed in the cup 26.
  6. 6. The cup 26 may be covered by a wall or partition 29 which is shown in dot-dash lines in Fig 7 and is connected to the cup by any suitable means This wall may be 130 flammable and rapidly loose their adhesive qualities under the action of heat. The envelope thus formed is cut at a certain length according to whether it is desired to obtain a square or a rectangle and the ends are folded upwardly at ff and gg. One of the two folded-over flaps is stuck to the upper part of the container by an adhesive band 15 which is similar to the band 14 In this way there is formed a packet which may be filled with one of the charges according to the invention By folding over and sticking the other end, after the charge has been inserted, in the same way by means of another adhesive band 16, there is obtained a tight envelope which surrounds the charge and is closed on its upper face by bands which are very combustible and/or which rapidly become unstuck as soon as the pouring jet approaches them. Thus, when the molten metal arrives through the passageway 4 (Fig 2) and impinges on the bottom of the envelope 13 the latter is perforated thereby The envelope opens upwardly along the lines aa, ee, ff, and gg (Fig 4) and thus forms a kind of open box having partly burnt edges as shown in dotted lines at 17 (Fig 2) The fumes 6 a according to the invention rise from this open box and are deposited on the walls of the mould in the manner described in respect of the mould shown in Fig 1. It will be readily understood that the closed and tight device 13 facilitates the manufacture, handling and utilization of the charge. It should be mentioned that the adhesive bands 15 and 16 have been shown in Fig. 3 to be further apart than they are in reality so as to render the drawing more clear The lines 18 represent the thicknesses of the folded end portion. Experiments have shown that a square packet or envelope having sides about ten centimeters long and filled with about 130 grams of powder, behaved perfectly well for small ingot moulds of about 500 kilograms and in which the above-described phenomena occured very rapidly in the indicated order The packet was made of Kraft paper, which is less combustible or more resistant than the cellulose adhesive bands For the larger ingot moulds, larger charges and a stronger packet are of course necessary. In the variant shown in Figs 5 and 6, the packet 19 is formed of paper, cardboard or other material the upper face of which is closed in the manner of a normal postal envelope, i e by folding four triangular portions over towards the centre These four triangular portions are closed, as in the case of the envelope shown in Figs 3
  7. 7. and 4, by cellulose adhesive bands which are very combustible and/or rapidly loose their adhesive qualities under the action of heat. 785,824 785,824 utilized in the form of a material such as paper or a composition having a cellulose base and which opens, burns, or is destroyed as soon as the pouring jet approaches it. This wall is not indispensible to the correct operation of the device but it would facilitate the initial filling of the cup with a powdered material and the handling thereof prior to being positioned on the bottom of the ingot mould. When the pouring jet 3 approaches the outer wall 29, if it exists, this wall is opened or destroyed under the effect of the heat and the material 5, dispersable in the solid state, liquid state, or gaseous state, is projected into the atmosphere of the mould and is applied at 6 over the inner wall of the latter. The pouring jet spreads out in the direction of arrows F after having been retarded by the projections 23, as known per se, so that the wave of molten metal no longer has sufficient velocity to travel up the vertical or slightly oblique walls of the mould 1, where the dispersed materials already form the coating which, furthermore, facilitates the removal of any possible splashing on this wall. The known retarding of the wave of molten metal affords in the present application a very important advantage, indeed the dispersed materials may be applied over the lower part of the mould before said part is reacted by the molten metal so that a good coating is ensured and the advantages thereby afforded. According to the embodiment shown in Figs 8 and 9, the device comprises a cup or tray 30 which is preferably of pressed steel in which is housed a plate 31 The latter is also preferably of steel and includes projection 32 obtained by cutting out in this plate the three sides of squares or rectangles and forming up at an angle of 90 the lugs thereby obtained These lugs or vertical projections 32 are so disposed as to be capable of retarding as known per se the wave of molten metal due to the force of the pouring jet To a certain extent they are intended to direct the material to be dispersed upwardly. The material to be dispersed, 5, is disposed in an auxiliary envelope or container 33 at least the upper wall of which is capable of being destroyed or easily opened when the pouring jet approaches it. The wave of molten metal is retarded by the projections 32 in the manner described in respect of the mould shown in Fig 7, and the material 5 is projected and finally applied over the walls of the mould. In this particular case it is advantageous to arrange that the wall forming the bottom of the envelope 33 be destroyed similarly to the upper wall of this container when the pouring jet approaches it, so
  8. 8. that the material 5 falls between the projections 32 of the cup and is directed upwardly by these projections in the manner described in respect of the mould shown in Fig 7 70 The devices shown in Figs 7, 8, and 9 may also be applied to bottom casting, it merely being necessary to provide an opening in the cup or receptacle in vertical alignment with the pouring jet 75 If it is to be arranged that the pouring jet follow substantially the axis XX, it may be advantageous to provide a boss or hump ikl, shown in dot-dash lines in Fig 8, for the purpose of directing the wave of molten 80 metal downwardly and for strengthening the cup. Referring now to Fig 10, which shows an ingot mould l resting on a base la which in turn is supported by a plate lb arranged 85 for bottom casting, the base 1 N is provided with a central anerture 34 which is prolonged by an upper upwardly-flared portion 35. This aperture forms a housing in which several envelopes, 36, 37, 38, and 39, may 90 be superimposed These envelopes contain dispersable materials. The pouring jet 3 passes into the mould I after having perforated the envelopes 39 to 36, the contents of which are dispersed 95 at 6 in the mould from, for example, each of the devices 36 to 39 in succession Thus there may be obtained a coating comprising several superimposed layers which very efficiently prevent the formation of non-metal 100 lic inclusions, blow-holes or other flaws in the ingot. The envelope 39 may contain for example a hydrated material whose water of crystallization moistens the materials dispersed 105 from the envelopes 36 to 38 at the suitable moment. The arrangement shown in Fig 10 for bottom casting may be used, with the same advantages, for top casting by eliminating 110 the supply passageway 40. The material introduced in the various devices illustrated in Figs I to 10 may act in two ways It may contain ground materials having different grain sizes having regard to 115 their respective specific weights so that under the action of the jet and the gaseous currents the finest parts (which have a diameter of the order of 0 15 to 0 05 mm for example) are dispersed over the wall of the 120 ingot mould, the others (whose diameter may attain 0 50 to 0 20 mm) floating on top of the molten metal where they continue to burn and are also dispersed subsequently, when their dimension and specific weight 125 allow this This phenomenon is facilitated by the initial dispersion of the finer dust particles, which occurs as soon as the pouring jet strikes the device. The material introduced in the various 130 785,824 devices may comprise carbonaceous materials in any form such as graphite, cellulose, fine sawdust, charcoal, natural or synthetic resins,
  9. 9. dextrin, powdered as mentioned above. In particular, the following composition may be used: EXAMPLE 1. 7 Powdered graphite 40 to 60 % by weight Charcoal 40 to 20 % by weight Sodium carbonate Making up 100 % In this example the sodium carbonate is added in order to produce a surface tension which is advantageous in respect of the bath of molten steel, but this may be dispensed with for the purpose of the present invention. Further, the powdered or agglomerated product incorporated in the above-described devices may be such as to give by combustion lamp-black which may be if desired mixed with other dust particles, i e for the most part carbon, satin, bituminous or resinous materials such mixture may be generated for instance from a product composed of soft coal, sawdust, shavings or pieces of resinous wood such as fir, pine, etc, or from a fatty substance, so that the fumes which are produced in the mould under the action of the pouring jet are directed onto the walls of the mould by the gaseous currents These materials condense on and become fixed to these walls in the form of an extremely separated powder, as the bath of molten metal rises in the mould. In particular, the composition of the following example may be used: EXAMPLE 11. Soft coal and/or soft or EXAMPLE III Materials 1 Carbonaceous material containing water of formation, water of crystallization, or hygrometric water, in respect of the anhydrous constituents thereof 2 Sodium carbonate and/or sodium silicate andlor sodium tetraborate in respect of the anhydrous borax and/or boric acid in respect of B 203 3 The total amount of water of formation, water of crystallization, hygrometric water or added water distributed among the various constituents ( 1) and ( 2) equals. The constituents of ( 1) apart from the carbon are preferably treated with caustic soda in the proportion necessary for obtaining alkaline salts. bituminous lignite 60 80 % by weight 40 Wood sawdust (fir or pine) Making up 100 % O In the two foregoing examples a little caustic soda may be added so as to transform into alkaline salts in the necessary 45 proportion the residue ashes which float on top of the bath These ashes thus constitute a much more fusible slag, which is advantageous in obtaining a sound ingot. By using the compositions of Examples 50 I and II, it is possible to obtain, if desired, a perfectly dispersable agglomerated mass, for example by adding 5 to 20 % of one or several of the following binders: tar, coaltar pitch, peat, colophony, resin, bitument, 55 dextrin or similar substances.
  10. 10. There may also be used a mixture containing as disclosed by applicant in his copending application No 14856/54 (Serial No 785,823) a certain amount of water This 60 water, which is vapourized partially or totally under the effect of the pouring jet, is projected with the other dispersed material so that there is formed in the atmosphere of the mould a kind of watering down of the 65 dispersed materials, this watering down occuring under the action of the steam, which condenses on the wall of the mould rather like a distemper prepared outside the mould in accordance with the conventional method 70 Use may be made of water of constitution, water of crystallization, water of condensation or added water. Two examples will now be given relating to compositions containing a certain amount 75 of water comprised between 4 and 15 % of the weight of the materials to be dispersed, when dry: % by weight 90 Making up 100 % 4 15 % of the total weight of the mixture. The constituents of ( 2) may be suitable whatever their relative proportions up to 100 the total percentage indicated in the example. EXAMPLE IV Materials 1 Graphite or mineral coal in powder form, water deducted 2 Charcoal in powder form or lamp-black, water deducted 3 Sodium carbonate, water deducted The total amount of water of formation, water of crystallization, hygrometric water or added water distributed in the various constituents is equal to The more or less dry, damp or wetted dust particles cast onto the walls of the mould give several well known results: The very finely ground carbon which is blown onto the walls prevents the projections of molten metal on these walls from being oxidized and forming the well-known surface flaws. Furthermore, the layer of dust particles helps to eliminate the surface flaws on account of the gaseous reactions which occur and which drive the impurities towards the centre of the bath. In the case of a flat ingot which requires one or several casting orifices, there may be provided a rectangular or square device under each of the casting orifices, each of these devices being substantially similar to the devices described above. Although specific illustrative embodiments of the invention have been described hereinbefore, it is to be understood that many changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the scope of the invention as defined in the claims. * Sitemap * Accessibility * Legal notice
  11. 11. * Terms of use * Last updated: 08.04.2015 * Worldwide Database * 5.8.23.4; 93p * GB785825 (A) Description: GB785825 (A) ? 1957-11-06 Improvements in or relating to agricultural implements Description of GB785825 (A) COMPLETE SPECIFICATION. Improvements in or relating to Agricultural Implements. I, EDWARD WILLIAM COLMAN, a British Subject, of Steepdown, Sompting, Sussex, do hereby declare the invention, for which I pray that a patent may be granted to me, and the method by which it is to be performed, to be particularly described in and by the following statement :- This invention relates to agricultural implements particularly for trailing from tractors and for operating upon the sub-soil and embodying downwardly extending tines of the kind having forwardly directed wedge like extremities at their lower ends. According to this invention a tine of the kind referred to above is characterised in that a part of the tine extending upwardly from the wedge like extremity is provided with a sharpened forwardly directed edge of greater hardness than the main portion of the tine. The wedge like extremity may be detachably secured to the main portion of the tine. The tine may comprise a flat sided shank portion which is hook shaped so that when arranged with its flat sides in a vertical plane it extends rearwardly from its upper end and then downwardly and forwardly to the wedge shaped lower extremity. The hardened metal of the edge may be applied by a known welding technique. The side faces of the tine adjacent said sharpened edge may also be provided with outer layers of harder metal. The following is a more detailed description of one form of tine
  12. 12. suitable for use with an agricultural tractor for penetrating the sub-soil, reference being made to the accompanying drawings in which :- Figure 1 is a side elevation of the tine ; Figure 2 is a section on the line 2-2 of Figure 1; and Figure 3 is a section on the line 3-3 of Figure 1 ; Figure 4 is a side elevation of the removably wedged shaped top ; and Figure 5 is an end view of the top showing its socket. The tine is flame cut from carbon steel sheet so as to have the shape shown in Figure 1 which has flat side faces 10 and a hooked contour. With this arrangement the tine may be arranged with the flat side faces in a vertical plane so that it extends rearwardly from its upper end 11 and then downwardly and forwardly to its lower pointed end 12. Welded to the sides of the pointed lower end are triangular metal plates 13. The pointed end is engageable with a socket 9 formed with a wedge shaped extremity 14 and retained therein by means of the removable rivet extending through the registering holes 15 in these two parts. The part of the tine extending upwardly from the wedge like extremity is provided with a forwardly directed sharpened edge 16 and deposited on this edge by a known welding technique, known as hard surfacing, is a layer of hard steel 17 as best seen in Figure 2, and which has alardness of about 800 Brinell the degree of hardness being varied according to the nature of the metals used in the welding process. Portions of the side faces of the tine near the sharpened edge may also have applied to them hard metal in a chequered pattern as indicated at 18 in Figure 1. The holes 19 are provided at the upper end of the tine for attaching it to a suitable support or platform one such platform being described in Application No. 26824/55 (Serial No. 785,826). * Sitemap * Accessibility * Legal notice * Terms of use * Last updated: 08.04.2015 * Worldwide Database * 5.8.23.4; 93p * GB785826 (A) Description: GB785826 (A) ? 1957-11-06
  13. 13. Improvements in or relating to agricultural implements Description of GB785826 (A) COMPLETE SPECIFICATION. Improvements in or relating to Agricultural Implements. I, EDWARD WILLIAM COLMAN, a British Subject, of Steepdown, Sompting, Sussex, do hereby declare the invention, for which I pray that a patent may be granted to me, and the method by which it is to be performed, to be particularly described in and by the following statement :- This invention relates to agricultural implements particularly for trailing behind tractors and for operating upon the sub-soil. The invention is directed to the kind of implement comprising a platform or the like having fixed thereto one or more tools for example a number of downwardly extending tines having forwardly directed wedge like extremities which platform is mounted on a wheeled frame or on a tractor. According to this invention an agricultural implement of the kind referred to is characterised in that said platform is fixed against lateral movement with respect to the wheeled frame or tractor and comprises a number of pairs of angle irons spaced apart and parallel to one another and extending in a fore and aft direction, horizontal flanges of which angle irons are secured to the horizontal flanges of other angle irons disposed above them and extending transversely thereto and wherein each tool has a part thereof fixed between two vertical flanges of a pair of said fore and aft extending angle irons. The platform is preferably arranged to the rear of the wheels and is of such a width that some of the tines are disposed in or near the tracks of the wheels. Certain of the first said pairs of angle irons may extend forwardly of the platform and are secured to the frame. The frame may be provided with two spaced members which extend rearwardly and are secured to the platform. Rearward extension of said members may diverge as they extend rearwardly and are provided at their extremities with portions which are parallel to the fore and aft axis of the wheeled frame or tractor which extremities are secured to the platform. Suffiaent space may be left between said diverging portions of the
  14. 14. frame and the nearest pair of flanges to enable clamping means to be manipulated from the front of the platform. The aforesaid wheels may be mounted on stub shafts constituting the extremities of a cranked shaft rotatably adjustable in bearings on said frame and means are provided for effecting that adjustment whereby the depth of penetration of the tines into the soil may be controlled. Means for effecting rotational adjustment of the crank shaft in one direction may comprise an operator actuated screw and nut mechanism. Automatic means may be provided for rotatably adjusting the crankshaft in a direction to raise the frame, which automatic means may comprise a cam rotating with either or each wheel and a cam follower on the frame movable into and out of the path of the cam under the control of the operator so that when in said path it causes the crank shaft to be rotated and the frame raised end has releasable detents provided for holding the crank shaft in this latter position. In one construction according to the invention disc coulters are mounted on the platform to rotate about the transverse axis in advance of the tines ; whereby in cultivating pasture land the tines first slit the turf and the sharp forward edges of the tines enter the slits and thus avoid large ragged lumps being torn off from the sward. The coulters may be adjustably mounted on the platform so as to be movable in an up and down direction. In an alternative construction the platform may be adjustably mounted on hydraulically actuated lifting arms provided at the back of the tractor and which platform is also attached by a longitudinally adjustable link, so as to provide a three point support per mitting bodily adjustment in an up and down direction. The various pivotal attachments in any of the constructions described above may be provided with grease nipples and the wheels are provided with hub caps for re taining lubricant and preventing the entry of dirt. The following is a description of a sub soiling apparatus according to the invention, reference being made to the accompanying drawings in which :- Figure 1 is a side elevation of the apparatus ;
  15. 15. Figure 2 is a plan of the arrangement shown in Figure 1 ; Figure 3 is a rear elevation of the appara tus with the tines removed ; Figure 4 is a plan of the screw jack mechanism for adjusting the depth of pene tration of the tines ; and Figure 5 is a rear elevation of the platform showing the tines in position. The platform 10 for supporting the tines I I comprises a number of pairs of angle irons 15,16,17,18 and 19 each tine being clamped between two downwardly directed flanges of a pair. Other Dairs of angle flanges 20 and 21 are bolted across the other franges of the first said pairs. The platform is fixed to a frame which latter is supported towards its rear end by land wheels 22 and is provided with a coup ling 9 at its forward end for attachment to the tractor. The forward part 13 of the frame com prises two members 23 which diverge as they extend rearwardly from the coupling, while the centre portion 13 of the frame has rear ward extensions 8 which diverge towards parallel portions 7 to which the plat form is attached by further angle irons 3I. Each of the downwardly extending tines 11 has forwardly directed wedge-like ex tremities 12 and a part 14 of each tine 11 extending upwardly from the wedge-like extremity 12 is provided with a sharpened forwardly directed edge 14 forming the subject matter of Patent Application No. 18195/54 (Serial No. 785,825}. The tines are flat sided and as will be seen from Figure 1 are hook shaped so as to extend rearwardly from the upper end and then downwardly and forwardly. The wedge like extremities 12 are formed with soclcets which engage the ends of the tines and are detachably secured thereto by bolts 6. As best seen in Figure 3 the platform is arranged to the rear of the wheels 22 and is of such a width as to
  16. 16. extend across the track of the wheels. The shanks of the tines are secured in position between the flanges of the angle irons by bolts, the bolt holes being indicated at 37 and it will be noted from Figure 2 that the length of the angle irons 16 and 18 and the positioning of the forward bolt holes 37 is such that there is a sufficient gap between said forward bolt holes and the diverging portions 8 of the frame in order to provide ready access for manipulation of the nuts and thus easy and quick replacement of the tines can be obtained. Also a gap is provided between the forward end to the platform and the locations where the diverging portions meet the narrower centre part 13 of the frame thus enabling the operator to pass his hand through the gap and obtain access to the forward clamping nut. Each of the two wheels 22 is mounted on a stub shaft 25 which constitutes the extremity of a cranked shaft 26 extending across and above the frame and mounted in bearings 27 secured to members 38 constituting forward extensions of one each of the pairs of angle irons 16 and 18 which extensions are bolted to the centre part of frame 13. A pair of members 60 are attached respectively to the upright flanges of the pair of angle irons 17 and extend forwardly and are secured between the forward extremities of the converging members 23. Fixed to the centre portion of the crank shaft 26 is an upwardly extending lever arm 29 and pivotally secured at 39 to the upper end of the lever arm is a forwardly extending divided bar 40 as best seen in Figure 4 and which is provided with a bridge piece 41 at its forward end. A lead screw 28 extends between the two parts of the divided bar 40 and engages a nut fixed near the upper end of a standard 42 secured to the frame by a strut 43. The lead screw 28 is provided with a collar 44 which is disposed rearwardly of a cross piece 45 secured between the two parts of the divided bar 40 and through which cross piece the shank portion 46 of the lead screw extends. The end of the shank portion is provided with a manipulating handle 47. The arrangement is such that when the lead screw is rotated in one direction and moved axially to the right in Figure 1 the collar 44 will thus move the divided bar 40 to the right and swing the crank shaft clockwise thereby causing the wheels to move downwardly in relation to the frame or the frame upwardly in relation to the wheels thereby withdrawing the tines from the soil. This adjustment is used principally for adjusting the depth of penetration of the tines in the soil. In order to obtain a quick lift of the tines away from the ground either or both wheels may have secured thereto a cam plate 62 and a cam follower 32 is engageable with the cam plate and is mounted between two lever arms 48 fixed to a rod 49 rotatable in a slot 50
  17. 17. formed in brackets 51 secured to the frame. Fixed to the rod 49 is an upwardly extending lever arm 33. Thus assuming the tines are penetrating the soil and the parts of the mechanism are in position as shown in Figure 1, if the lever arm 33 is pulled to the right it will rock the lever arm 48 downwardly and the roller 32 into the path of movement of the lobes of the cam. As will be seen the lobes of the cam are somewhat hook shaped and when the cam engages the roller the wheel is tem- porarily prevented from rotating relatively to the frame and thus the pull on the frame causes the crank arms of the crank shaft to rock about the stationary axis of the stub shaft in a clockwise direction whereby the frame 13 is lifted thus withdrawing the tines from the soil. At the same time as the arms of the crankshaft are rotating clockwise about the axis of the stub shaft the lever arms 48 will be tilting clockwise about rollers 32 temporarily held by the hook shaped cams this will cause the upturned extremities 58 of the arms to come into contact with cleats 59 on the frame whereafter continued upward movement of the frame will lift the rollers 32 from the hook shaped cams assisted by the spring 57 and free the wheels for rotation. In the meantime the rotation of the crankshaft 26 will have caused the cross piece 45 on the double bar to be retracted to the right away from the collar 44 on the lead screw. The wheels are retained in this position by an automatically engaging latch. This latch comprises an abutment 61 secured to a crank arm 52 on a control lever 53, which control lever is pivoted at 54 to the upper end of the standard 42. The crank arm 52 is urged downwardly by a spring 55 into the path of movement of a wedge piece 56 thus as the divided bar 40 moves to the right the wedge piece 56 will snap past and forwardly of the abutment 61 retaining the frame and wheels-in the latter position. When it is required to lower the frame the lever arm 53 is swung to the right causing the abutment to be raised away from the wedge piece when the frame will fall by gravit. The lever arm 53 and lever arm 33 may be remotely controlled by a cable 34 and the end of which is disposed near the driver's seat. The various pivotal mountings of the moving parts are fitted with grease nipples so as to prevent the ingress of dirt and the wheels are provided with hub caps for the same purpose. Coulters (not shown) are mounted on the platform to rotate about transverse axes in advance of the tines whereby when pasture land is being cultivated the tines first slit the turf and the sharp forward edges of the tines enter the slits and thus avoid large ragged lumps being torn off from the sward. The mountings of the coulters may be of known kind having a stem forked at the ends to hold the spindle of the coulter disc the stem being adjustable vertically in relation to the platform and held in
  18. 18. the required position by suitable clam. The platform such as first described above, instead of being mounted on a wheeled frame may be adjustably mounted on the hydraulically actuated lifting arms usually provided at the back of the tractor and also attached by a longitudinally adjustable link so as to provide a three point support for the platform permitting bodily adjustment in an up and down direction. Although the platform formed from angle irons has been described above for supporting tines it may be employed for supporting the tools such as harrows, roller and other tools used for cultivating. What I claim is :- 1. An agricultural implement of the kind referred to wherein said platform is nxed against lateral movement with respect to the wheeled frame or tractor and comprises a number of pairs of angle irons spaced apart and parallel to one another and extending in a fore and aft direction, horizontal Ranges of which angle irons are secured to the horizontal flanges of other other angle irons disposed above them and extending transversely thereto and wherein each tool has a part thereof fixed between two vertical flanges of a pair of said fore and aft extending angle irons. * Sitemap * Accessibility * Legal notice * Terms of use * Last updated: 08.04.2015 * Worldwide Database * 5.8.23.4; 93p * GB785827 (A) Description: GB785827 (A) ? 1957-11-06 Improvements in and relating to incandescent mantles and a method for strengthening the ash skeleton of such mantles for use in illuminating appliances Description of GB785827 (A) Translate this text into Tooltip
  19. 19. [75][(1)__Select language] Translate this text into The EPO does not accept any responsibility for the accuracy of data and information originating from other authorities than the EPO; in particular, the EPO does not guarantee that they are complete, up-to-date or fit for specific purposes. PATENT SPECIFICATION 785,827 Date of Application and filing Complete Specification: January 29 1954 No 27831 Application made in Germany on June 22 1953 Application made in Germany on December 1, 1953 Complete Specification Published: November 6, 1957 Index at acceptance:-Class 75 ( 1), TR 4. International Classification:-F 23 f. COMPLETE SPECIFICATION Improvements in and relating to Incandescent Mantles and a Method for Strengthening the Ash Skeleton of Such Mantles for use in Illuminating Appliances 54 A I, WOLFHARD GRAETZ, of 20, Nettenscheid, Altena/Westfalia, Germany, a German citizen, do hereby declare the invention, for which I pray that a patent may be granted S to me, and the method by which it is to be performed, to be particularly described in and by the following statement: - This invention relates to a method of strengthening the ash skeletons (consisting of compounds of the rare earths, such as thorium and cerium oxides) of incandescent mantles for illuminating appliances. These incandescent mantles, which are extremely fragile after the first burning off, prior to the first incineration consist of a fabric of cotton, silk, artificial silk, ramie or the like, which is impregnated with compounds of thorium and cerium Various suggestions have already been made to strengthen such incandescent mantles by using in their manufacture additional heat resisting inorganic substances According to the known methods the woven fabric mantles had to be subjected to a treatment, in order to distribute the strengthening material uniformly on or in the incandescent mantle. The present invention makes it possible to strengthen the ash skeleton of incandescent mantles without requiring any complicated preliminary treatment According to the invention a heat resisting strengthening substance is introduced into the incandescent mantle, while the mantle is in its operative position in an illuminating appliance, with the flow of gaseous or vaporised liquid fuel which produces the flame for making the mantle incandescent In one embodiment the strengthening medium is fed to the stream of gas in a finely divided state either
  20. 20. before, during or after being mixed with primary air In the case of illuminating apparatus using vaporisable liquid fuels or liquefied gases (for instance propane, butane) the strengthening substance may be added to the liquid fuel or the liquefied gas itself In lPrice 3 s 6 d l this case the strengthening substance leaves the nipple together with the fuel and passes in a very finely divided state within the gas mixture into the incandescent mantle, where it is deposited in the ash skeleton or com 50 bines with it. The strengthening substance may be added either undiluted, or diluted for example with the liquid fuel, to the liquefied gas or to the liquid fuel The degree of dilution of 55 the strengthening substance in admixture with the liquefied gas or liquid fuel can be made visible by means of added colouring agents. The invention enables the supply of the strengthening substance to the incandescent 60 mantle to be maintained at a suitable rate. Experiments have shown the importance of adding to an incandescent mantle a definite quantity only of a strengthening substance, as too much reduces the luminosity and too 65 little is insufficient for the strengthening effect. The method according to the present invention is particularly simply carried out in the case of illuminating devices using liquid 70 fuels In this case it is only necessary just once to add to the liquid in the fuel container a definite amount of the strengthening substance, i e as much as is necessary to obtain optimum strengthening and luminosity 75 of the incandescent mantle The strengthening substance may be applied in liquid, pulverised or solid form, for instance in the form of tablets which dissolve in the fuel. There is the further possibility, however, 80 of strengthening the incandescent mantle by the use of a specially prepared fuel, i e of fuel already containing the strengthening substance All that is then necessary is to pour a definite quantity of the prepared fuel into the 85 container in the usual way and to put the illuminating device into operation The strengthening of the incandescent mantle of the illuminating device is automatically completed, as soon as the fuel, which need 90 ) 785,827 be used only once, has been used up If only a portion of the fuel has been burnt and the illuminating apparatus is made ready for operation again by filling up with fresh fil containing no strengthening substance, the improving process will not be disturbed thereby, but will only take place more slowly. It has been found that in carrying out the method according to the present invention a silicone or mixture of silicones, which may be added to the fuel in liquid, powdered or colloidally dispersed form, are specially suitable. In the same way as the strengthening substances, thorium and cerium
  21. 21. componds may be supplied with the flow of gaseous or vaporized liquid fuel to the incandescent mantle or may be applied to the latter from the outside This applies more particularly to the case in which the strengthening substance causes loss of luminosity. The manner in which the method can be carried into effect will be better understood from the following examples. 1 In the case of illuminating devices which are operated with gas the strengthening substance in undiluted form or mixed with liquefied gas is incorporated with the gas through apertures in the gas supply pipe or in the mixing pipe or is blown into the space between gas nipple and mixing pipe, where it is carried along by the suction action of the gas issuing from the nipple and thereby passes into the mixing pipe and then into the incandescent mantle in a very finely divided state. 2 The strengthening substance is added undiluted, or diluted for example with liquid fuel, to the liquid fuel, in which it dissolves or is dispersed therein with the aid of mechanical means, and passes together with it into the vaporiser and then by way of nipple and mixing pipe into the incandescent mantle. 3 The strengthening substance may be added to the fuel and pass, by the capillary action of a wick together with the fuel to a blue, non-luminous flame, the strengthening substance then passing in vaporised form to the incandescent mantle. The following example illustrates the use of silicones: 2 gr silicone oil ( 2000 cst) are dissolved in gr solvent, e g gasoline. cc of this solution are added to the 1 litre of fuel. This example is for illuminating appliances using vaporisable liquid fuel If however the strengthening agent is to be added directly to the flow of gaseous fuel, the above-mentioned solution may be sprayed into the stream of gas through a spray nozzle 65 It will be understood that the strengthening substance may comprise a single substance or a mixture of two or more substances. * Sitemap * Accessibility * Legal notice * Terms of use * Last updated: 08.04.2015 * Worldwide Database * 5.8.23.4; 93p * GB785828 (A)
  22. 22. Description: GB785828 (A) ? 1957-11-06 Improvements in or relating to incandescent mantles Description of GB785828 (A) Translate this text into Tooltip [75][(1)__Select language] Translate this text into The EPO does not accept any responsibility for the accuracy of data and information originating from other authorities than the EPO; in particular, the EPO does not guarantee that they are complete, up-to-date or fit for specific purposes. PATENT SPECIFICATION Date of application and filing Complete Specification: Jan 29, 1954. No 21677155. Application made in Germany on June 22, 1953. (Divided out of No 785,827). Complete Specification Published: Nov 6, 1957. Index at acceptance:-Class 75 ( 1), TR 4. International Classification:-F 23 f. COMPLETE SPECIFICATION Improvements in or relating to Incandescent Mantles I, WOLFHARD GRAETZ, of 20, Nettenscheid, Altena/Westfalia, Germany, a German Citizen, do hereby declare the invention, for which I pray that a patent may be granted to me, and the method by which it is to be performed, to be particularly described in and by the following statement: - This invention relates to improvements in or relating to incandescent mantles. It is known that the ash skeletons (consisting of copounds, of the rare earths such as thorium and cerium oxides) of incandescent mantles for gas lamps or other illuminating appliances which are operated with gaseous or liquid fuels, are extremely fragile after the first burning off These incandescent mantles prior to the first incineration consist of a fabric of cotton, silk, artificial silk, ramie or the like, which is impregnated with compounds of thorium and cerium Various suggestions have already been made to strengthen such incandescent mantles by using in their manufacture additional heat resisting
  23. 23. inorganic substances. For the same purpose of strengthening the incandescent mantles, the present invention utilizes silicones which are polymeric organo-silicon compounds containing Si-O-Si chains with organic radicals bound to the Si atoms The incandescent mantle can be impregnated with the said strengthening compound at any stage of its manufacture With the loss of organic radicals when the mantle is heated, a quartzlike chain Si-O structure remains which has proved to be extremely shock-resistant. Simple silicon compounds, e g potassium silicate or sodium silicate, are known as strengthening agents In the burning of incandescent mantles treated with these strengthening agents, silicon oxides remain in the ash-skeleton which cause a certain stabilisation This however is in no way comparable to the elastic ash-framework consisting of chains of Si-O molecules. which remains in the ash-skeleton after lPrice 3 s 6 d l burning an incandescent mantle treated with silicones. The invention can be performed in different ways 50 The silicone can be added to the usual bath containing the thorium and ceriumcompounds Or the incandescent mantles, after being impregnated with the thoriumand cerium-compounds, may be impreg 55 nated with the silicone in a bath containing the latter. Of course this impregnation may be repeated several times, changing the concentration of the bath containing the silicone 60 It may also be advisable to dry the mantles after each impregnation, preferably by infrared rays. In order to obtain a perfect permeation of the fabric of the mantles, it is advanta 65 geous to carry out the immersion in the bath under a vacuum. The impregnation with silicone may also be achieved by spraying-electrostatically or otherwise 70 The invention is not limited to the treatment of ready made incandescent mantles. but can be applied to the woven or knitted hose, or to the yarns of which the fabric of the mantles is made 75 Different parts of the mantles may be strengthened to different degrees For example, the parts of the mantles which are exposed to most stresses may be strengthened with silicone to a higher degree 80 than the less stressed parts. The following is an example of carrying out the invention: 2 gr silicone oil ( 2,000 cst) are dissolved in 100 grsolvent, e ggasoline 85 This solution is either added to the impregnating liquid, or is used for soaking, dipping or spraying an already impregnated incandescent mantle.
  24. 24. * Sitemap * Accessibility * Legal notice * Terms of use * Last updated: 08.04.2015 * Worldwide Database * 5.8.23.4; 93p

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