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The Emergence of the “Church history” and the
predicament of Orthodox Hierarchy in the Russian
Empire of the early 1800s
E...
Metropolitan of Moscow
Plato (Levshin),
1737–1812
Archbishop of Pskov
Mefodiy (Smirnov),
1761–1815
Metropolitan of Moscow
...
Eastern and Western
Church
“The History of the memorable
Council of Florence in terms of the
union undertaking to unify th...
Between Greeks and
Romans
The History of the Council of Florence
convened to restore the connection
between the Greeks and...
Romans
Romans
Romans
Romans
Not “Churches” but
“nations”
but not Roman Church
Relations between nations
international relations inter-confessional relations
modernization of terminology
From
through
to
Cultural Gap
Russian clergy and nobility in the usual dress (first half of the 19th
century)
Robert Pinkerton,
Principal Agent of the
British and Foreign Bible
Society (BFBS), 1780–
1859
“The candidates for the prie...
Modernization and Bureaucratization
Russian emperor
Alexander I
1777–1825
institutional autonomy of Hierarchy
“Church history”
modernization and secularization of property and political power
From...
Civil Ecclesiastical
Education
University system (1804) Ecclesiastical education
system (1814)
Publishing Secular censorsh...
Aleksey Mikhailovich and Patriarch
Nikon
(17th century)
Peter the Great and Theophan Prokopovich
(18th century)
Katherine the Great and Russian hierarchs
(end of the 18th century)
bureaucracy
Alexander I and
Russian episcopate
(early 19th century)
Two “pastorates”
Churchman Functionary
“Old” pastorate
Church hierarchy
Person
Monarch
Capitation tax (1718)
“person” became the unit
of fiscal taxation
“Table o...
Emergence of the “Public Sphere”
Assembly of masons in the time of Alexander I
by Alexander Moravov (1912)
Polemics with “heretics”
decreases of the religion’s influence
From
through
to
Interconfessional discussion
Metropolitan of Moscow
St Philaret (Drozdov),
1782–1867
“Conversation between a Seeker and
a Believer Concerning the Ortho...
National Identity
Problem
Prayer service on the eve of the Battle of
Borodino
Mykola Samokysh (c. 1912)
“History of Muscovy”
emergence of the “secular patriotism” and “national consciousness”
From
through
to
History of the Rus...
Conclusion: Theological Perspective
First-order
theology
Setting forth as adequately as possible a
picture of God, humankind and the world as they are
Second-...
• With other Christian confessions, representatives of which felt
increasingly free in the state elite in the beginning of...
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The Emergence of the “Church history” and the predicament of Orthodox Hierarchy in the Russian Empire of the early 1800s

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EHS Conferences 2016-17: The Church and Empire (Pollock Halls, University of Edinburgh, 26-28 July 2016) presentation for the paper "The Emergence of the “Church history” and the predicament of Orthodox Hierarchy in the Russian Empire of the early 1800s"

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The Emergence of the “Church history” and the predicament of Orthodox Hierarchy in the Russian Empire of the early 1800s

  1. 1. The Emergence of the “Church history” and the predicament of Orthodox Hierarchy in the Russian Empire of the early 1800s Eugene Lyutko Saint Tikhon’s Orthodox University Research center for the History of Theology and Theological education
  2. 2. Metropolitan of Moscow Plato (Levshin), 1737–1812 Archbishop of Pskov Mefodiy (Smirnov), 1761–1815 Metropolitan of Moscow St Philaret (Drozdov), 1782–1867 Archbishop of Tver St Innokenty (Smirnov), 1784–1819 Brief History of the Russian Church. In 2 vol. M., 1805 Liber historicus de rebus, in primitive sive trium et quarti in euntis speculum Ecclesia Christiana (…) gestis. M., 1805 Compend of Sacred History for Use in Church Schools. St.Ptsb., 1816; Compend of Sacred History from Bible Times to 18th Century for Use in Church Schools). In 2 divs. St.Ptsb., 1817.
  3. 3. Eastern and Western Church “The History of the memorable Council of Florence in terms of the union undertaking to unify the Eastern Church with the Western Church”
  4. 4. Between Greeks and Romans The History of the Council of Florence convened to restore the connection between the Greeks and the Romans
  5. 5. Romans Romans Romans Romans Not “Churches” but “nations” but not Roman Church
  6. 6. Relations between nations international relations inter-confessional relations modernization of terminology From through to
  7. 7. Cultural Gap Russian clergy and nobility in the usual dress (first half of the 19th century)
  8. 8. Robert Pinkerton, Principal Agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society (BFBS), 1780– 1859 “The candidates for the priesthood being thus trained up from their early years in these secluded retreats, have but few opportunities of mixing in civil society. Therefore, on leaving the seminary, and entering the world, a student is like foreigner coming into a strange country, with the language and manner of which he has but an imperfect acquaintance” Robert Pinkerton. Present State of Greek Church in Russia. London, 1814. P. 10.
  9. 9. Modernization and Bureaucratization Russian emperor Alexander I 1777–1825
  10. 10. institutional autonomy of Hierarchy “Church history” modernization and secularization of property and political power From through to autonomy of “discourse”.
  11. 11. Civil Ecclesiastical Education University system (1804) Ecclesiastical education system (1814) Publishing Secular censorship (1804) Ecclesiastical censorship (1804) Science Academy of science (1724) (1724) Ecclesiastical academies (1814)
  12. 12. Aleksey Mikhailovich and Patriarch Nikon (17th century)
  13. 13. Peter the Great and Theophan Prokopovich (18th century)
  14. 14. Katherine the Great and Russian hierarchs (end of the 18th century)
  15. 15. bureaucracy Alexander I and Russian episcopate (early 19th century)
  16. 16. Two “pastorates” Churchman Functionary
  17. 17. “Old” pastorate Church hierarchy Person Monarch Capitation tax (1718) “person” became the unit of fiscal taxation “Table of Ranks” (1722) the framework for bureaucracy as a social phenomenon “New” pastorate Bureaucracy Monarch Ministry of National Education (1804) “Public shepherds” begin to perform a native function of the Church priests – to teach people
  18. 18. Emergence of the “Public Sphere” Assembly of masons in the time of Alexander I by Alexander Moravov (1912)
  19. 19. Polemics with “heretics” decreases of the religion’s influence From through to Interconfessional discussion
  20. 20. Metropolitan of Moscow St Philaret (Drozdov), 1782–1867 “Conversation between a Seeker and a Believer Concerning the Orthodoxy of the Eastern Greco-Russian Church” (1815)
  21. 21. National Identity Problem Prayer service on the eve of the Battle of Borodino Mykola Samokysh (c. 1912)
  22. 22. “History of Muscovy” emergence of the “secular patriotism” and “national consciousness” From through to History of the Russian State and Russian People History of the (Russian) Churchvs
  23. 23. Conclusion: Theological Perspective
  24. 24. First-order theology Setting forth as adequately as possible a picture of God, humankind and the world as they are Second-order theology Inquiring into the grounds or justification for accepting one construction as compared to another in context of increasing encounter of world cultures and the development of sciences Third-order theology All theological positions are rooted fundamentally in imaginative construction and must be “palatable” to the contemporary human mind Gordon Kaufman. Essay on Theological Method. Scholars press, 1975. P. 45–47
  25. 25. • With other Christian confessions, representatives of which felt increasingly free in the state elite in the beginning of the 19th century • With bureaucracy concerning the relationship with the monarch and the right to teach • With the “flickering” public space concerning the right to express the truth authoritatively and categorically without resorting to discussion and argumentation • With the so-called “national identity” in connection with the right to impose un ultimate value basis in order to determine the historical identity of the Empire residents Intellectual “correlation with another” for Russian hierarchy in the early 19th century as a consequence of the transition to the second-order theology

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