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  3. 3. IntroductIonThis book was created by the CornellUniversity Sustainable Design:Schoolhouse South Africa design-build team in the fall semester of2010 at Cornell University underthe supervision of Jeremy Fosterand Kifle Gebremedhin, Professorsof Landscape Architecture andCivil & Environmental Engineering,respectively.This book was finished on December22, 2010. It was created in AdobeInDesign CS4 and CS5. It utilizes theGotham and Router font family. Theofficial colors are orange and lime.This book was created in an 11” x 17”(tabloid) format. It is available as adigital PDF.The majority of students involved inthis book used InDesign for the firsttime this semester.This book is an incredibleaccomplishment - the actualproduction took less than a month!Thank you to everyone for yoursuperb work and unrelentingdedication.Editor-in-chief: Karen Chi-Chi LinCopy editor: Jesse McElwainiv SCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA
  4. 4. IntroductIonINTRODUCTION 3.11 Parks in Cosmo City 85Fall 2010 Team iii 3.10 Commerce 87Introductions vi 3.12 Topography, Flood Plain, and Desire Lines 89Executive Summary vii 3.13 Roads and Property 91How to Use This Book vii 3.14 Bibliography 93CHAPTER 1: CASE STUDIES CHAPTER 4: BUILDING AND STRUCTURE 4.1 Lighting Strategies 941.1.1 Teton Community School 2 4.2 Orientation 971.1.2 Oleleshwa Primary School 4 4.3 Shading 981.1.3 Project Khayelitsha 6 4.4 Thermal Mass 991.1.4 School in Gando 8 4.5 ventilation 1001.1.5 Druk White Lotus School 10 4.6 Foundation and Floor 1011.1.6 Teksing Bamboowood School 12 4.7 Masonry 1021.1.7 Nadukuppam Colony Women’s Center and Balwadi 14 4.8 EarthBag Construction 1041.1.8 METI Handmade School 16 4.9 Rammed Earth 1061.1.9 Dwabor Kindergarten 18 4.10 SIPS 1081.1.10 The Yellow Submarine 20 4.11 Straw Bale 1091.1.11 Ghana School Library Initiative 22 4.12 Windows and Openings 1101.2.1 Teddy Bear Créche 24 4.13 Insulation 1141.2.4 Emmanuel Day Care Center 28 4.14 Roof Cover 1151.2.5 Tebogo Home for Handicapped 30 4.15 Roof Systems 118 4.16 Plumbing System Overview 121CHAPTER 2: CITY AND REGION 4.17 Water Systems 1222.1.1 At a Glance: South Africa 34 4.18 Waste and Venting Systems 1282.1.2 At a Glance: Gauteng 36 4.19 Energy system: Solar Water Heater 1282.1.3 At a Glance: Johannesburg Metropolitan Region 38 4.20 Energy system: Photovoltaic Cell 1302.2 Nearby Cities: Accessibility Map 41 4.21 Recommended Services 1322.3 Timeline of the Political History of South Africa 42 4.22 Alternative FixtureS: Playpump 1342.4 Reconstruction and Development Programme 44 4.23 Alternative Fixtures: VIP Toilets 1352.5 Early Childhood Development in South Africa 45 4.24 Alternative FixtureS: Digester 1372.6 Informality in South africa 48 4.25 Alternative Fixtures: Piping Systems and Hydroponics 1392.7 Zevenfontain and Riverbend 49 4.26 Alternative Fixtures: Solar Chimneys 1412.9 Architecture as Transformation 50 4.27 Alternative Fixtures: Summary 1432.10 South African Architectural History 53 4.28 Bibliography 1442.11 South African Architectural Features 58 4.29 Material Catalog 1472.12 South African Cultural Symbols 592.13 Infrastructure 60 CHAPTER 5: PRE-DESIGN BRIEF 5.1 Project Background 149CHAPTER 3: SITE AND LOCALE 5.2 Clients and Stakeholders 1503.1 Introduction: Cosmo City’s vision 66 5.3 Program Checklist 1523.2 Immediate Neighborhoods 67 5.4 Introducing the Site and Site Recommendations 1573.3 Cosmo City Income Map 68 5.5 Site Components and Cover Types 1673.4 Project Management and Funding 69 5.6 Plant Schedule 1753.5 Cosmo City Community 70 5.7 Design for Play 1833.6 Green Initiatives 71 5.8 Design Paradigm 1903.7 Housing 72 5.9 Summary of Requirements and Recommendations 1963.8 Schools and Informal Créches in Cosmo City 753.9 Peri-Urban Agriculture and Gardens in Cosmo City 79 CHAPTER 6: APPENDIX3.10 Peri-Urban Agriculture 81 6.1 Building and Construction Codes of South Africa 198SCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA v
  5. 5. IntroductIonINTRODUCTIONSCORNELL UNIVERSITY SUSTAINABLE DESIGN (CUSD) MAKING IT HAPPEN WITH...Formerly known as Cornell University Solar Decathlon, CUSD participated EDUCATION AFRICAin three U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon Competitions. In A non-profit organization that aims to reduce povertyOctober of 2009, the organization rebranded itself to reflect a new focus on through a number of educational development programs.a comprehensive understanding of social and environmental sustainability. Their Social Architecture Program works with internationalSince restructuring, CUSD has partnered with two organizations, Education universities to design and build schools for underprivilegedAfrica and the Institute for Computational Sustainability and is simultaneously children.pursuing two distinct projects. CUSD is now recognized as one of Cornell’spremier sustainable student groups, and is poised to become an active THE CITY OF JOHANNESBURGcomponent of the sustainable discourse at Cornell. Cosmo City, a public private partnership between Basil Read and The City of Johannesburg, is a revolutionaryThe team applies the knowledge and experience of several returning mixed- income, socially-integrated housing developmentmembers and augments decisions with the fresh perspectives of newcomers. outside Johannesburg.Our efforts are further enhanced by the sustained involvement of exceptionalfaculty and professional mentors who work tirelessly to ensure our aspirationsbecome a reality. BASIL READ DEVELOPMENTS Basil Read is a premier construction and development groupAs the new CUSD, we currently manage two design-build projects. One in South Africa. They have initiated various communityproject is our Sustainable Research Facility (SRF), which provides Cornell support activities in Cosmo City and the our crèche is onestudents the opportunity to participate in the design and development of a of the projects they support.“Living Laboratory” on Cornell’s Ithaca campus. The project featured here isthe Schoolhouse South Africa project. PLAY WITH A PURPOSE In Cosmo City, Education Africa will implement the Play with a Purpose curriculum to train teachers to apply innovative educational programs in underprivileged pre-schools toEDUCATION AFRICA’S SOCIAL ARCHITECTURE PROGRAM ensure children receive the best possible preparation for grade school. ESTABLISHED IN 1992, EDUCATION AFRICA STRIVES TO REACH AND UPLIFT THE POOREST OF THE POOR. THEY AIM TO ASSIST DISADVANTAGED SOUTH AFRICANS IN THEIR QUEST TO OBTAIN A QUALITY, RELEVANT EDUCATION IN ORDER TO ENSURE THAT THEY ARE IN A POSITION TO BECOME GLOBAL CITIZENS AND A COMPETITIVE,PRODUCTIVE ELEMENT IN THE LOCAL JOB MARKET. EDUCATION AFRICA AIMS FOR ANEDUCATED NATION, WHICH IN TURN WILL LEAD TO A PROGRESSIVE NATION THAT IS IN A POSITION TO SUSTAIN ECONOMIC GROWTH.Education Africa (EA) is a philanthropic non-profit organization based inJohannesburg, South Africa. Their Social Architecture Program partners withuniversities worldwide, enabling architecture students to design and buildstructures such as childhood development centers, skills-training centersand primary schools. To date, the program has produced eleven buildings indisadvantaged townships through successful collaboration with internationaluniversities. Students work side-by-side with local residents throughout thebuilding process, encouraging the transfer of skills and SCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA
  6. 6. IntroductIonEXECUTIVE SUMMARY HOW TO USE THIS BOOK HTTP://CUSD.CORNELL.EDU/SSA APPROACHES HOW WAS THIS BOOK CREATED? We have partnered with several organizations to realize our project. CUSD is This book is the final product of a semester’s worth of research by studentsABOUT THE PROJECT the first American student-organization to partner with Education Africa. Since in engineering, architecture, design and environmental analysis, landscapeSchoolhouse South Africa is an interdisciplinary student-led design-build 2004, their Social Architecture Program has constructed over 10 educational architecture, city and regional planning, and hotel administration. Our teamproject and research endeavor orchestrated by Cornell University Sustainable centers and schools that are now important neighborhood resources for is compromised of all 7 undergraduate colleges as well the graduate JohnsonDesign (CUSD). The project succeeds Cornell’s 2009 entry in the U.S. their communities. After each crèche is constructed, Education Africa School of Management at Cornell University, each represented by the diverseDepartment of Energy’s Solar Decathlon competition, with the intention of ensures that the facility is well staffed and will operate smoothly for years to content within this book. Our multi-disciplinary team, enables us to presentpromoting a greater sense of social responsibility. We have partnered with come. Education Africa implements the Play with a Purpose Early Childhood a wide variety of information specific to the context of our project. ThisEducation Africa, a non-profit organization that focuses on counter poverty Development lesson plan and teacher training program. In addition, they book was created under the advise of Jeremy Foster, Professor of Landscapemeasures through education. provide each school with educational material based on comprehensive skill Architecture, and Kifle Gebremedhin, Professor of Civil and Environmental development. The City of Johannesburg has allocated a site for us to build Engineering.Within the 2010-11 academic year, Cornell students will catalogue existing and on in a low-income neighborhood within Cosmo City. Basil Read, the localpotential sustainable practices in South Africa and create a comprehensive developer, will provide professional assistance and guidance throughout the WHO WILL USE THIS BOOK?atlas of their research. The atlas will inform the design of a 6,000 square design process, and will help secure support during construction. CUSD: SSA compiled this book primarily to help students designing the crèchefoot Early Childhood Development center (known as a crèche) which will be to better understand the context and depth of the project. The informationconstructed by volunteer students during Summer 2011 in Cosmo City, South COSMO CITY and research gathered in this book is not limited to those students. It can actAfrica. Cosmo City is a pioneering public-private partnership between the City as a resource for (1) second year architecture students designing the crèche, of Johannesburg and Basil Read to house previously informal inhabitants (2) future CUSD: SSA team members, (3) other design-build project teams,PROJECT PHASES into a socio-economically integrated housing development along with (4) individuals interested in learning more about sustainable building systemsThe built result will put into practice the theories developed in its production basic infrastructure and public amenities. Located 15 miles northwest of and solutions, (5) educators, and (6) CUSD sponsors and partners, just toand integrate itself into the newborn city as a critical social amenity. Johannesburg, Cosmo City was first populated just 5 years ago and will name a few. This book will also assist to incorporate sustainable solutions inThroughout the 2010-2011 academic year, CUSD will research, analyze, and accommodate approximately 70,000 people by the end of 2010. As part of projects in the departments of architecture, landscape architecture, planning,map existing patterns in housing, employment and social structures. Students the South African government’s Reconstruction and Development Program and others.will catalogue building systems and fabrication techniques, and investigate (RDP), Cosmo City has the potential to become an example for sustainabledesign and programmatic potentials. Local material-use, construction and socially responsible urbanization, and help overcome inequalities that Educators, project sponsors and CUSD: SSA partners may also be interestedprocesses and waste-energy cycles will all be considered. persist in the post-apartheid period. in perusing this book as this book acts as an almanac, documenting the team’s progress and comprehensive work.All research will be compiled into a comprehensive design-brief that will COMMUNITYinform the development and production of working drawings in Spring 2011, The community is our focus in all aspects of the project – from creating an open HOW SHOULD THIS BOOK BE USED?and initiate the collaboration between CUSD and the comprehensive design data platform for research that is accessible to the public, to capacity-building Readers are encouraged to use this book as a resource to initiate discussion,studio (sixty second-year architecture students). As the construction drawings and participatory design workshops for the future students and teachers. In inspire design, and promote sustainable building materials and systems. Thisare completed, 35 Cornell students will travel to Cosmo City, South Africa, addition, the construction of the crèche will provide an unmatched platform document is not intended to be an all-encompassing, didactic set of participate in the construction phase. Student-community interaction, for skills transfer between Cornell students and Cosmo City construction Rather, it presents a diverse field of research from which readers can elicitparticipatory design workshops, and skills transfer in prototyping and workers. The cultural exchange between Cornell students and the Cosmo City both information and will empower both the Cornell and South African communities. community and the relationships formed will be invaluable to both. GLOSSARYThis pre-school will accommodate up to 80 of the city’s neediest children A TRULY SUSTAINABLE PROJECT crèche A day-care center for young childrenas part of a national initiative to improve Early Childhood Development. The This will be the first official crèche in the low-income neighborhood of CUSD Cornell University Sustainable Designfacility will include classrooms, a dining area, a kitchen, a health center, indoor Cosmo City. Currently, day care centers are found in small homes with up to EA Education Africaand outdoor play areas, and an office. Interactive spaces will create a sanctuary 80 children in a 6m x 6m shelter. Our project will provide proper facilities for ECD Early Childhood Developmentfor group learning, creative play, and social development. The structure will children to learn and grow for generations. RDP Reconstruction Development Programalso house training seminars for teachers within Cosmo City to improve the spaza Informal convenience storequality of education in crèches throughout the community. tuck shop Informal convenience store SSA Schoolhouse South Africa ZAR South African Rand (currency of South Africa)SCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA vii
  8. 8. cHAPtEr 1 cASE StudIES1.1.1 TETON COMMUNITY SCHOOLPROJECT NAME DESIGN ASSESSMENTTETON VALLEY COMMUNITY SCHOOL DESIGN CONCEPTS, STRATEGIES AND FEATURESLOCATION • Modular design allows for “pay-as-you-go” expansion plan. As theVictor, Idaho, U.S.A. school gains funds, classrooms can be added easily. • Bridge element (central room, hallway, locker space, etc.) is vital forAUTHOR the connectivity of the students who might be separated by age or[DC] WORKSHOP - DESIGN COLLABORATIVE class all day. • Greenhouse functions as a threshold to the outdoor classroom.LINKS / REFERENCES • Moveable walls allow for the students to design the space. Stu- dents can form smaller spaces or remove walls to allow for a largerHTTP://TETONVALLEYCOMMUNITYSCHOOL.COM/HTTP://OPENARCHITECTURENETWORK.ORG/PROJECTS/4128 indoor/outdoor threshold. • High windows reduce the amount of distractions in the classroom and cork boards function both as pin-up space and acoustic tiles,SUPPORTING FOUNDATIONS minimizing noise scatter.THE MODULAR BUILDING INSTITUTE • Play areas utilize natural site features (trees, rocks, beams, etc.) andRUMI SCHOOLS OF EXCELLENCE drought resistant plants.ARCHITECTURE FOR HUMANITY • TVCS’s mission is to provide individual attention, collaborative learning, hands-on-experience, a strong connection to environ-HISTORY / BRIEF DESCRIPTION ment, development of personal responsibility and sense of placeThe planning for the Teton Valley Community school began in the early through real world learning, and active stewardship to community1990s, with a strong mission to provide education to underprivledged and the environment. The curriculum involves lessons enhancingchildren. After denied charter school status by the state of Idaho, the TVCS connections to earth and nature. In addition to state required sub-established itself as a non-profit independent school with a strong financial jects, the students learn by working with farm animals, gardeningaid program. Between 2002 and 2010, enrollment increased from 15 to 90. for sustenance, and local field trips.Previously a one-room classroom and part of a renovated garage, the school • The school is heated and cooled geothermally, and the mechanicalfaculty hired [DC] Workshop to realize a new space. The plans for the new systems are labeled with large, colorful lettering and are on displayTVCS won the 2009 Open Architecture Network Challenge, and continuesto “nurture and inspire life long learners by providing a state of the art behind glass panels so students can understand how the buildinglearning community.” functions and operates.CONDITIONS OF SITEVictor is a small, residential community surrounded by pastoral fields and TECHNICAL ASSESSMENTgardens. Previously a rural settlement of Native Americans and agricultural CLIMATIC PERFORMANCEworkers, the town has grown since the opening of Rand Targhee Ski Area in • Masonry walls (thermal mass) absorbs heat from the outside1969. The school embodies its context by utilizing both indoor and outdoor • Southern prevailing windows flushes hot air out of the classrooms andeducational opportunities. The existing school has an organic garden, allows for natural ventilationgreenhouse, chicken coup, and goat barn. All students go through the “Farm • Roof is properly insulated to absorb radiant heat from the metal roofand Garden” program, where they learn about planting soil, harvesting crops, • Rain water is collected from the metal roof and can be used to irrigatecomposting waste, cooking fresh vegetables, preserving food, etc. Older the agricultural fields and organic garden.children learn about economics while creating a business plan for an egg • Uses “clearstory lighting”, which responds to the directly overhead sun, that Idaho experiences, and provides maximum lighting with minimalselling business. heat gain.2 SCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA
  9. 9. cHAPtEr 1 cASE StudIES CHILDREN FROM THE TETON VALLEY SUMMER CAMP SHOW THEIR APPRECIATION FOR NATURE. USER RESPONSE WHO ARE THE USERS? INTENDED AND UNINTENDED: Up to 120 students and a dozen faculty. The school is in fact much more than a school: the main library space is used as a community meeting space, the greenhouse is open to public use, and many summer camps take advantage of the nature gardens and recreational space.MATERIALS IMPACT / RESPONSEBricks (made on-site), Concrete, Wood (harvested on site), Sheet metal, Teton Valley Community School strives to “educate the whole child by inte-Slate panels for chalkboards, Re-bar, Hardware grating creative expression, social responsibility and academic excellence”, and this is accomplished by a supportive community.SERVICESGreenhouse serves as a storage unit for irrigation water and provides Currently, the school is in the construction phase, in part funded by the money from the Open Architecture Network ($50,000) . The school hopesgreywater for flushing toilets. to become a prototype for other schools as well as a community hub for Teton Valley. CHILDREN WERE ASKED TO DESIGN A SCHOOL BASED ON WHAT THEY WANTED TO SEE BUILT. THE YOUNGER CHILDREN WERE TAUGHT HOW TO DRAW FLOOR PLANS AND THE OLDER CHILDREN BUILT 3-D MODERLS.SCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA 3
  10. 10. cHAPtEr 1 cASE StudIES1.1.2 OLELESHWA PRIMARY SCHOOLPROJECT NAME DESIGN ASSESSMENTOLELESHWA PRIMARY SCHOOL DESIGN CONCEPTS, STRATEGIES AND FEATURESLOCATION • “Why four doors?” Karl and Alec are often asked. The design ideaEwaso N’giro, Rift Valley, Kenya behind having four doors is to open the interior to a large outdoor learning area. The four doors create a very permeable facade and invite the outdoors to become part of the classroom and viceSIZE versa. When the classroom is used for community gatherings or80 square meters celebrations, the openness is key and allows for free traffic flow. • The windows were designed very specifically with slanted ledgesAUTHOR to allow for water run off away from the building. The windows areALEX RING three-part, with lower windows opening like shutters, and an upperKARL SARKIS window to allow for air flow. The stone walls have ridges on themGEOFFREY WASONGA that act as vertical shading devices. PROGRAMLINKS / REFERENCES • Community Center and Education FacilityHTTP://OPENARCHITECTURENETWORK.ORG/PROJECTS/HARAMBEE4HUMANITYHTTP://HARAMBEE4HUMANITYLINKINGHANDS.BLOGSPOT.COM/SUPPORTING FOUNDATIONS TECHNICAL ASSESSMENTHARAMBEE 4 HUMANITY CLIMATIC PERFORMANCEMAASAI COMMUNITY OF EWASO NGIRO, • Masonry wall (stone and earth bag construction) acts as a form of ther- mal massing.HISTORY / BRIEF DESCRIPTION • Double roof system acts as cooling element which provides shade and reduces the acoustic interference between the classrooms. In bothThe Rift Valley is home to the Maasai, a nomadic ethnic group of Kenya and school and teachers’ houses the ventilation is achieved by spacious gapsNorthern Tanzania. The educational system of Kenya was enforced by the in the gable end walls.English colonists, and has since been a source of tension. The Oleleshwa • Fabric used in the ceiling is lined with reflective material so the sunlightSchool strives to establish an open, malleable space for a nomadic culture, is reflected inside of entering and heating the interior.while also providing a permenant education system and community center. • A 10 000 L water tank collects rainwater from the roof of the classroom.CONDITIONS OF SITE STRUCTURE SYSTEMSKenya is mostly dry and hot, with very flat land. However, Rift Valley • Double roof system with a steel corrugated deck, wood trusses and fabricexperiences a lot of humidity and wind since it is close to the coast. Drought ceiling.season is often problematic and buildings must be resistant to animal • Four corner pillars made out of concretestampedes. • The walls are common clay bricks walls with exterior buttresses to resist lateral loads. • Beams over windows, to support roof’s substructure and porches were made with concrete. • Foundation consists of large stones.4 SCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA
  11. 11. cHAPtEr 1 cASE StudIES ROOF SYSTEM COVERED WITH INSULATED SHUKA FABRIC MADE BY LOCALSTHE ROOF CONSISTS OF CORRUGATED METAL AND IS RAISED FROM THEINTERIOR ROOF BY WOODEN TRUSSES CONSTRUCTED ON THE GROUND AND THENFASTENED IN PLACE. THE TRUSSES ARE LINED WITH TRADITIONAL COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENTSHANGA FABRIC MADE BY LOCAL WOMEN. • “We do not only want to give them a school, we want to give them one that they have helped design, build, run and grow. This will hopefully instill an ownership within the community allowing them to learn, move forward, and grow in what is currently a difficult shift for the Maasai from a nomadic society to permanent villages.” • Local architect, contractor, and labors were a part of the team. Profes- sional architect (Alec Ring) collaborated with the locals and mainly designed the roofing system.EARTH BAG WALL BEING COVERED BY CLAY COATING • By having a co-operative for the women’s group, the school will be eco- WINDOWS WITH VERTICAL SHADING DEVICES nomically productive as well as symbiotic. The women will produce cloth (PROTRUDING STONE UNITS), SHUTTERS, AND AN UPPER bags (recycled materials as well as Kenyan prints) to reduce plastic in the WINDOW FOR VENTILATION community and the sewing of washable sanitary pads. These women willMATERIALS learn valuable business skills as well as give back to the school by making• Ceiling: corrugated steel deck, cedar trusses, and Maasai Shukas (African uniforms for the children. fabric, similar to tartan plaid • This school is symbolic in that it provides a stable and permanent struc-• Windows: bi-fold, louvered windows with a glass pane at the top, which ture for an otherwise nomadic culture. Built for the children and women can be opened to allow air flow of the community, it will emerge as a central, communal hub.• Black oxide paint on a concrete wall (creates chalkboard surface)• Walls: stone topped with “earth bags” (a form of both insulation and thermal massing. Made with burlap bags and filled with a mixture of soil USER RESPONSE and cement joined together with barbed wire. Coated with plaster create WHO ARE THE USERS? INTENDED AND UNINTENDED: rounded edges and give the appearance of manyatta 150+ pupils, teachers, and up to 6 womens’ groupsECONOMIC ASSESSMENT IMPACT / RESPONSE • Eventually, Oleleshwa Primary hopes to expand to become a large1 complete school building for around 200 pupils 15000 USD community center on the school property (30 acres). A Co-opera- tive for various women’s groups will operate from it and eventually create a gift-shop to draw tourists and other school groups. • “We are not just here to build a school but to develop a relationship be- tween two communities” says Alec Ring.SCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA 5
  12. 12. cHAPtEr 1 cASE StudIES1.1.3 PROJECT KHAYELITSHAPROJECT NAME DESIGN ASSESSMENTEKHAYA EKASI COMMUNITY CENTER DESIGN CONCEPTS, STRATEGIES AND FEATURESLOCATION The resulting design centers around a large, flexible community room that can be opened to the busy cul-de-sac in front or, more privately, to the innerKhayelitsa, Cape Town, South Africa courtyard. Also on the ground floor are a boutique/salon and communityAUTHOR kitchen, with bedrooms for guests and the green roof above.HARVARD GRADUATE SCHOOL OF DESIGN STUDENTS: Shipping Containers:*ASHLEY HEEREN MARCH I, *PATRICK JONES MARCH I, JESSICA LISAGOR • In Khayelitsha shipping containers are used for everything from offices and shops to homes, this project recognizes their ubiquitous use andMARCH I, DK OSSEO-ASSARE MARCH I, VANESSA PALMER MLA I, *LAURA utilizes them in new ways. The shipping containers provide appropriateSHIPMAN MAUDM *ANGIE THEBAUD MUP, *GENA WIRTH MLA I, ULISES structural rigidity to most of the building as well as for the roof gardens.DIAZ LOEB FELLOW ‘07, *STEVEN LEWIS LOEB FELLOW ‘07 The rest of the building is constructed using local materials and tech-(*TRAVELED TO KHAYELITSHA DURING THE SUMMER OF 2007) niques.LINKS / REFERENCES Vegetation:HTTP://WWW.ARCHINECT.COM/FEATURES/ARTICLE. • Used as part of the passive cooling strategies, as insulation, for waterPHP?ID=65752_0_23_0_C retention, and for a vegetable garden that will supply the community kitchen.HTTP://WWW.LOWDO.NET/PROJECTS/PROJECT-KHAYELITSHA/ Water Retention:HTTP://HARVARDPK.BLOGSPOT.COM/ • The project will apply water catchment and reuse strategies on site toSUPPORTING FOUNDATIONS help mitigate the severe environmental conditions of Khayeltisha.MONKEY BIZ (DIRECTOR: BARBARA JACKSON) PROGRAMARTS AID ART The students, in conversations with the community, wanted to create entrepreneurial programs to attract people from outside the townshipHISTORY / BRIEF DESCRIPTION and better the quality of life of the community. The main program for theProjectKHAYELITSHA was an effort to design and assist in construction of a building consists of:new multipurpose community center in Khayelitsha, on the outskirts of Cape • 1. gallery and store for Monkeybiz,Town, South Africa. The site provided an opportunity to create a center that • 2. hair styling salon,would foster a sense of community ownership and a space serving an entire • 3. bed and breakfast,neighborhood with education and development projects. This project was • 4. community kitchen/snack bar,affiliated with Art Aids Art and MonkeyBiz, nonprofit organizations working • 5. space for education and community events.with a South African collective of women artists to create employment andempowerment for disadvantaged women through beadwork in the township.Security was of primary importance, given the high crime rate in thetownship. The team explored a variety of siting options until determining thesafest option while maintaining an open configuration.Throughout the design process, the projectKHAYELITSHA team focused oncontinuing research in several areas: alternative energy strategies includingsolar panels and passive heating/cooling, and green roof construction, in anon-site mockup (far right). The mock-up experimented with various soil/sodbases, depths, and plantings in order to determine the most effective use ofthe intended roof-garden.6 SCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA
  13. 13. cHAPtEr 1 cASE StudIES COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT The team led a participatory process involving the craftswomen and community members to provide transparency and openness for the artistic design process while maintaining security. The community was engaged throughout the project and participated in charettes and exhibitions. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT CLIMATIC PERFORMANCE • The community center required natural ventilation and needed to be predominantly self-sustaining (a small garden provides much of the food cooked in the cafe for the artisans and visitors). STRUCTURE SYSTEMS • CMU columns • Timber roof structure • Maxibrick wall • Polycarbonate roofing - allows light in • Corrugated metal roofing • Shipping Container • Concrete and the upper part of big stones. MATERIALS Use of local/found objects to create a porous yet secures façade. The final material palette: • Brick, • Timber, • Polycarbonate, • Glass block • Metal container work together to bring light and warmth to each space.SCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA 7
  14. 14. cHAPtEr 1 cASE StudIES1.1.4 SCHOOL IN GANDOPROJECT NAME DESIGN ASSESSMENTGANDO PRIMARY SCHOOL DESIGN CONCEPTS, STRATEGIES AND FEATURES • The school is part of a whole development project which also in-LOCATION cludes the construction of a water collection unit, teachers’ hous-Gando, Tenkodogo, Boulgou, Burkina Faso ing, and latrines. • Rooms are on pedestals and covered with a projecting roof to pro-AUTHOR tect the clay walls. The rooms were planned as simple rectangular modules.FRANCIS KÉRÉ ARCHITECT • Buttresses, which serve to brace the walls, stage a play of light andSCHULBAUSTEINE FÜR GANDO E.V., A GERMAN ASSOCIATION shade which communicates plasticity as well as structure.FOUNDED BY FRANCIS KÉRÉ • Teachers’ houses are arranged forming a yard that imitates a tradi-LINKS / REFERENCES tional homestead and allow community living, but also provides aHTTP://WWW.FUERGANDO.DE private yard to each familyHTTP://OPENARCHITECTURENETWORK.ORG/PROJECTS/707HTTP://WWW.KERE-ARCHITECTURE.COM/BF/BF_001.HTML PROGRAMHTTP://WWW.AKDN.ORG/AKAA_AWARD9_AWARDS_DETAIL2.ASP • Initially it was a School for 350 pupils built in 2001. Two years later houses were constructed for teachers and their families. In 2008 aSUPPORTING FOUNDATIONS second school building was finished with some improvements.HEVERT-ARZNEIMITTEL GMBH & CO. KG • The project is still in course, with the aim of create a library, schoolTECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF BERLIN kitchen, healthcare centre, energy-saving clay ovens, residential houses, etc.HISTORY / BRIEF DESCRIPTION TECHNICAL ASSESSMENTWhen Francis Kéré was studying abroad in Germany he realized the CLIMATIC PERFORMANCE:link between education and development and decided to build a • Clay walls absorb heat, moderating room in his village. The aim was always helping people to help them- • Double roof system acts as cooling element which provides shadeselves, therefore the people was included in the process from the and reduces the acoustic interference between the classrooms.beginning. In both school and teachers’ houses the ventilation is achieved by spacious gaps in the gable end walls.CONDITIONS OF SITEGando is a village of 2,500 people in whousually live together in multi- STRUCTURE SYSTEMS:generation houses. The village is in Burkina Faso, one of the poorest • Double roof system. The lower roof was made with BTC-brickscountries in West Africa. Climatically there are 2 seasons: a dry season (more compression strength by adding a small amount of cement).from November until June and a short rainy season from July to Octo- Local citizens made bricks with a mechanical press and placedber. them over a steel mesh connected with concrete roof’s beams. In the second School they improved upon this method with a para- bolic roof that makes bricks work better under compression. • The walls are made of common clay bricks with exterior buttresses to resist lateral loads. • Beams over windows, to support roof substructure • Foundation consists of concrete and the upper part of big stones.8 SCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA
  15. 15. cHAPtEr 1 cASE StudIESThe roof consists of corrugated metal and is raised from the interiorroof by steel truss. This allows air circulation between roofs, protectsthe clay building, and gives shade to the large exterior area. COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT • The first school serves children not only from Gando, but also students from surrounding villages. Everything was made by localLightweight steel elements of the Local irrigation system. people, who were trained to use handsaws and welding machines.roof were assembled onsite, sav- • Professional contribution was utilized only in the design; a localing on logistical costs. architect took the initiative to assist in the design process.MATERIALS • Community members were involved since the beginning of con-Clay, Corrugated Metal Sheets, Concrete struction. It was a cooperative effort and served as an example for two nearby villages which also built their schools through commu-SERVICES: nity effort.Instead of watering the plant two times a day, they devised an innova-tive system which uses local clay pottery full of water, with a hole in thebottom of the pot. That provides a continuous irrigation directly to the USER RESPONSEground, in order to prevent evaporation. The clay pots need to be filledjust once a week. WHO ARE THE USERS? 500 pupils, and 6 teachers’ families.ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT IMPACT / RESPONSE1 complete school building for 400 pupils 70,000 USD Skills learned were applied to further initiatives in the village and else- where. The local authorities recognized the project’s worth and con- tinue to support it with teaching staff, as well as employ people trained during the school’s construction for the town’s public projects.SCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA 9
  16. 16. cHAPtEr 1 cASE StudIES1.1.5 DRUK WHITE LOTUS SCHOOLPROJECT NAME DESIGN ASSESSMENTDRUK WHITE LOTUS SCHOOL DESIGN CONCEPTS, STRATEGIES AND FEATURES • PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING. The tombe wall system is paintedLOCATION black and the south-facing facades are double glazed to gather theLa-Dakh, Northern India sun’s energy. Granite and mud walls have high thermal inertia to store gained heat.AUTHOR • SUPERINSULATION. The roofs are constructed of local poplar rafters, willow sheathing topped with mud and rock wool and feltOVE ARUP & PARTNERS insulation. The weather skin is sand and aluminum sheets.LINKS / REFERENCES • AIR LOCKS. Entries to classroom buildings are all air locks to act asHTTP://WWW.DWLS.ORG/ a buffer between winter cold and warm interiors.HTTP://WWW.ARUP.COM/PROJECTS/DRUK_WHITE_LOTUS_SCHOOL.ASPX • DAYLIGHTING. The classrooms are designed for optimum daylight. In the wider Nursery and Kindergarten Building, light from directSUPPORTING FOUNDATIONS solar-gain windows is balanced by toplighting from north- and south-facing clerestories and a splayed ceiling. Typically, electricHIS HOLINESS GYALWANG DRUKPA lighting is not necessary in the classrooms.DRUKPA TRUST, A UK-REGISTERED CHARITY • NATURAL VENTILATION. All the rooms have well-shaded operableDRUK PADMA KARPO EDUCATION SOCIETY windows that allow natural cross-ventilation which provides a cool and glare-free high-quality teaching environment.HISTORY / BRIEF DESCRIPTION • MIGRATION. Courtyards between classroom buildings are sub- divided into smaller spaces appropriate for teaching during mildThe school was started at the request of the people of Ladakh who sunny days. Buildings and trees provide shade and wind protectionwanted a school that would help maintain their rich cultural traditions, to these spaces.based on Tibetan Buddhism, while equipping their children for a life inthe 21st century. The masterplan and school buildings combine localbuilding techniques and materials with leading edge environmental TECHNICAL ASSESSMENTdesign to make them effective in the extreme climate. CLIMATIC PERFORMANCE: • The goal for the school was to import no energy, maximize solar potential of the high desert, and supply and treat all water on site.CONDITIONS OF SITEThe Leh Valley is in Northern India near Cashmere, between two of STRUCTURE SYSTEMS:the tallest mountain ranges, including the Himalayas. High altitude • Trombe walls made of ventilated mud brick and granite cavity wallsdessert of about 3,500m with strong sun exposure despite biting cold with double glazingtemperatures. The area is remote: the main road linking Ladakh with • Timber portal frames to resist earthquake loadsthe rest of India is cut off by snow for at least half of each year. • Timber roof structure with steel plate connections to provide large clear spans10 SCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA
  17. 17. cHAPtEr 1 cASE StudIES ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT Built Area: 1,240 sqm Cost: USD 424,810MATERIALS:• Solid granite blocks (used for the outer wall) from stone found on or adjacent to the site. COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT• Inner walls are made of local mud brick, forming cavity walls for • Local construction techniques were employed, maximizing the po- significantly improved insulation and high durability. tential of local community involvement.• The roof is of a traditional Ladakhi mud construction, including • Tourists worked along side local community in construction. poplar and willow from local monastery plantations, and provides good protection from the cold. USER RESPONSESERVICES:• SOLAR VIP TOILET. These waterless ventilated improved pit toilets WHO ARE THE USERS? were designed to use solar-assisted stack ventilators to help create 750 pupils from nursery age to 18 years old odorless compost which is an excellent fertilizer.• SOLAR ENERGY. It uses an initial installation of 9 kWp of PV panels, IMPACT / RESPONSE which also act as external shading devices for three of the school • The school is concieved as a model for appropriate and sustainable buildings. The PV installation was 60% funded by Arup Associates, development in Ladak. who used this project to offset their carbon footprint for 2007. • It won World Architecture Awards in 2002 as Best Education Building of the Year, Best Green Building of the Year (joint winner), and Regional Winner—AsiaSCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA 11
  18. 18. cHAPtEr 1 cASE StudIES1.1.6 TEKSING BAMBOOWOOD SCHOOLPROJECT NAME TECHNICAL ASSESSMENTTEKSING BAMBOOWOOD SCHOOL MATERIALSLOCATION Because of the remoteness of site, the design tries to avoid using foreignTeksing, Nepal construction materials. All materials are local and “vernacular” for practical reasons and to raise appreciation for the traditional architecture.AUTHOR Concrete: Typically used for foundation (poured over stones, forms basment and floor of current school buildings. However, cement has to beDESIGN TEAM: PETR KOSTNER, MARTINA SOBOTKOVÁ AND SOŇA imported from the city so the builders avoided using it. Instead, hewn stoneHUBEROVÁ flooring was laid into sand or clay bed. Concrete ring beams can be replaced with linear members made of bamboo or wood.LINKS / REFERENCES Stone: Usually used for masonry walls. Stone was accessible locally fromHTTP://TECH.NEPALKO.INFO/2009/07/OPEN-ARCHITECTURE- nearby landslides.CHALLENGE-FINALISTS-ANNOUNCED/ Rammed earth: Rammed earth, along with cob walling, is a traditional wayHTTP://OPENARCHITECTURENETWORK.ORG/PROJECTS/4064 of construction in Nepal. The result is very durable, has good load-bearing capacity, and is a good alternative to stone masonry since dirt is moreSUPPORTING FOUNDATIONS readily available than stone. However, rammed earth is highly susceptible toORIENT GLOBAL corrosion when wet or untreated so the walls are only situated in areas thatARCHITECTURE FOR HUMANITY are shielded from the rain. Bamboo: Bamboo is an indigenous plant and is sustainable since it growsHISTORY / BRIEF DESCRIPTION quickly. Bamboo is very lightweight and flexible as well as strong in tension. Wood: Not widespead, but some random patches of trees grow on the siteTeksing Primary School is an expansion of an existing building that needed and were used in construction. Reed grass was also considered since it ismore space and more teachers. The school is large enough for 40-50 traditional in Nepal construction; however, it has a shorter lifespan than woodstudents per class. By enlarging the classes and providing education up and is highly Year 10, the school strives to help limit the rural-to-urban migration. By Corrugated iron: In recent years, traditional grass roofing has beeninforcing education and pride in the local town, the school will become an replaced by corrugated metal, even though it is an imported material. It isexample to other rural communities in Nepal. quick to mount and can also be used as formwork for rammed walls. Gravel and grass is still placed over metal roof to reduce the noise distraction whenCONDITIONS OF SITE it rains. Steel was considered, but imported steel is highly dependent onTeksing is in a remote location and has no access to a power grid or water political stability.source. The topography is rough and the climate is subtropical; long, hotsummers and high humidity and mild rainy seasons. SERVICES Without water, a power supply, or access to any efficient fuel resources, theDESIGN ASSESSMENT school embraces a “zero technology” philosophy. The school only operatesDESIGN CONCEPTS, STRATEGIES AND FEATURES during the daytime so there is no need for artificial lighting.• The vernacular architecture of Nepal, including material, construc- tion, typology, etc. were studied in the initial design phases as a starting point. The architects then tried to re-think certain ele- ments of vernacular principles to increase the quality and comfort of the school environment.PROGRAM• Education Facility - Secondary School12 SCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA
  19. 19. cHAPtEr 1 cASE StudIESCOMMUNITY INVOLVEMENTThe village has no professionalcraftsman since everyone mustknow to repair one’s own home. Thisproject took advantage of enlistingeveryone’s help for maximumlocal community participation,sustainability, and affordability.USER RESPONSEWHO ARE THE USERS?300 students (ages ~ 12-16) andteachersIMPACT / RESPONSEAlthough not yet built, the TeksingSchool has attracted a lot of atten-tion due to its status as a finalist inOpen Architecture Competitions:Classroom. The designers hope thatthis school can be a prototype forother schools in the area, and pre-vent education from suffering in ruralregions of Nepal.SCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA 13
  20. 20. cHAPtEr 1 cASE StudIES1.1.7 NADUKUPPAM COLONY WOMEN’S CENTER AND BALWADIPROJECT NAME DESIGN ASSESSMENTNADUKUPPAM COLONY WOMEN’S CENTER AND BALWADI (NCWCB) DESIGN CONCEPTS, STRATEGIES AND FEATURESLOCATION The building is 40 square meters; enough for a small meeting place but still adherent to the small budget. An older building existed ad-Auroville, Tamil Nadu, India jacent to the new building, and it was included into the design as a restoration project. To maximize sustainability and minimize costs,AUTHOR the building uses passive technology and locally available materials.ARCHITECT: PURNIMA MCCUTCHEON Specific features include:PROJECT AND COMMUNITY COORDINATORS: PITCHANDIKULAM BIORESOURCE CENTER CSEB: The building is primarily constructed using CSEBs (Compressed Stabilized Earth Bricks). Local workers use a manual press to compress rawLINKS / REFERENCES soil with stabilizers to create the bricks, which have a curing time of 4 weeks. CSEBs are biodegradable, nonpolluting, made from local material, and aHTTP://OPENARCHITECTURENETWORK.ORG/PROJECTS/1162 good source of thermal massing in cold weather.HTTP://ARCHITECTUREFORHUMANITY.ORG/ NODE/838 NATURAL VENTILATION AND LIGHT: a lofted, mangalore terracotta tile roof over the Balwadi is similar to a gable roof. It is multi-level and split at theSUPPORTING FOUNDATIONS ridge with a protected opening to let in indirect light and air for ventilation.ARCHITECTURE FOR HUMANITY FENESTRATIONS: the windows are secured with grills and have metal screens for light and air can enter, while insects cannot.HISTORY / BRIEF DESCRIPTION TOILETS: a toilet for the teachers and adults is provided and adjacent, another toilet exists for the children. Shaded by bamboo and a low wall,The aim of this project was to provide a place for: a local association, called the toilet is a necessity and an opportunity for education about personalthe Women’s Self Help Group; a training center for women empowerment; hygiene.and a day-care center for children. The community realized that thisbuilding could hold a significant amount of meaning, and they placed a lot OUTDOOR MEETING SPACE: large stones were laid flat over compacted soilof attention on developing other programs that the building could facilitate, to create an outdoor shelter, shaded by a bamboo roof. The space is soothingsuch as support groups, town meetings, literacy classes, etc. and comforting and can be used except in very wet weather.CONDITIONS OF SITE PROGRAM The building is divided into 3 areas, based upon the programmed uses:Auroville is located in the north-east region of India, in the state of Tamil 1. Southern Entry Area: includes the covered space and theNadu. It was founded in 1968 and has a population of around 2,000 people. renovated storage room.The site is adjacent to a large banyan tree, perfect for shade in the hot 2. Central Multipurpose Hall: a space for creative play, focusedsun. The climate is tropical: hot with a monsoon season from October to in an interaction between learning and productivity.December. 3. Northern playground, courts, and toilets.14 SCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA
  21. 21. cHAPtEr 1 cASE StudIES COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT • A labor team of 25 was hired. An additional labor team of 20 was hired to produce the CSEBs (Compressed Stabilised Earth Blocks). These ma- sons not only gained valuable skills and received payment, but now earn DETAILED IMAGE OF THE ROOF a consistent income with acquired skills and teach them to others as far (SHOWS CORRUGATED DECKING, WOODEN away as Chennai city (160 kilometers away). FRAME, AND CSEB WALL WITH • The balwadi strives to generate income through facilitating direct low GAPS FOR AIR VENTILATION interest loans from the State Bank, training in medicinal plant use and AND LIGHT PENETRATION. cultivation, organic farming principles, health and hygiene awareness, and family planning. Several classes for adults are hosted at the NCWCB including tailoring courses, nursery training, and local investment in ecologically sustainable initiatives. Education combined with vocational training generates income and enforces economic self-sufficiency.TECHNICAL ASSESSMENTSTRUCTURE SYSTEMS USER RESPONSE• The clay roof tiles are supported by a wood frame, corrugated decking, WHO ARE THE USERS? INTENDED AND UNINTENDED: and masonry columns. Balwadi: 30 children, 11 boys and 19 girls, ages 3 to 5 years (daily)• Masonry (CSEB) walls are self-supporting and allow for large windows WSHG members: 20 women, 24-40 years old (3 times a week) spaces for natural lighting. 40 WSHG Federation members, married women, ages 25-50 (once a month) 25 Children’s Parliament members, children ages 11 to 14 (once or 2 times aMATERIALS month)Compressed mud bricks, tile flooring, clay roof tiles, timber framing, 50 Community members, male and female, all ages (once a month)recycled glass mosaic, bamboo trills with coir connections, stone taken from 1 Literacy teacher, male, age 30the site, and CSEBs (Compressed Stabilized Earth Bricks). 1 Balwadi teacher, female, age 30 IMPACT / RESPONSEECONOMIC ASSESSMENT Overall, the aim of the project is women empowerment. Furthermore, the1 complete school building for $ 5,436 community has been strengthened and many local workers have benefitted from the training that the NCWCB now supplies.SCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA 15
  22. 22. cHAPtEr 1 cASE StudIES1.1.8 METI - HANDMADE SCHOOLPROJECT NAME DESIGN ASSESSMENTMETI – HANDMADE SCHOOL DESIGN CONCEPTS, STRATEGIES AND FEATURESLOCATION • The school is two stories. The ground floor is dimly lit, with earthen caves and tunnels that create intimate spaces for the children. TheRudrapur, Dinajpur district, Bangladesh second floor is open, airy, with bamboo shutters that let in plenty of natural light. The second floor is malleable and is often divided intoAUTHOR two or three seperate classroom spaces.DESIGN / CONCEPT: Anna Heringer • These “caves” become an interface between the inside and outsideTECHNICAL, DETAILED PLANNING: Anna Heringer and Eike Roswag and are crucial to the development of children’s sense of spaceSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING: Dr. Christof Ziegert, Uwe Seiler and exploration.CONSULTING, BUILDING SUPERVISION AND TRAINING OF WORK- • Footprint: 275 m2ERS IN BAMBOO CONSTRUCTION: Emmanuel Heringer (basket • Floor area: 325 m2weaver and carpenter) and Stephanie Haider (blacksmith)LINKS / REFERENCES PROGRAM • Primary School / Business CooperationHTTP://WWW.ANNA-HERINGER.COM/HTTP://WWW.METI-SCHOOL.DE/DATEN/ENTWICKLUNG_E.HTMSUPPORTING FOUNDATIONSDipshikha/ METI (Modern Education and Training Institute)Bangladesh in cooperation with Partnerschaft Shanti – Bangladesh and theKindermissionswerk AachenHISTORY / BRIEF DESCRIPTIONRudrapur lies in the north of the most densely populated country on PLAN AND SECTION SHOWING CAVE AND TUNNEL SPACES.the earth. Poverty and lack of infrastructure drive many people from thecountryside into the cities. The local NGO Dipshikha attempts to follownew paths with its development program: the intention is to give the ruralpopulation perspectives and to help people learn about the value of thevillage in all its complexity. Part of this is a special school concept thatinstills in its students self-confidence and independence with the aim ofstrengthening their sense of identity.CONDITIONS OF SITEBangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries on Earth. Eachyear, large amounts of agricultural land is lost to development. This school IN MANY INSTANCES, BAMBOO IS MORE APPROPRIATE THAN WOOD ORaims to preserve local building techniques (use of bamboo and loom) as well STEEL. IT IS EXTREMELY LIGHTWEIGHT AND HAS A HIGH ELASTICITY AND TENSILEas preserve the strong ecological aspect of the vilage. RESISTANCE. ESPECIALLY IN TROPICAL CLIMATES, WHERE MOISTURE IN BANGLADESH, A STRONG CONTRAST EXISTS BETWEEN URBAN AND PLAYS A BIG ROLE, BAMBOO’S BENDING AND SHEARING PROPERTIES RURAL LIFE MAKE IT VERY USEFUL. (TOTAL OF 2300 BAMBOO STICKS USED!)16 SCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA
  23. 23. cHAPtEr 1 cASE StudIESTECHNICAL ASSESSMENTCLIMATIC PERFORMANCE• Thick, flowing sharis fabric line the doors of the ground floor. They keep out critters and heat but let in a nice breeze to allow for air circulation.• The school is elevated off the ground to prevent any flooding during the rain season, and rain water is collected from the roof.• A vertical garden facade shades the openings in the walls and also pro- tect the earthen walls from erosions. While being an interactive learning surface for the children, it also helps reduce the indoor temperature through evaporation and helps create cleaner air.STRUCTURE SYSTEMSFoundation and walls are made of Earth through a process called cobwallingor “Wellerbau”. Wet earth is mixed with straw and applied to a wall in layers.Each layer is dried and trimmed to create a regular, flat wall surface. TheEarth from this area is well suited for this process and can be made morestable with the addition of more straw, rice, or jute. COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENTThe ceiling is comprised of three layers of bamboo poles arrangedperpendicularly to each other with bamboo boards and earth for the flooring. • Construction period: 6 months (September to December 2005, March toThe frame construction of the walls and roof are layers of bound together April 2006)bamboo poles (acts as beams), vertical bamboo posts and diagonal bamboo • Construction team was roughly fifty percent professional (from Austria/members. The joints are made with nylon lashing and steel pins. Germany) and fifty percent local.MATERIALSStrong emphasis on local materials to reinforce socio-cultural pride: Earth, USER RESPONSEstraw, bamboo sticks, nylon lashing, and sharis (fabric). WHO ARE THE USERS? INTENDED AND UNINTENDED: 500 pupils, parents, faculty, and various business co-operations. IMPACT / RESPONSE “Architecture is a tool to improve lives.ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT The vision behind, and motivation for my work is to explore and use archi- tecture as a medium to strengthen cultural and individual confidence, toDonations are asked for in the following ways: support local economies and to foster the ecological balance. Joyful living10 Euros = 1 tree is a creative and active process and I am deeply interested in the sustainable20 Euros / month = Scholarship for a student development of our society and our architecture. For me, sustainability is70 Euros = Further education course for a teacher a synonym for beauty: a building that is harmonious in its design, structure,150 Euros = training for an unemployed person to give them a perspective technique and use of materials, as well as with the location, the environment,and skills needed for the future the user, the socio-cultural context. This, for me, is what defines its sustain- able and aesthetic value.”Total Cost = $22,835 Anna HeringerSCHOOLHOUSE SOUTH AFRICA 17