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Sickle cell anemia & malari a

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Sickle cell anemia is the commonest genetic disease in the world and is caused by a base substitution mutation in which GAG is transcribed as GTG and valine instead of glutamic acid is translated
It is a disease in which the body’s red blood cells turn into a sickle shape and carry less oxygen to the rest of the body parts.

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Sickle cell anemia & malari a

  1. 1. Shantal Al Habib IB Biology HL 22 December 2015 SICKLE CELL ANEMIA & MALARIA: ARE THEY LINKED AND HOW?
  2. 2. Sickle cell anemia is the commonest genetic disease in the world and is caused by a base substitution mutation in which GAG is transcribed as GTG and valine instead of glutamic acid is translated It is a disease in which the body’s red blood cells turn into a sickle shape and carry less oxygen to the rest of the body parts. WHAT IS SICKLE CELL ANEMIA?
  3. 3. The longevity of the cells is significantly reduced The body cannot replace blood cells as rapidly and as a result, anemia develops. Sickle cells block the blood flow because they gather in blood vessels and block the pathway. It causes pain, organ damage, shortness of breath, headaches, dizziness, coldness in extremities, tiredness and weakness of the body.
  4. 4. It is a very dangerous blood disease that is transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito After biting, a parasite enters and lays a dormant in the liver Then the new parasite infect more red blood cells and the number increases Malaria causes organs dysfunction and can easily be fatal if it was not treated since the early stages. Far too many people die because of malaria. Famous victims are: Alexander The Great, and George Washington WHAT IS MALARIA?
  5. 5. The Lifecycle of Malaria Uninfected Human Infected mosquito Infected human Uninfected mosquito Affected mosquito When the infected mosquito sucks human blood (bite), it injects saliva to stop the blood from clotting. The saliva enters the human blood system andtargets the liver. After duplicating, it targets red blood cells. The cell become sticky and eventually bursts
  6. 6. SICKLE CELL ANEMIA AND RESISTANCE TO MALARIA On a vocational Oxford University Expedition to Mount Kenya, Anthony Clifford Allison took blood samples from over 50 thousand individuals and analyzed them. He noticed the following trend;
  7. 7. From this disparities, he noticed that the places where high frequencies of sickle cell anemia were observed, were the breathing ground for the mosquitos that cause malaria then the idea of linkage between the two diseases arose and a question was being asked . He tested out his hypothesis and looked at the malaria parasite load in each sample. After that, he looked for the sickle cell anemia character. He found that the individuals have sickle cell anemia, have very few malaria parasite. This suggested that sickle cell anemia protects from malaria HOW DID HE TEST OUT THIS THEORY? “Could sickle cell and malaria be connected? And if so, how?”
  8. 8. CORRELATION Source: http://biogenevent.weebly.co m/uploads/2/5/3/8/253866 49/3806036_orig.jpg
  9. 9. Heterozygote advantage: A person who carries a heterozygous allele, has greater fitness towards Malaria and develops resistance to the malarial parasite.
  10. 10. How does sickle cell trait protect from malaria? THE SIMILARITIES IN THE EFFECTS BOTH OF THESE DISEASES HAVE, HELPS THE ORGANISM ADAPT. malaria is harmful because of the release of toxic hemes for capillaries. The mechanism we use to fix free hemes can work against malaria. So when an organism is exposed to malaria, it knows how to fight against it and avoid the more toxic effects of malaria. Although Sickle-cell Anemia is a mortal genetic disease, this disadvantageous phenotype is helpful in some cases, like malaria. EVOLUTION??
  11. 11. The answer for the question is based solely on the person. Look at the question below and answer… Is it a casual link or acorrelation?
  12. 12. Bibliography: Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia. "Mystery solved: How sickle hemoglobin protects against malaria." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 29 April 2011. Lam, Peter. "Malaria: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 27 Nov. 2015. Web. 20 Dec. 2015. Malaria and Sickle Cell Anemia — HHMI BioInteractive Video. Anthony Clifford Allison, Matthew Heeney, Sean Carroll. Hhmi.org, 2014. YouTube video.

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