Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
API 510 STUDY QUESTIONS

HOW TO USE THESE QUESTIONS

The following questions and answers on the API material are

for memo...
API 510 EIGHTH ED. ., JUNE,  1997 ADDENDA if 1 DEC.  1998, # 2 DEC.  2000, # 3 Dec.  2001 and
Aug.  2003

REVIEW QUESTIONS...
<32) ‘

10.

(3-5)

I3.

In what situation would the term "applicable requirements of ASME Code" he used‘? 

When the ASME...
l4

(.3 l0)

l5,

(3.llll

i6.
Gill)

l7.

When deternrining Minimum Allowable Shell Thickness.  what must he considered w...
2|. 
(3.l6)

22.
(.3 .  l 7)

7

(3, I  in

24.
(.3 .  l 8)

25‘
(3.!  9)

08/04

List the four examples of'a Repair Organ...
Section 4 ~ Owner-User Inspection Organization

26 What are the education and e>; per‘ience requirements for becoming an i...
Section 5- Inspection Practices

28.

(SJ)

29.

(5.1)

(5,. 

03/04 Rev 9

')

) . 

ICOOI

Wiry are safety precautions i...
.35.

36
(52)

37.
(5.3)

38.
(5 4)

.39.

(5.4)

40.
(5 5)

4i. 
(5.5)

42‘
(5.5)

08/ 04

Define Temper Embrittlemem. 
A ...
43. [fdistortion is suspected during the inspection of a pressure vessel what is the proper course of’
action? 
(5 5)

- I...
50.

(ST)

51,

(5 7)

08/04 Rev 9

10

When can widely scattered pits be ignored? 

No pit depth is more than ill the ves...
5.3.

(Sjhl

54.
(5.7 It)

55.
(5 .7h)

56.
(5.7.h)

57.
(5 -8)

11

Describe the governing thickness when measuring the c...
6|
(6.2)

63
(6.3)

64
(6 3)

I000

65.

(63)

66

(6.3)

67.

(6.4)

08/04 Rev 9

What other factors should be considered...
68.

(6.4)

69.

(6.4)

70.

(6..4)

71.

(6,4)

08/O4 Rev 9

13

If the remaining safe operating life of a vessel is less...
73

(6 5)

74.

(6.5)

75.

(6.6)

76
(6.6)

77.

(6 7)

08/O4 Rev 9

14

.  When conducting a pressure test as pan ofa pe...
15

Section 7- Repairs,  Alterations,  and Revrnting of Pressure Vessels

78. Who must approve any repairs or alterations?...
16

85. Can local post weld heat treatment (PWHT) be substituted for 360 degree banding? 
(7.2.. S)

0 YES provided the fo...
88

(72.7)

89.. 
(7.2 8)

90,
(7.2 9)

91.

(72 ll))

08/04

17

Summar ize the rules for the use of a full enrsirclement...
18

92 Write the API 5 l0 Test pressure i"ornrula
7.2.10

0 Test Pressure 2 l 3 MAWP X Stress at Test Temp/ Stress at Desi...
19

95. When is the rc~rating of’ a pressure vessel considered complete? 
(7 3)

- When the API authorized pressure vessel...
20

Section 4 — Pressure-Relieving Devices

6. What is the function of pressure-relieving devices‘? 
(4 I)

0 To protect r...
2]. 

l3 Relief valves should not be used in what situations? 

I In steam,  air.  gas.  or vapor service
I In services pi...
22

21 What are some applications or" pilot-operated safety relief valves? 
(4 7 I)

Where a large relief area and/ or a h...
23

28. What is usually the service life of pn: -bulged metal rupture disks installed so that pressure acts
against the co...
24

35, What are some reasons for damaged valve seats‘? 

:52)
- Corrost‘on
0 Foreign particles getting into valve
~ Impro...
25

42. Why should relief valves be shipped in an upright position? 
(58.1)

0 When relief valves are laid on their sides....
26

50. When a relief" device is removed from a system that is in operation,  name a necessary step to
prevent an unexpect...
27

59. List.  at least fourof the steps in the inspection of a relief valve upon disassembly
(6.2. l l)

0 Measure each p...
28

63. Once the valve is set to pop at its CDTP (cold differential test pressure) it should be checked for ___? 
(6 2..  ...
29

7!.  How is the frequency ofshop inspection or overhaul normally determined‘? 
(64.1.1)

- By the operating experience...
30

API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 572
SECOND EDITION.  FEBRUARY 2001
REV IEW QUESTIONS

Section 1 - General

I.  What are the m...
31

LIV

List the 4 general classifications olthiugs that cause deterioiation upon coming into Contact with a
5 vessel sur...
ll. 

18.2.3)

ll. 
(8 2.4)

I3.
(82.5)

l4.
(8.2 6)

I5.
(8 2.7)

16.

(8.28)

I7.

(829)

I8.

32

Problems with environ...
33

t9. What causes titanium alloys to lose ductility‘? 

(8. 3. 7)
0 Absorption of hydrogen

20. Many of the problems tha...
34

26. Improper fitting or tightening of‘ flanges or threaded joints may lead to what? 
(85 6)
I Leaks and possible t’ail...
36

43. ll‘ settling of a vessel has occurred.  what should be checked for distortion and cracks‘? 
(10 3.8

I Nozzles

44...
37

52. Evidence of white salts seeping through cracks will indicate what type of material? 
([0 3 l3)

0 Caustic material...
38

6! .  What types of methods are used for determining the extent ofcraclts? 
( 10 4 4)

- Dye penetrant
- Magnetic—part...
39

69. Explain how the Corrosive Tab Method is used to determine the metal loss on vessel linings. 
( l0 4 5)

- Small 1 ...
40

75. When is use of the Hammer Test not recommended? 
rt0.8 l)

- When vessels are under pressure. 
- On piping upstrea...
41

Section 11 — Methods of Repair

83. When is it required that a repair concem making welded repairs to a vessel have a ...
42

CHAPTER ll

CONDITIONS CAUSING DETERIORATION OR FAILURES
SECOND EDITION,  1973
201 General

i.  What are the modes ol"...
43
6 What is the most active of the sulfur compounds in causing corrosion in rel'inery equipment‘? 
(202023)
0 Hydrogen St...
44

I6. What are the primary uses of arnmonia in the refining indtrstry? 
(202037)

- As a refr igcr ant
- For netttraiizat...
4 5

25. Vanadium oxide corrosion does not take place below what ternpetzrttrre! 
(201054)

- l. l()0 “F
26. Tire extent c...
46

34, What is dczincii’ication'? 
( 202.066)

- A type of corrosion that can occur in copper - zinc alloys (brasses) con...
47

204 - Ellects of High Temperatures

43. Define creep
(204 .0 I 2)

- The Flow or plastic deformation of metals held for...
48

5 I ‘ What is dccarburizntion? 
(204 .034)

0 The loss of carbon from the surface of :1 ferrous alloy as a result of h...
49

207 ~ Overloading

58. What are some indications of overloading of eqtriptnertt. ’
(Z07 ()2)

- Visible distortion. 
0...
50

CORROSIV E MATERIALS AND THEIR USES IN THE PETROCI-IEM INDUSTRY

- Sulfuric Acid and Hydrogen Fluoride ~ used in alKy!...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×
Upcoming SlideShare
Api 510-sample questions-for-exam
Next
Download to read offline and view in fullscreen.

27

Share

Download to read offline

Api 510 study questions

Download to read offline

api

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Api 510 study questions

  1. 1. API 510 STUDY QUESTIONS HOW TO USE THESE QUESTIONS The following questions and answers on the API material are for memorization. The API questions will be open book on the first part of the exam and closed book during the second half. Practice remembering the key words as opposed to learning the entire answer.
  2. 2. API 510 EIGHTH ED. ., JUNE, 1997 ADDENDA if 1 DEC. 1998, # 2 DEC. 2000, # 3 Dec. 2001 and Aug. 2003 REVIEW QUESTIONS Section 1 — General Application l. The primary code for the inspection of pressure vessels after they enter service is‘? t l . l) 0 The API 5 I 0 Code 2. Relative to pressure vessels, when does API 5 l 0 apply’? H l) - Oaty applicable to vessels after they have been placed in service. .3. What does the API inspection code cover? (Ll) - Maintenance inspection. repair, alteration. and re-rating procedures for pressure vessels used by petroleum and chemical process industries. 4. What type ol‘ pressure vessel is exempt from periodic inspection requirements? (l.2.2) - Pressure vessels on movable structures covered by otherjnrisdictional requirements. - All classes listed for exemption from the inspection scope of" the ASME Code Section VIII. Division IA 0 Pressure vessels that do not exceed specified volumes & pressures Section 3 - Definitions 5. What is an alteration? (3«l) 0 A physical change in any component or a re«rating which has design implications which affect pressurevcontnining capability beyond the scope of’ existing data reports. 6 What thiee situations should not he considered alterations‘? - Comparable or duplicate replacement 0 Addition of reinf'orced nozzle less than or equal to existing reinforced nozzles - Addition of nozzles not requiring reinforcement 03/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. 482 . 2253 WlN'W. APIEXAMS . ORG
  3. 3. <32) ‘ 10. (3-5) I3. In what situation would the term "applicable requirements of ASME Code" he used‘? When the ASME. Code cannot be followed because of its new construction orientation (new or revised material specifications. inspection requirements, certain heat treatments and pressure tests, and stamping and inspection requirements). the engineer or inspector shall conform to this inspection code rather than to the ASME Code. If an item is covered by requirements in the ASME Code and this inspection code or if there is a conflict between the two codes. for vesseis that have been placed in service, the requirements of this inspection code shall take precedence over the ASME Code A5 an example of the intent of this inspection code, the phrase "applicable requirements of the ASME Code" has been used in this inspection code instead of the phrase “in accordance with the ASME Code. " What is an Authorized Inspector or inspector? An employee of an Author ized Inspection Agency who is qualified and certified to perform inspection under this inspection code. List 4 examples of an Authorized Inspection Agency. Inspection organization of the jurisdiction in which the pressure vessel is used or; Inspection organization of insurance company which is licensed or registered to write and actually writes pressure vessel insurance. An owner or user of pressure vessels who maintains an inspection organization for activities relating only to his equipment and not for vessels intended for sale or resale An independent organization or individual licensed or recognized by the jurisdiction in which the pressure vessel is used and employed by or acting under the direction of the owner or user. Define "construction code". The code or standard to which a vessel was originally built, such as API/ ASME, API, or State Special/ non-ASMJE. 7 What does the term "inspection code" refer to in API 510? Shortened title for API 510 used in this publication. 4 Define Jurisdictions. A legally constituted government administration, which may adopt rules relating to pressure vessels. Define Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) as it relates to API 510. (3 9) and (Sect VIII UG-98) 08/04 Rev 9 The maximum gage pressure permitted at the top of a pressure vessel in its operating position for a designated temperature that is based on calculations using the minimum (or average pitted) thickness for all er itical vessel elements. not including corrosion allowance or loading other than pressure. FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281 . 432 . 2253 WWW. APIEXAMS . ORG
  4. 4. l4 (.3 l0) l5, (3.llll i6. Gill) l7. When deternrining Minimum Allowable Shell Thickness. what must he considered when making calculations‘? Temperature. pressure, and all loading, What type of inspection uses nondestructive examination procedures to establish the suitability of pressure vessels for continued operation? On~stream Inspection What is the key element of an On—stream inspection‘? Because the vessel maybe in operation while an on—stream inspections being carried out. the vessel is not entered for internal inspection. What is a Pressure Vessel‘? (.3 I2) and (Sect VIII U-l (a)) l8. (3. I3) A 19. (.3 14) 20 (.3 l5) O8/O4 A container designed to withstand internal or external pressure, which can be imposed by an external source, by the application of heat from a direct or indirect source, or by any combination thereof‘, This definition includes unfired steam generators and other vapor generating vessels, which use heat from the operation of a processing system or other indirect heat source. (Specific limits and exemptions of‘ equipment covered by this inspection code are given in Section I and Appendix A. ) Who shall be a pressure vessel engineer? Shall be one or more persons or organizations acceptable to the owner-user who are knowledgeable and experienced in the engineering disciplines associated with evaluating mechanical and material characteristics which affect the integrity and reliability of pressure vessels The pressure vessel engineer. by consulting with appropriate specialists, should be regarded as a composite of all entities needed to properly assess the technical requirements. What is the definition of quality assurance as given in AP] SIG? All planned, systematic. and preventative actions required to determine if materials, equipment, or services will meet specified requirements so that equipment will perform satisfactorily in service, The contents of a quality assurance inspection manual are outlined in 4.3, What is a Repair? The WOI k necessary to restore a vessel to a condition suitable for safe operations at the design conditions. "IF" design temperature or pressure changes due to restoration, then re—r'ating requirements shall also be satisfied Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281 . 432 . Z2 53 WWW . APIEXAMS . ORG
  5. 5. 2|. (3.l6) 22. (.3 . l 7) 7 (3, I in 24. (.3 . l 8) 25‘ (3.! 9) 08/04 List the four examples of'a Repair Organization. The holder of a vaiid ASME Certificate of Authorization for the use of an appropriate ASME Code symbol stamp An owner or user of pressure vessels who repairs his own equipment in accordance with the API 5 E0 code. A contractor whose qualifications are acceptable to the owner or user of pressure vessels and makes repairs in accordance with this inspection code. A repair concern that is authorized by the legal jurisdiction What is re-rating‘? A change in either the temperature ratings or the maximum allowable working pressure rating of a vessel. . or a change in both. The maximum allowable working temperature and pressure of a vessel may be increased or decreased because of a re-rating. and sometimes a re-rating requires a combination of changes. De-rating below original design conditions is a permissible way to provide for corrosion. When a re-rating is conducted in 'which the maximum allowable working pressure or temperature is increased or the minimum temperature is decreased so that additional mechanical tests are required, it shalt be considered an alteration. What is a permissible way to provide for corrosion? De-rating below original design conditions. . What distinguishes an examiner from and inspector? A person who assists the API authorized pressure vessel inspector by pert"or‘ming specific NDE on pressure vessels but does not evaluate the results of those examinations in accordance with API 5 I0, unless specifically trained and authorized to do so by the owner or user ‘The examiner need not be certified in accordance with API 5lO or be an employee of the owner or user but shall be trained and competent in the applicable procedures in which the examiner is involved. Define Controlled~Deposition Welding Any welding technique used to obtain controlled grain refinement and tempering of the underlying heat affected zone (I-IAZ. )in the base metal. Various controlled—deposition techniques, such as Ierrrper—head (tempering of the layer below the current bead being deposited) and half-bead (requiring removal of one-half of the first layer), are included. Controlled-deposition welding requires control of the entire welding procedure including the joint detail. preheating and post heating. welding technique. and welding paratneters Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281 . 482 . Z253 WWW . APIEXAMS . ORG
  6. 6. Section 4 ~ Owner-User Inspection Organization 26 What are the education and e>; per‘ience requirements for becoming an inspector 1’ (42 go to Appendix B) - Degree in engineering & 1 year experience in the design. construction. repair, operation. or inspection of boilers or pressure vessels‘ 0 2-year cet tificme in engineering or technology from a technical college & 2 years of experience in the design. construction. repair, operation. or inspection of boilers or pressure vessels. - Equivalent of a high school education plus 3 years of expel ience. (and). - Five years experience in the inspection of boilers or pressure vessels. 27. Who will be responsible to the owner~user when ulterrttions, inspections. or repairs are performed? 0 The API authorized pressure vessel inspector. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482.2253 WWW. APIEXAMS. ORG
  7. 7. Section 5- Inspection Practices 28. (SJ) 29. (5.1) (5,. 03/04 Rev 9 ') ) . ICOOI Wiry are safety precautions important in presstuewessel inspections‘? Because of the limited access to and the confined spaces of’ pressure vessels. What guidelines must an inspector Follow to enter a vessel that has been in service‘? OSHA Regulations regarding Confined Space Entry. Explain the safety precautions and procedures that should he taken when perl'"orming an internal inspection Isolate vessel from all sources of liquids. gas or vapors. Drain. purge. clean and ventilate. Gas test. Wear protective equipment as required. Warn all persons working around the vessel that inspection personnel are inside. Warn all inside the vessel of work that is done outside the vessel. Check all tools and safety equipment needed before inspection. . When developing an inspection plan for vessels that operate at elevated temperatures (750 to I000 ° F) what things should be considerecl when assessing the remaining life of the vessel’? Creep deformation and stress rupture. Creep crack growth El l ect of hydrogen on creep. Interaction of‘ creep and fatigue. Possible metallurgical effects. including a reduction in ductility. . Locations where metals of different thermal coefficients of expansion are welded together are susceptible to what? Thermal Fatigue. The actual or estimated levels of what four items must be considered in any evaluation of Creep? Time Temperature Stress Material Creep Strength . At ambient temper alures. carhon. low alloy, and other fcrritic steels may be susceptible to what? Brittle Failure FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482.2253 WWW. APIEXAMS. ORG
  8. 8. .35. 36 (52) 37. (5.3) 38. (5 4) .39. (5.4) 40. (5 5) 4i. (5.5) 42‘ (5.5) 08/ 04 Define Temper Embrittlemem. A loss ofductiiity and notch toughness due to PWI-IT or high temperature service above 700 degrees F (370 degrees C) What kind of steel is prone to Temper Embrittlement? Low alloy steels. especially 2 l/4l—Cr-l Mo What three methods may be used to determine the probable rate of corrosion’! Calculate rate front data collected from same or similar service, Estimate rate from owner-user experience or from published data on comparable ser vice. On-stream determination after i000 hours of service using a suitable corrosion monitoring device or NDE thickness measurements (UT), subsequent inspections shall he made until the corrosion rate has been established. How should the MAWP for the continued use ol"a pressure vessel he established? By using the Code to which the vessel was fabricated or by using the appropriate formulas and requirements of the latest edition of the ASME. Code to establish the design temperature and pressures In corrosive service, the wall thickness used in the MAWP calculations shall he the actual thickness obtained by inspection minus Twice the estimated corrosion loss before the date of the next inspection. except as modified in section 6.4 What is the most important and the most universally accepted method of inspection? Careful visual examination What determines the parts of ti vessel that should be inspected? The type of vessel and its operating conditions. For proper‘ visual examination, what surface preparation is required? The type of surface preparation depends on individual circumstances. but surface preparation such as wire brushing. blasting, chipping, grinding, or a combination of these may be required. Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. 482 . 2253 WlItIW. .APIEXAMS .0RG
  9. 9. 43. [fdistortion is suspected during the inspection of a pressure vessel what is the proper course of’ action? (5 5) - If any distortion of a vessel is suspected or observed. the overall dimensions of the vessel shall be checked to confirm whether or not the vessel is distorted and, if it is distorted. to detemtine the extent and seriousness of the distortion. The parts of the vessel that should be inspected most carefully depend on the type of vessel and its operating conditions 44. What type of examiners shall the when the owner/ user requires inspection for detection of interior surface breaking planar flaws‘? (5.5) - lndustry—qu:1lified UT Shear Wave examiners. 45. List‘ the inspections. which include the Features that are common to most vessels and that are most important. (5 .6) - Examine the strrfaces of shells and heads carefully for possible cracks, blisters. bulges. and other signs of deterioration. 0 Examine welded joints and the adjacent heat-affected z. ones for ser'vice~induced cracks or other defects. 1 Examine the surfaces of all man ways. nozzles. and other openings for r. listortion, cracks, and other defects. 46‘ Name two reasons why it is necessary for the AP] 5 l 0 inspector to examine flange faces. (5 46) - To look for distortion 0 To determine the condition of gasket-seating strrfrrces 47, Corrosion may cause what two forms of loss? (57) I Uniform loss - a general, relatively even wastage of a surface area - Pitted appearance - an obvious. irregular surface wastage 48. Name three ways the minimum thickness of a pressure vessel can be determined. (5.7) A - Any suitable nondestructive examination 0 Measurements taken through drilled test holes - Gauging from un-corroded surfaces in the vicinity of’ the corroded urea. 49. For a corrodetl area of considerable size in which the circumferential stresses govern, the least thickness along the most critical elernent of the area may be averaged over a length not exceeding what? (SJ) - For vessels with inside diameters less titan or equal to 60 inches ( I50 centimeters). one half the vessel diameter or 20 inches (50 centimeters). whichever is less. - For vessels with inside diameters greater than 60 inches. one third the vessel diameter or 40 inches (I00 centimeters). whichever is less, 08/04 REV 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482.2253 WWlttl. APIEXAMS.0RG
  10. 10. 50. (ST) 51, (5 7) 08/04 Rev 9 10 When can widely scattered pits be ignored? No pit depth is more than ill the vessel wall thickness exclusive of corrosion allowance. Total area of' pits does not exceed 7 sq. inches in any 8 inch diameter circle. Sum of pit dimensions along any straight line within the circle does not exceed 2 inches. When should the design by analysis methods of Section VIII. Division 2, Appendix 4. of the ASME Code be used‘? To determine if components with thinning walls, which are below the minimum required wall thicknesses, are adequate for continued service‘ To evaluate blend ground areas where defects have been removed, . What do you use to determine if the thickness at the weicl or remote from the weld governs the allowable working pressure when the surface at the weld has a joint factor other than 1.0? For this calculation. the surface at a weld includes l inch (2.5 centimeters) on either side of the weld. or twice the minimum thickness on either side of the weld, whichever is greater. FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. 482 . 22 53 WWW . APIEXAMS . DRG
  11. 11. 5.3. (Sjhl 54. (5.7 It) 55. (5 .7h) 56. (5.7.h) 57. (5 -8) 11 Describe the governing thickness when measuring the corroded thickness of ellipsoidal and torispherical heads. The thickness of the knuckle region with the head rating calculated by the appropriate head formula. The thickness of the central portion of the dished region. in which case the dished region may be considered a spherical segment whose allowable pressure is calculated by the code formula for spherical shelis. What is the spherical segment of both ellipsoidal and tor ispherical treads‘? That area located entirely within a circle whose center coincides with the center of the head and whose diameter is equal to 80% of the shell diameter. On torispherical heads. what is used as the radius of the spherical segment? Radius of the dish. The radius of’ the spherical segment of ellipsoidal [reads shall be considered to be what? —' Tire equivalent spherical radius K. D. where D is the shell diameter (equal to the major axis) and K. is given in Table I. When evaluating metal loss in excess of a vessel's corrosion allowance what API document should be consulted‘? API RP 579 Sections 45 and 6 Section 6 - Inspection and Testing of Pressure Vessels and Pressure-Relieving Devices 58. (6. ll 59. (6.1) 60. (6.2) 08/04 When is an internal field inspection of new vessels not required? When the manrrfactures' data report (U l) assuring that the vessels are satisfactory for their intended service is available. Name two factors to be considered when inspection intervals are being determined. The risk associated with operational shutdown and start—up and the possibility of‘ increased corrosion due to exposure of vessel surfaces to air and moisture. What are the essential elements of a risk based assessment inspection? The combination of likelihood of failure and the consequences ol‘ failure. Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 231. 482 . 2253 WWW . APIEXAMS . ORG
  12. 12. 6| (6.2) 63 (6.3) 64 (6 3) I000 65. (63) 66 (6.3) 67. (6.4) 08/04 Rev 9 What other factors should be considered in :1 RBI progranr'.7 12 _ Appropriateness of the materials. vessel design conditions relative to operating conditions, appropriateness of the design codes and standards utilized, effectivetress ofcorrosion monitoring programs: and the quality of inspection! quality assurance and maintenance programs _. , What action should be taken alter an effective RBI assessment has been finished? Choose the most appropriate inspection tools and methods based on the degradation expected. Set the appropriate frequency for internal and external and on-stream inspections. Determine if" pressure testing will be required based on damage or after repairs. Decide on prevention and mitigation steps to reduce the likelihood of a vessel failure How often should each above ground vessel he given :1 visual external inspection? Each vessel abovegronnd shall be given a visual external inspection. preferably while in operation, at least every 5 years or at the same interval as the required internal or on-stream inspection, whichever is less. When making an external inspection, what shall the inspection include‘? Condition oi‘ the exterior insulation Condition of the supports Allowance for expansion General alignment of‘ the vessel on its supports . Buried vessels shall be periodically monitored to determine their external environmental condition. What shall the inspection inter vals be based on? Corrosion rate information obtained during maintenance on adjacent connecting piping of similar mater ‘ial. Information from the interval examination of similarly buried corrosion test coupons of‘ similar material. lnt'”or'mation from representative portions ol the actual vessel. A Information from a vessel in similar circumstances. What is the minimum interval for checking the insulating system or outer jacketing of‘ vessels that are known to have a remaining life of over 10 years or that are protected against external corrosion? Every 5 years and repaired as needed What is the maxitntun period between internal or on-stream inspection? The rnaxinrum period shall not exceed one hall‘ the estimated rerrraining corrosion-rate life or it) years. whichever is less. ' FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281 . 482 . 2253 WWW. APIEXAMS «ORG
  13. 13. 68. (6.4) 69. (6.4) 70. (6..4) 71. (6,4) 08/O4 Rev 9 13 If the remaining safe operating life of a vessel is less than 4 years, what is inspection interval? Interval may be the full remaining safe operating life up to a maximum of 2 years. Under what conditions would a vessel with a corrosion rate less than 0.005 inch (0.125 millimeter) per year and an estimated remaining life greater than l0 years be exempt from an internal inspection and inspected externally instead? When size, configuration. or lack of access makes vessel entry for internal inspection physically impossible, When the general corrosion rate of a vessel is known to be less than 0.005 inch (0.. 125 millimeter) per year and the estimated remaining life is greater than I0 years, and all of the following conditions are met: The corrosive character of the contents. including, the effect of’ trace components, has been established by at least 5 years of the same or comparable service experience with the type of contents being handled. No questionable condition is disclosed by the external inspection specified in 6,2, The operating temperature of the steel vessel shell does not exceed the lower temperature limits f'or the creep-rupture range of the vessel material. The vessel is not considered to be subject to environmental cracking or hydrogen damage from the fluid being handled. Alternatively, a RBI assessment, as permitted in can he performed to determine that the risk associated environmental cracking or hydrogen damage is acceptably low and that the effectiveness of external inspection techniques is adequate for the damage mechanism. This assessment should include a review of past conditions and likely future process conditions. The vessel is not strip—lined or plate~lined. Write the formula to be used when determining the safe remaining life ofa vessel, t actual —t required Remaning. Life Yrs. = ----------——-----—- Corrosion rate Where: tactual = the thickness, in inches millimeters), measured at the time of inspection for the_ limiting section used to determine the minimum allowable thickness, 1 minimum = the minimum allowable thickness, in inches (millimeters), for the limiting section or zone. There are two kinds of corrosion rates to be considered when calculating the remaining life of a vessel. What are these types? Short Term and Long Term rates. FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281 . 432 . 2253 WWW. APIEXAMS . DRG
  14. 14. 73 (6 5) 74. (6.5) 75. (6.6) 76 (6.6) 77. (6 7) 08/O4 Rev 9 14 . When conducting a pressure test as pan ofa periodic inspection. what shall the shell tetnperature be during the test‘? To minimize the risk of brittle fracture during the test. the metal temperattne should be maintained at least 30 ° F (-1 °C) above the minimum design metal temperature for vessels that are more than 2 inches thick, or l0 " F (-12 "C) above for vessels that have a thickness of 2 inches or less. The test temper'ature need not exceed l20 "F (50 "C) unless there is information on the hrittle characteristics of the vessel mater ial indicating that a lower test temperature is acceptable or a higher test temperature is needed. When should pneumatic testing be done and what are some of the considerations to he taken into account? Pneumatic testing may be used when hydrostatic testing is impracticable because of temperature, foundation or process reasons, however’, the potential personnel and property risks should he considered. Should safety relief valves ever be removed from a vessel during pressure testing? Yes, if a pressure test is being conducted in which the test pressure will exceed the set pressure of the safety relief valve with the lowest setting. When a pressure relief valve requires repair, who is allowed to make this repair? Testing and repairs shall he made by a repair organization experienced in valve maintenance The repair organization shall have a written quality control system with the nrinimurn requirements as listed in 4..5 of the API 510 code and maintain a training program to insure the qualifications of the repair personnel. How often shall a safety relief valve be tested? The intervals between pressure relieving device testing or inspection should be determined by the perfor'nrance of the devices in the partictrlar service concerned. Test or inspection intervals on pressure-relieving devices in typical process services should not exceed 5 years, unless service experience indicates that a longer interval is acceptable For clean (non-fouling), non-corrosive ser vices. maximum intervals maybe increased to E0 years. Pressure vessel owners and users are required to maintain permanent and progressive records of their pressure vessels. What things are included in these records? Construction and design infor mation Operating and inspection history. Repair. alteration. and re-rating information. Fitness—l"or~ser vice assessment documentation. FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281 . 482 . 2253 WWW . APIEXAMS . ORG
  15. 15. 15 Section 7- Repairs, Alterations, and Revrnting of Pressure Vessels 78. Who must approve any repairs or alterations? (7l 0 I All repair and alteration work must be authorized by the authorized pressure vessel inspector before the work is started by a repair organization (_ see 3. I3). Authorization for alterations to pressure vessels that comply with Section VII], Divisions I and 2, of the ASME Code and for repairs to pressure vessels that comply with Section VIII. Division 2. of the ASME Code may not be given until a pressure vessel engineer experienced in pressure vessel design has been consulted about the alterations and repairs and has approved them. The authorized pressure vessel inspector will designate the fabrication approvals that are required. The authorized pressure vessei inspector may give prior general authorization for limited or routine repairs as long as the inspector is sure that the repairs are the kind that will not require pressure tests. -4 ct . Who shall approve alt specified repair and alteration work‘? (7. l .2) - The API autlrmized pressure vessel inspector, after the work has been proven to be satisfactory and any required pressure test has been witnessed. 80. What must be removed from base material prior to welding? (7.! .3) 0 Surface ir'r'egularities and contamination 8| . All repair" and alteration welding shall be in accordance with what code‘? (7.2 ) - ASME Code, except as permitted in 7 .2. I l 82. What must be done before Prelreat or Controlled Deposition Welding is used in lieu of PWHT? (72.3) - Prior to using any alternative method a metallurgical review must be conducted to deter mine if the proposed alternative is suitable for the application. 8.3. Name the materials allowed when using the alternative preheating method when notch toughness testing is not required. ‘ ' (7.23 I) 0 The materials shall be limited to P-Nos. P-No. l Group 1.2 and 3 and P-No. 3, Group I and 2 (excluding Mn—Mo steels in Group 2). . 84. Name the materials allowed for rise with the Controlled-Deposition Welding Method. (7.2 3.2) o The materials shall be limited to P~No. l, P»No 3 and P-No. 4. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281 . 482 . 2253 WWW . APIEXAMS . ORG
  16. 16. 16 85. Can local post weld heat treatment (PWHT) be substituted for 360 degree banding? (7.2.. S) 0 YES provided the following conditions are met: - Application is reviewed and procedure developed by engineer experienced in pressure vessel design & PW]-IT requirements. - In evaluating the suitability of a procedure, all applicable factors (base metal thickness, material properties, etc. ) are considered. 0 Preheat of 300 degree or higher per‘ WPS is maintained. o PW1-1'1’ temperature is maintained For distance not less than 2 times base metal thickness measured from weld. A minimum of 2 thermocouples is used. Heat is applied to any nozzle or other attachment in PWI-IT area. 86. What considerations mtrst be given to the repair of stainless steel overlay and claddings‘? (7 2.6) - Consideration shall be given to factors which may augment the repair sequence such as stress level, P number of base material, service environment. possible previously dissolved hydrogen. type of lining. deterioration of base metal properties (by temper embrittlernent of chromium- molybdenum alloys). minimum pressurization temperatures, and a need for future periodic examination. 87. Per API 510, state the design requirements for: Burr Joints. Replac-erment Pam. New Connections. Filler Weld Patches. Overlzry Parclres. Flush patches (72.7) I BUTT JOINTS - shall have complete penetration and fusion. 0 REPLACEMENT PARTS - shall be fabricated in accordance with the applicable requirements of the appropriate code. - NEW CONNECTIONS - design, location, and method of attachment shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements of the appropriate code. 0 FILLET WELDED PATCHES - require special design consider ations, they are temporary repairs. Also it must be true that: (a) The fillet~welded patches provide design safety equivalent to reinforced openings designed according to the applicable section of the ASME Code. (b) The fillet~welded patches are designed to absorb the mernhrane strain of the parts so that in accordance with the rules of the applicable section of the ASME Code, the following result: - The allowable membrane stress is not exceeded in the vessel parts or the patches. - The strain in the patches does not result in fillet-weld stresses that exceed allowabie stresses for such welds. - OVERLAY PATCHES — shall have rounded corners. - FLUSH (insert) PATCI-{ES shall have rounded corners and he installed with full penetration butt joints 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 231 . 482 . 2253 WWW . . APIEXAMS . ORG
  17. 17. 88 (72.7) 89.. (7.2 8) 90, (7.2 9) 91. (72 ll)) 08/04 17 Summar ize the rules for the use of a full enrsirclement lap band on a pressure vessel, A full encirclernent lap band repair may be considered a long term repair it the design is approved. and documented by the pressure vessel engineer and the authorized API pressure vessel inspector and the followirrg requirements are met: The repair is not being made to a crack in the vessel shell. The band alone is designed to contain the full design pressure. All longitudinal seams in the repair band are lull penetration butt welds with the design joint efficierrcy and inspection consistent with the appropriate code. The cir'crrrnferential lillet welds attaching the band to the vessel shell are designed to trarrsfer the Full longitudinal load in the vessel shell. using ajoint efficiency of‘0 45. without counting on the integrity of the original shell material covered by the hand. Fatigue of the attachment welds, such as fatigue resulting lrorn differerrtial expansion or" the band relative to the vessel shell, should he considered if applicable The band material and weld metal are suitable for contact with the contained lluitl at the design conditions and an appropriate corrosion allowance is provided in the hand. The degradation mechanism leading to the need For repair shall be considered in determining the need for any additional monitoring and Future inspection of the repair. Non-penetrating nozzles ( including pipe caps attached as nozzles) may be used as long term repairs For other than cracks when the design and method of attaclrrrrerrt comply with the applicable requirements of‘ the appropriate code. The design and reinforcerrrerrt of such nozzles shall consider the loss of the original shell material enclosed by the nozzle The nozzle material shall be suitable for contact with the contained fluid at the design conditions and an appropriate corrosion allowance shall be prov ided. Describe the material suitable for making repairs or alterations Shall conform to the applicable section of the ASME Code, be of known weldable quality and be compatible with the original material. Carbon or allow steel with a carbon content over 0. 35 percent shall not be welded When making a repair or alteration. what should the acceptance criteria include? NDE techniques that are in accordance with the applicable sections of the ASME. Code or another applicable vessel rating code. After repairs or alterations. is a pressure test required? Repairs — pressure test only applied if inspector believes one is necessary. Altcratiorrs ~ pressure test are normally required. Subject to the approval of the lurisdiction (where the jurisdictions approval is recruited), appropriate nondestructive examinations shall be required where a pressure test is not perlorrned Substituting nondestructive examination procedures for a pressure test after an alteration may be done only after a pressure vessel engineer experienced in pressure vessel design and the authorized pressure vessel inspector have been corrsttlted. REV 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 231.482 . 2253 lItMW. APIEXAMS. ORG
  18. 18. 18 92 Write the API 5 l0 Test pressure i"ornrula 7.2.10 0 Test Pressure 2 l 3 MAWP X Stress at Test Temp/ Stress at Design Temp 93‘ List the minimum tensile strength requirements for tiller metals used on vessels weld repairs and the details of this method of repair (7 .7. t l) 0 The filler metal used for weld repairs should have minimum specified tensile strength equal to or greater than the minimum specified tensile strength of the base metal. If a filler metal is used that has a minimum specified tensile strength lower than the minimum specified tensile strength of the base metal, the compatibility of the filler metal chemistry with the base metal chemistry shall he considered regarding weld ability and service degradation In addition. the following shall be met: - The repair thickness shall not he more than 50 percent of" the required base metal thickness, excluding corrosion allowance. - The thickness of'the repair weld shall be increased by a ratio ofminimunt specified tensile strength of’ the base metal and minimum specified tensile of the filler metal used for the repair. - The increased tlrickness of the repair shall have rounded corners and shall be blended into the base metal usinga 3 to l taper: - The repair shall he made with a minimum of two passes‘ 94. List the requirements associated with rewating a pressure VESSEL (7 .3) 0 Calculations from either the manufacturer or an owner—user pressure vessel engineer (or his designated representative) experienced in pressure vessel design, fabrication, or inspection shall justify re~rating. 0 A re-rating shall he established in accordance with the requirements of the construction code to which the pressure vessel was built or by computations that are determined using the appropriate formulas in the latest edition of the ASMJE Code if ail of the essential details comply with the applicable requirements of the code being used If the vessel was designed to an edition or addendum of the ASME Code earlier than the 1999 Addenda and was not designed to Code Case 2290 or 2278, it may be re-rated to the latest edition/ addendum of the ASME Code if permitted by Figure 7- - Current inspection records verify that the pressure vessel is satisfactory for the proposed service conditions and that the corrosion allowance provided is appropriate‘ An increase in allowable working pressure or temperature shall be based on thickness data obtained from a recent internal or orrstrearn inspection. I The pressure vessel has at some time heen pressure tested in accordance with the new service conditions, or the vessel integrity is maintained by special nondestructive evaluation inspection teclmiques in lieu of testing. - The pressure vessel inspection and re~rating is acceptable to the authorized pressure vessel inspector. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482.2253 WWW. APIEXAMS.0RG
  19. 19. 19 95. When is the rc~rating of’ a pressure vessel considered complete? (7 3) - When the API authorized pressure vessel inspector oversees the attachment of an additional nameplate or additional stamping that carries the following information: Reratecl by: Maximum Allowable Working Pressure psi at degrees F. Date API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE S76 SECOND EDITION, DECEMBER 2000 REVIEW QUESTIONS Section 1 - General It What is the general scope of API RP576‘? ti) 0 To describe inspection and repair practices for automatic pressure-relieving devices commonly used in the oil and petrochemical industries. Section 2 ~ References .2 What document should be referenced to determine the appropriate size For a pressure relief device‘? 0 R? 520 Sizing, Selection. and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries Section 3 -- Detinitions .3. Describe a pin-actuated device. (3.1 .3) o A non—rec losing pressure relief device actuated by static pressure and designed to function by buckling or breaking a pin, which holds a piston or plug in place. 4. What is a lruddlirrg chamber? (3 .2 .2) - An annular pressure chamber located downstream of the seat of a pressure relief’ valve for the purpose of assisting the valve in lifting 5. Describe “rated relieving capacity" (3.3 6) o The relieving capacity used as the basis For the application of a pressure vessel reliet'device determined using the applicable code or regulation. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482.2253 WWW. APIEXAMS.0RG
  20. 20. 20 Section 4 — Pressure-Relieving Devices 6. What is the function of pressure-relieving devices‘? (4 I) 0 To protect refinery equipment and personnel by automatically opening at predetermined pressures. 7. Name common examples of pressure relieving devices. (4) Direct spring loaded Pilot PRV Rupture disks Weight loaded devices Pressure/ Vacuum vent valves 8. Name the five types ol" pressure relief valves (4 .2. 4.3. 4.4. 4.6.4.7) Safety valve Relief valve Safety rel ief’ val ve _l Balanced Safety Relief Valve Pilot—operated safety rel lei’ valve 9.. Describe a safety valve. (4.2)( Section VIII UG-l 26 foot notes) 0 Actuated by static pressure upstream of a valve. - Spring fully exposed outside casing to protect from escaping steam. 0 Normally not pressure tight on their downstream side. l0. Safety valves should not be used in what situations‘? (4 .22) - Corrosive refinery services. I Any back pressure service. 0 Where discharge is‘ piped to remote locations. ' 0 Where escape of lading fluid around blowing valves is not desirable 0 In liquid service - As pressure controi or bypass valves. l 1.. Describe a relief valve. (4..3)(Sectiou VIII UP-I26 foot notes) - Actuated by static pressure upstrearn of a valve. - Lifts in proportion to the increase in pressure. 0 Usually reaches lull lift at either l0% or 25% overpressure. l2. Why do relief valves have closed bonnets‘? (4.3) - To prevent the release of corrosive, toxic, flammable or expensive fluids. 03/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482.2253 lItMW. APIEXAMS. ORG
  21. 21. 2]. l3 Relief valves should not be used in what situations? I In steam, air. gas. or vapor service I In services piped to an enclosed header unless the effects of any constant or variable backpressure have been accounted for. . I As pressure control or bypass valves. l4. There are two types of safety relief valves. What are these two types? (4.5. <1 6) I Conventional & Balanced 15. Describe a conventional safety relief valve. (4-5) I Opening pressure. closing pressure and relieving capacity are affected by back pressure. I Has a closed bonnet I The bonnet cavity is vented to the downstream side. l6. Where are conventional safety relief valves used’? (4.5 l) I Refinery process industries that handle flammable, hot, or toxic materials. l7.. May a conventional safety relief valve be used on boiler steam drums or super heaters? (4 .5 2) INo I8. Describe a balanced safety relief valve. (4.6) I Balanced safety relief valves are direct. spring loaded and incorporate a bellows or other means to minimize the effects of backpressure 19.. What are the proper applications for these pressure balanced safety relief devices: (4.6!) I Balance safety relief valves are normally used in applications with flammable, hot or toxic materials. where high pressures are present at the discharge of the valve. 20.. What is a pilot-operated safety relief valve? (4.7)(Section VIII UG-l 26 foot notes) I A pressure-relief valve in which the major relieving device is combined with and is controlled by a self—actuated pressure relief valve (called a pilot valve). 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK. TECHNICAL 231 . 482 . Z253 VMW . APIEXAMS . ORG
  22. 22. 22 21 What are some applications or" pilot-operated safety relief valves? (4 7 I) Where a large relief area and/ or a high pressure is required Where a low differential exists between normal vessel pressure and set pressure of‘ valves On large low-pressure storage tanks (See API Std 620) Where very short blow down required. Where back pressure is very high and a balanced design is required. Where the process requires the sensing of pressure at one location and the relief‘ of fluid at another. Where inlet and outlet fricliorral losses are high. Where in-situ, in—service, set pressure verification is desired. 22. Name some limitations on the use of pilot-operatecl safety relief valves. (4.72) I Where fluids are dirty. I Thick or viscous fluid service. 0 With vapors which polymerize in the valve. 23. What are the three basic categories of pressure nndlor vacuum vent valves? (4 -3) I Weighhloaded pallet vent valve I Pilot-operated vent valve I Spring and weight-loaded vent valve 24.. What are the applications and limitations of pressure and/ or vacuum vent valves? (4 El and .2 I They are designed to protect atrrrospheric and low pressure storage tanks and are not generally used in applications requiring set pressures above 15 lbf/ inz 25, Describe the parts of a Rupture Disk Device. (4 9) I The combination of a rupture disk and rupture disk holder is known as :1 rupture disk device. 26 Name the types of‘ rupture disks. (4.9) 0 Conventional Rupture Disk. I Scored Tension»I. .oaded Rupture Disk. I Composite Rupture disk. I Reverse—Ar: ting Rupture Disk. 0 Graphite Rupture Disk. 27 Vhat is one advantage of the graphite disk over metal disks‘? (4 9 l 5) 0 High corrosion resistance 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL Z81 . 482 . 2253 WWW. APIEXAMS . ORG
  23. 23. 23 28. What is usually the service life of pn: -bulged metal rupture disks installed so that pressure acts against the concave side‘? (49.3) I One year - If not replaced periodically they can rupture under normal pressures without warning. 29 Normally the operating pressure ofa system protected by a pre-bulged rupture disk is from 65% to 85% of the disk‘s predetennined bursting pressure. What determines this pressure range’? (4.9 .3) I The exact percentage depends on the tlisl: ‘s type. .30. What precaution should be taken when a rupture disk is used in combination with another relief" device and removed for any reason and will he reused? (4.9 .3) I They should he handled with care to avoid damage which might cause premature rupture. Section 5 — Causes of improper Performance 3! What is the basic cause of many the difficulties encountered with pressure rel iefdevices? (5.1) I Corrosion 32. What effect can the severe over sizing of a relief valve have? (5-2) I Damaged valve seats. 3.3.. List the major causes of improper performance in pr‘essut'c-relieving devices. (5) Corrosion Damaged seating surfaces Failed springs Improper seating &_ adjustments Plugging and sticking Misapplication of materials Improper location, history. or identification Rough handling Improper diff'erential between operating and set pressures I Improper‘ piping test procedures I C O 34. To prevent leakage of the lading fluid. what must be maintained in the flatness of seating surfaces on pressure relief‘ valves? (5.2) I An optical precision on the order of 3 light beads/ hands. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482.2253 WWW. APIEXAMS. ORG
  24. 24. 24 35, What are some reasons for damaged valve seats‘? :52) - Corrost‘on 0 Foreign particles getting into valve ~ Improper or lengthy piping to the valve inlet or obstructions in the line Careless handling during maintenance. - Leakage past the seating surf‘aces ofa valve after it has been installed. 0 Improper blow down ring settings, - Severe over sizing, 36. What almost always causes broken springs in pressure relief valves‘? (5 3) 0 Corrosion (Note: two types - surface & stress) 37‘ What chemical frequently causes stress—corrosion spring failure in petrochemical plants? (5.3) I Hydrogen sulfide (H28) 38. What may he done to prevent spring l ailure due to corrosion‘? (5.3) I Spring material which can resist the action of the corrosive agent. 0 Spring isolated by a bellows‘. - Spring coated by a coating that can withstand the operating temperature and environment .39. What medium should he used to set the Following pressure relief devices‘? - Safety relief valve - air or other gas. - Vapor service valve ~ air" or inert gas. ‘ - Steam service valves - steam but air may be used if suitable corrections are applied. - Liquid service valves - water. 40. What is recommended for lubricating sliding parts and threads on valves to prevent fouling? (55) ‘ 0 Valve parts should he lubricated with a material that is compatible with the service and temperature . Ill . In general, what should be considered in determining the material to be used for pressure- relieving devices? (55) 0 Temperature 0 Pr esstrre 0 Corrosion resistance requirements - Atrnospheric conditions 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482.2253 wwW. APIEXAMS.0RG
  25. 25. 25 42. Why should relief valves be shipped in an upright position? (58.1) 0 When relief valves are laid on their sides. the springs may not exert the same force all around the seating surl ace 4.3. What is one important aspect of the work done to PRDS in the maintenance shop‘? (5.8 2) - Rough handling should be avoided such as the application of excessive hackpressure to bellows type valves 44. If RV inlets and outlets are not covered during shipment what provisions should he made‘? (5 .8 3) - Provision should be made For such covering during all future shipments 45. What risks are incurred when a hydrostatic test ol’ discharge piping for a PRD is performed’? (5.10) I The disk, spring and body area on the discharge side of valve can be fooled. - The bellows of a balanced relief valve can be damaged by excessive back pressure. - The dome area and/ or the pilot assembly of a pilot-operated pressure RV are fouled and damaged by the hack Flow of the l’iuid. . Section 6 — Inspection and Testing 46. Name two types of inspections. (6. 1) - Shop inspections! overhauls and visual on-stream inspections. 47. When a relief valve is removed for inspection or ovethauls what additional inspection should be made‘? (6 2) - Inlet and outlet piping should be inspected for internal deposits and records made of their conditions. 48. After a PRV has been reinstalled what should be checked’! (6.2 l) 0 After reinstalling the related piping should be checked to ensure that it is not imposing loads that would cause problems with the pressure relief valve‘s body such as distortion leading to in~servit: e leakage. 49 A complete operating history of each pressure reliel‘ valve should he maintained and should include what‘? (623) 0 Information on upsets and their eflects on the valve. - The extent of any leakage that has occurred in operation 0 Any other evidence of malfunctioning. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482 . Z253 WWW. APIEXAMS.0RG
  26. 26. 26 50. When a relief" device is removed from a system that is in operation, name a necessary step to prevent an unexpected pressure release. (6.2 .4) 0 The space between the relief" valve and the adjacent block valve should he vented to release all pressure. SI . What must be done to valves in hydrofluoric ae id service as soon as they are removed‘? (6.2 5 0 They must he correctly neutralized immediately after removal. 52. Since inspection of RV piping cannot be clone when removing the valve while the system is in service what alternative inspection can be done to check for line any major blockage or fouling? (6 2.6) 0 Radiogrztplric Inspection. 53. What can visual inspection of the piping al"ter the removal of a PR! ) indicate? (6..2.6) 0 Tire condition of the process piping whose interior is not visible. 54. Why should caution be used with the rigging to remove a large PRD for maintenance? (6. 2.7) 0 Prevent auxiliary piping and pilot assemblies from being damaged. 55.. Prior to perfonning the as received pop test on :1 PRD what should he inspected and checked? (62.8) 0 Check that the seals are intact on the pressure set screw and the blow down ring screw cover. 56. When may the as received pop pressnr'e test be waived by the ownerIuser"? (6.2 8) 0 When the valve is extremely fotrled and the test may damage the valve. 57. When trntrstral corrosion, deposits. or conditions are noted trpon receipt of a PRD at the shop what should be done‘? (62.9) - The inspector should participate in the shop inspection of the PRD 58. When is it not necessary to disassemble at PRD at the shop‘? (6.2 IO) - It" the valve has been tested at the appropriate API 510 interval and the as received pop test shows the valve to be operating properly disassembly is not rnandatory. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482.2253 wwW. APIEXAMS.0RG
  27. 27. 27 59. List. at least fourof the steps in the inspection of a relief valve upon disassembly (6.2. l l) 0 Measure each part's dimensions. 0 Check components for wear or corrosion. - Seating surfaces shouid be checked for roughness or damage. 0 Springs should be checked forcracking. 60. During re—assembly of a pressure relief valve what should never be done‘? (6.2. L2) 0 The nozzle and seating surfaces should never be oiled. 61. After reassembly of a relief device how should any hlow down rings be set’? (62. l3) - In accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. ’, ‘-.1__ 62. Why do some naanufactures recommend at least three pop tests before releasing :1 relief ‘ device for installation? (6..2.l4) - It is believed that the first pop test helps to align all of the components and that the successive tests verify the actual set pressure. 08/D4 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. 482 . 22 53 WWW. APIEXAMS. ORG
  28. 28. 28 63. Once the valve is set to pop at its CDTP (cold differential test pressure) it should be checked for ___? (6 2.. l 5) 0 Leakage and seat tightness hy increasing the pressure on the test block to 90% of the CDTP. 64. When applying the hydraulic test method to ASME. Section VIII pressure relief valves while on equipment. what precautions should be taken? (6 2. l7) - The potentiai for failure ofthe rupture disk in disklreliel’ valve combinations. - Possible introduction of foreign material into the valve seat are from popping. , V . ~ ' ii ‘ I Possible release of process material to the atmosphere. U-‘ . _ _ 65 May a pilot operated pressure relief valve he tested in place ifao block valve exists beneath it’? (6.2 l9) I No. it may be inspected and repaired only while the vessel is out of service. 66.. Where is a weight loaded pressure and/ or a vacuum vent rrsed? (6.220) . - . l V 0 On pressure storage tanks. ‘J 67. What type of failure are pressure and/ or vacuum vcnt valves prone to? (62.20) I Sticking. 68.. is it permissible to reinstall :1 rupture disk once it has been unbolted and removed from its holder? (6.2 2 I) I No. it may not be possible to get a tight seal and unreliable performance is probable. 69. What are the objectives of a visual on—strearn inspection of relief‘ devices? (63) - Make sure the correct device is installed, that the correct pressure can he detennined, that there are . not any blinds org gs installed, that the seals are intact and that the valve is not leaking. Also bellows if so equipped are connected and clear and vent piping is routed to a safe location. Any upstream or downstream block valves are scaled or chained in the proper position. That discharge piping is supported, valve body drains and vent stacks are open, any required lifting lever is present and properly positioned. Any heat tracing or insulation required is in good condition and operational and if a rupture disk is installed it is properly oriented. 70. API 510 establishes the maximum interval between device inspections or tests of l0 years. what else should he considered when setting the frequency of inspection and testing? (6 4) I The perlorrnanr: e of the device in a particular service. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482.2253 WWW. APIEXAMS. ORG
  29. 29. 29 7!. How is the frequency ofshop inspection or overhaul normally determined‘? (64.1.1) - By the operating experience in the valves present service. corrosion service would be more frequent for example Section 7- Records and Reports 72. What is the principal objective in keeping records on pressure-relieving devices? (7.1) - To make available the information needed to ensure the performance of’ the devices meets the requirements of their various installations. 73. What shouid the record For a pressurmeliving device include’? (7.2) - Its specification data and a continuously accumulating record ol’ its tests and inspections results 74. Which of the following per API 576 might be expected to initiate a work request on a PRD? The API inspector or the Process Unit Operator? (7 .3) - Process Unit Operator 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482.2253 WWW. APIEXAMS.0RG
  30. 30. 30 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 572 SECOND EDITION. FEBRUARY 2001 REV IEW QUESTIONS Section 1 - General I. What are the main points covered in API RP 572‘? (E 1) 0 Descriptions ofthe various types of pressure vessels. - Standards for construction. - Reasons for inspection - Causes of deterioration. - Frequency & methods of inspection. - Methods of repair. I Preparation of records and reports. Sections 13, 4, 5 and 6 contain duplicate information to that found in the API 510. You should still read these sections however, at least once. Section 7 - Reasons for Inspection 2. What are the basic reasons for inspection? (7 I) - To determine the physical condition of the vessel. - Determine the type. rate and causes of‘deter'ioration, 3. List at least four‘ additional reasons for inspections. (7 l, 7.2) - Safety maintained 0 Periods of operation without shutdown extended — well planned maintenance program - Rate of cleterip_t_atior1 often reduced ~__$‘: ’___ ‘ 1 _ Co“iio‘. “'- 0 Future repair and replacement requirements estimated & { fit -I . Section 8 - Causes of Deterioration 4. List the 4 genera} forms of deterioration, (8.1) - Electrochemical 0 Chemical I Mechanical - Combination of all three 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.432.2253 WWW. APIEXAMS.0RG r 3,. ‘ —»
  31. 31. 31 LIV List the 4 general classifications olthiugs that cause deterioiation upon coming into Contact with a 5 vessel surface (3 ll) I Otgzmic & inot ganic compounds 0 Contaminated or fresh water - Steam - Atmosphere 6 Name 6 factors, which accelerate the rate of‘ deterioration. ( 8 l ) - Temper at me 0 Stress - Fatigue o impingement - High velocity 0 In regular ity of flow - 74 What is the prime cause of deterioration in a pressure vessel‘? (8 2) I Corrosion 8. What are the most common internal conodents in ref ineries? (8.2) - Sulfur - Salt/ Chloride compounds 9.. Define erosion. 0 The removal of surface material caused by numerous individual impacts ofsolid or liquid particles or cavitation. IO. Erosion is typically found where in a vessel? ’ 3_ - Downstream of control valves 0 Downstream of orifices - Downstream of pump dischaiges I At any point oi" flow direction change, such as impingement baffles. 08/04 REV 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281»482.Z253 WWW. APIEXAMS. ORG
  32. 32. ll. 18.2.3) ll. (8 2.4) I3. (82.5) l4. (8.2 6) I5. (8 2.7) 16. (8.28) I7. (829) I8. 32 Problems with environmental cracking have been experienced of high hardness. areas of high stress or both. Examples of this include Chloride stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels due to moisture under insulation. Pol ythionic acid stress corrosion cracking (PSCC) Caustic stress corrosion also know as caustic embrittlement Amine stress corms ion cracking in non-stress relieved vessels. Carbonate stress corrosion cracking in alkaline systems. Wet hydrogen sulfide stress cracking, hydrogen induced cracking, and hydrogen blistering. Con osion beneath refractory linings can cause what‘? Bulging of the refractory What does fatigue cracking in a vessel result from? Excessive cyclic stresses the are often below the yield strength of the material such as; Pressure stresses Mechanical stresses Thermal stresses Creep damage may be diffictrlt to detect until Significant damage has occured What factor‘ increases susceptibility to high temperature hydrogen attack in a vessel‘s material ‘.7 - = ca. . «M I / _~- Increasing carbon content of the materials In the absence of '- ‘=1 t , sulfide corrosion rates of are relatively low at metal temperatures below ‘I. '~ ‘, ~-'‘' Water 450 " F When buried vessels are equipped with adequate cathodic protection when will excavation he required for inspection? when evidence 0|‘ coating or wrapping damage is revealed ' What are the most important rnicroorganisms that directly influences the rate of‘ metallic con osion .7 (8.2.. l0) OB/ O4 Sttllate reducing bacteria found in may soils Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281 . 432 . 2253 WWW. APIEXAMS . . ORG
  33. 33. 33 t9. What causes titanium alloys to lose ductility‘? (8. 3. 7) 0 Absorption of hydrogen 20. Many of the problems that may develop in pressure vessels are traceable to what? (8 .5) - Faulty material or fabrication 2 l. Poor welding, improper heat treatment, fabrication with dimensions outside tolerances allowed by ASME Code, improper installation of internal equipment. and assembly of flanged or threaded joints are examples of what problem? - Faulty f'abr'ication "'7 List several consequences of improper welding techniques. 0 Incomplete penetration - Lack of l'usion Cracking Undercutting . Slag incltrsion - Porous welds 23. High residual stresses near welds affecting the physical properties and corrosion resistance of the _ metal is caused by what? (8.53) 0 improper heat treatment 24.. Dimensional intolerance can lead to what‘? (8.5 4) 0 Stress concentrations and subsequent failures. 25. What are the consequences of improper installation of internal equipment? (8 5.5) - Inefficient operation 0 Blockageofpassnges 0 Displacement of internal equipment with pressure surges 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. 482 . 2253 WWW . APIEXAMS . ORG
  34. 34. 34 26. Improper fitting or tightening of‘ flanges or threaded joints may lead to what? (85 6) I Leaks and possible t’ailure Section 9 ~ Frequency and Time of Inspection 27‘ What are the important factors when determining the freqttency with which a pressure vessel should be inspected‘? - The title of deterioration - The remaining corrosion allowance 28. What event can provide and opportunity for an inspection? (9.2) I An uns: :heduled shutdown 29. What occasional cheek may locate the cause of functional deterioration‘! (9 2) - A check of a vessel"; operating record 30. What are the most important issues when scheduling a unit for inspections‘? (9~-3) 0 Safety and reliability Section 10 Inspection Methods and Limitations 31. Before starting inspection of a pressure vessel, what are some basic things the inspector should do’! (I0 I) - Determine pressure and temperature conditions under which the vessel has operated since last inspection - Ascertain the character of the vessel contents and the t’ 'unr: tion the vessel serves in the process .32‘ Name at least 8 types of tools required by an inspector to inspect a pressure vessel‘ (1022) Portable lights Thin bladed knife Broad chisel or scraper‘ Mirrors Calipers Steel tape meustue(50 feet) Hammer Notebooks and penciis 33. Where should the external inspection start! t IO 3.2) - External inspection should start with ladders stairwaysn platforms, or walkways connected to or hearing on the vessel. The condition of most parts can be determined by hammering‘ 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482 . Z253 WWW. APIEXAM5 IIORG
  35. 35. 36 43. ll‘ settling of a vessel has occurred. what should be checked for distortion and cracks‘? (10 3.8 I Nozzles 44. What is the recornrnended resistance for grounding connections? (10 3 9) I 5 ohms or less, not to exceed 25 ohms 45 Unchecked vibrations on auxiliary equipment such as gauge connectors can cause what type of’ failure‘? (10.3 I0) I Fatigue failure 46 What type of’ inspection is usually sufficient for protective coatings and insulation? (l0 3.! l) I Visual 47. At what operating temperature does CU} become a concern on extemall y insulated vessels subject to moisture ingress? (| O.3.l I ) I Between 25 to 250 ° F 48. What are the normally required measurernents on external metal surfaces of a vessel? (I0 .3. I 2) - Under nor mal conditions, at least one rneasurernent in each shell ring and one on each head. If no history exists fora vessel, then get a reading in each quadrant of each shell ring. 49. What types of corrosion are found on external surfaces of vessel? t t 0.3. t 3) I Atmospheric I Caustic Ernhrittlement I Hydrogen blistering I Soil corrosion 50. Vessels containing acidic corrodents are subject to hydrogen blistering. Where is this normally found in the vessel‘? ( l0 3 .1 3) I Those areas below the liquid level in vessels containing acidic corrodents are more likely than other areas to be subject to hydrogen blistering. Blisters are normally on the inside, but can occur on the outside surface as well. 51 What should a vessel be checked for it a caustic is stored in it‘! (l0 3.t3) I if a caustic material is stored or used in a vessel. the vessel should be checked for caustic embrittlernent. O8/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482.2253 WWW. APIEXAMS. ORG
  36. 36. 37 52. Evidence of white salts seeping through cracks will indicate what type of material? ([0 3 l3) 0 Caustic material 53. Unless readily visible. leaks are best foririd by what means? (I03 I3) - Pressure or Vacuum testing 54 Describe how you worrld determine the extent olhulging or buckling on a vessel in service. (10,313) 0 By measuring the changes in circrrrnlerences or try making prol"iles of the vessel wall‘ Profiles are made by takitrg measurements from a line parallel to the vessel wall. ‘ A surveyor 's transit or a l80 degree optical plummet may also he used 55. The degree of surface preparation needed for internal inspection will vary with several factors Foremost among these are: (10.4.2) 0 Type of deterioration expected 0 Location of any deteriortrtiorr S6 Cracks in vessels are most likely to occur wlrere‘? (£0.43) 0 In places where there are sharp changes in shape or size or near welded seams, especially ifa high stress is applied, 57. What may prelintinary inspections reveal? ( ‘Old 3) - Unsafe conditions, such as those due to loose internals that may fall or due to badly corroded or hroken internal ladders or platforms, 58. A detailed inspection should start at one end olthe vessel and work toward the other end and include what‘? (lO.4.4) 0 A systematic procedure to avoid overlooking obscure but important items‘ 59‘. What should all parts ofa vessel be inspected ior? (10.4 4) - Cor "r os ion 0 Erosion - Hydrogen blistering 0 Ct acki rig - Larninations 60 Some times the depth of a pit can he estimated try using what simple method? ( l0 ‘Ll 4) - Extending the lead of :1 mechanical pencil O8/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. 482 . 2253 WWW. APIEXAMS . ORG
  37. 37. 38 6! . What types of methods are used for determining the extent ofcraclts? ( 10 4 4) - Dye penetrant - Magnetic—particle (wet or dry) - Ultrasonic shear-wave 67 Explain the clil"t”erence in appearance between erosion and corrosion. - Erosion is clraracterized b a smooth, hrirvht rr earance: marked h ' the absence of the erosion _ L‘: PP product; and metal loss, IS usually confined to a clearly marked local area. - Corr-odeti areas are not often smooth or bright. 63. Shells and heads of vessels should be inspected for del‘"or'rrratiorr. Which is more likely to stiller 1 fl I ~. ' del"ormation‘? - Tire shell of :1 vessel 64. How do you check for (a) small distortions. (b) bulging or buckling (c) out-of-roundness or bulging? (lt. ').4.4) - Small distortions - by placing zr straight edge against a vessel. 0 Bulginwiuckling - measuring the changes in circumference or by profile (measuring from a line strung parallel to the vessel). 0 Out-of round/ bulge - by measuring the minimum and rnaxirnum internal deviation at the cross sectional area and comparing the two. 65. What is the best method of locating suspected deformations? (lO.4.4’) - Direct a llashlight beam parallel to the surface to check for shadows in depressions and on the non—light sides oi internal bulges. 66. What is the most sensitive method of locating surface cracking? (l0.4.4) - Fluorescent Magnetic Particle Method. 67. What is the differerrce between cracks and laminations? ( l 0 4.4) 0 Laminations run at a slant to the plate strrface. I Cracks run at right angles to the surface. (:8. Name three important factors in the inspection ol‘ metallic linings. t IO 4.5) c That there is no corrosion. - That the linings are properly installed. 0 That no holes or‘ cracks exist. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281 . 482 . 22 53 WW. APIEXAMS . ORG
  38. 38. 39 69. Explain how the Corrosive Tab Method is used to determine the metal loss on vessel linings. ( l0 4 5) - Small 1 by 2 inch tabs of lining that form a right angle are welded onto the lining with one leg extended into the vessel During inspections the thickness of" the protruding leg is measured, and, since both sides of the leg are exposed to corrosive action. the loss in thickness would be twice that of the lining. 7() What is the principle method used to inspect nonrnetailic linings like glass. plastic. rubber. concrete. and carbon block or brick. t l0 4.6) 0 For the most part all ofthe above will be visually inspected for discontinuities or physical damage. 0 Specific: - For paint. glass. plastic, & rubber lining the spark tester method is used to locate holidays. For concrete. brick, tile, or rel’ r actor y lining the lrnmrner testing method is used to locate lack of" bond. 7l Name the factors to consider when selecting tools for thickness measurements (l0.5) - Accessibility from both sides. - Desire for NDE methods. 0 Accuracy desired. - Time available. 0 Economy 72 What is the primary means of obtaining thickness measurements‘? (l0 5) - Ultrasonic instruments. 7.3. To analyze defects in welded seams that are not visible on the surface of the metal, what two methods are used‘? ( i0 6) 0 Radiography. I Shear-wave Ultrasonic. 74 How does the Hammer Test functiorr in supplementing visual examination of a vessel for the irispetitor’? (l0 8 i) - "'l'hin" - Locate thin sections in vessel walls. treads. and attachments. - "Tiglitncss"- Check for tightness of rivets, bolts. brackets. - "Cracks and Lack of Bond" - Check for cracks in metallic linings anti lack of bond in concrete linings. 0 "Scale" - Remove scale accumulations for spot inspections. 03/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482 .2253 WWW. APIEXAMS. ORG
  39. 39. 40 75. When is use of the Hammer Test not recommended? rt0.8 l) - When vessels are under pressure. - On piping upstream from a catalyst bed. 76. What is pressure testing? ( I0 8 2) 0 Filling a vessel with liquid or gas and building up an internal pressure to a desired level 77. Which is the preferred method, pressure or vacuum testing, and why? (I08 .2) - Pressure testing. Lealrs from an internal pressure source are more easily located. With vacuum testing you will know if‘ there ate leaks. but the location is not evident". '78. What should an inspector examine before applying test pressure to the shell side of an exchanger? (I0 83) - He should inspect the tube walls to be sure there is sufficient wall thickness to withstand external pressure. 79 in an exchanger where the cooling water is the lower pressure stream and a hydrocarbon is the higher pressure stream, what is a possible way to detect a leak‘? (10.8.3) 0 it may be possible to assess the lrydrocarbon content upstream and downstream of the suspect ewhanger, 80. Name the two most limits of corrosion or other deterioration that must be known by inspection. (lO.9) - The retiring thickness of the part considered. 0 The rate ol" deterioration. 8|. Often vessels have excess thickness above that r'equirctl_f0r pressure When taking credit for this excess thickness what must always be considered‘? 0 In some cases the excess thickness ol the shell or head plates was used by the designer to compensate for nozzle openings. 82. Before determining the limiting or retiring thicknesses of parts of any pressure vessel, what must be known‘? - Which Code and edition ol" that Code it is to be rated under. - Are there specific regulations regarding limits and allowable repairs. 08/U4 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482.2253 WWW. APIEXAMS. ()RG
  40. 40. 41 Section 11 — Methods of Repair 83. When is it required that a repair concem making welded repairs to a vessel have a National Board R stamp? ll 1) - When the_§urisdiction dictates that the these repairs are to made by only R stamp holders 84. When is a pressure test of'a vessel normally a reqttireinent? (l l) - After‘ an alteration Section 12 - Records and Reports 85. A complete record file should contain what three types of information‘? til. i) 0 Basie data — rnanufacturefis drawings, data reports and specifications. design information. results of any material tests‘. - Field notes - notes and measurements recorded on site including record of condition oi’ all parts inspected and repairs required. 0 Continuous file - all information on the vessel's operating history. previous inspections, corrosion rate tables. records of’ repairs and replaeententsr 86.. When making reports recommending repairs, who should receive these reports? (12.2) - All management groups. This would normally include engineering, operation. and maintenance departments‘ Reports should include the location, extent, and reasons for recommended repain. Appendix A - Exchangers 87. Why should bundles be checked when they are first pulled from the shells? (A .9. I ) ~ - The color, type, amount, and location of’ scales and deposits often help to pinpoint corrosion” problems. 88. A distinctive Prussian blue on bundle tubes indicates the presence of‘ what? (A9 .7.) I Ferrifermcyanide 89¢ Coils in open condenser boxes and double-pipe exchanger shells should be inspected according to what API Recommended Practice? tAll0) I RP574 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. 482 . 2253 WWW. APIEXAMS . ORG
  41. 41. 42 CHAPTER ll CONDITIONS CAUSING DETERIORATION OR FAILURES SECOND EDITION, 1973 201 General i. What are the modes ol" failure that can be found in refinery equipment‘? (201.2) Fatigue Failures — caused by stress reversals. (In machinery these cracks start at the surface and progress with each stress reversal. ) Distortion Failure ~ occurs when equipment is subjected to temperatures above design temperature. (At high temperatures the metal becomes weaker and distortion occurs which may result in failure ) Brittle Fracture - carbon steels are susceptible to brittle fiacttirc at ambient temperatures anti below. (A number ol tank failures have been attributed to the brittle condition ofstcel at low temperatures, combined with high loads that have been imposed by thermal stress set up rapid temperature changes. ) Excessive Metal Loss - may result in failure it‘ remaining wall thickness gets below safety valve settings. This is a rare occurrence. Wrong Material or Wrong Gaskets — may lead to failure. 202 - Corrosion 2. Corrosion problems in refitting operations can be divided into three major groups. What. are these t CH1: oups‘? 02 1) Corrosion from components present in crude oil. Corrosion from chemical used in refinery processes. Environmental corrosion. .3. Name the corrosion compounds found in crude oil. (202.0l) Hydrogen Chloride and organic/ inorganic chloride Hydrogen sulfide. mercaptans. & organic sulfur compounds. Carbon dioxide. Dissolved oxygen and water. Organic acids. Nitrogen compounds. 4. What is hydrogen chloride? When does it become a corrosion problem in process streams? (202022) A (ll y hydroclrloric acid (normally not corrosive in process streams). It becomes corrosive when water is available to lorm hydrochloric acid. 5. What do all crude oils contain‘? (201022) D8/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482.2253 Salt WWW. APIEXAMS . ORG
  42. 42. 43 6 What is the most active of the sulfur compounds in causing corrosion in rel'inery equipment‘? (202023) 0 Hydrogen Sttllide 7 At what temperature range does acceletzrted hydrogen sulfide corrosion occur in refinery equipment? (202023) 0 Between 450 anii 900 "F 8 What makes carbon dioxide corrosive‘? ( 202.024) 0 When it is combined with water. it becomes carbonic acid. 9. Where is corrosion by carbon dioxide found to be most severe‘? _ (202024) - In hydrogen plzrnLs. «' 10. Dissolved oxygen and water is a corrosion problem in what equipment? (202.0225) 0 Storage tanks 1 1 When are organic acids very corrosive? (202 026) I At their boiling temperatures. The most severe form of corrosion occurs upon condensation. 12. What two forms of‘ corrodents are formed when nitrogen is cracked in a cracking or catalytic cracking unit? (202.027)] - Ammonia & Cyanide I3 What is phenol and what is it used for? (202 03.3) - Carbolic acid ~ Used in refinery operations in the inanutucttrr'e oflrrbricating oils and aromatics. I4 What is caustic and what is it used for in refinery operations? (202035) 0 Sodium Hydroxide ~ Used tor the neutralization of acid components and for grease manui'acture. -- I5. When ammonia is permitted to contact copper base alloys in pH ranges of 8.0 and above. severe corrosion in three form of general metal loss and stress corrosion c'r’acl<ing will occur. How may this attack be identified’? (202.03?) 0 By the appearance of a blue salt deposit on the meta| ’s surface. O8/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482.2253 WWW. APIEXAMS.0RG
  43. 43. 44 I6. What are the primary uses of arnmonia in the refining indtrstry? (202037) - As a refr igcr ant - For netttraiization of acidic components in overhead streams, from pipe stills. and catalytic cracking units. E7. What mrrterials is arntnorria harnrfui to? (202 037) - Copper hase alloys. 18. What is chlorine used for in refinery operations and when does it become very con ‘osive? (202038) - Used For treating coating water and for the rrramrfacttrre oi’ sodium lrypoclriorite for treating oils. It becomes very corrosive in Contact with small arnottnts of moisture 19. Aitmrinunr Chloride - What is it used for? What does it form in the presence of water‘? How does it affect carbon steel and stainless steels’? (2010.39) 0 Used as a catalyst in isomcri7.ation units. .It forms hydrochloric acid in the presence of water; Hydrochloric acid causes severe pitting corrosion in carbon steel and intergranttlar and stress corrosion cracking in stainless 20.. What is the term applied to atmospheric corrosion"? (202.04 I) I Galvanic. Zl. What is needed to prevent atmospheric corrosion? (202.04!) 0 Eliminate water from the strrface of the metal by means of a protective barrier or coating, 22.. At what temperature does hidden corrosion take place trnder insulation and fireproof i ng if" moisture penetrates througlt cracks in the insulation‘? (202.04.7.) - In vessels and piping operating below approximately 250 “F. 23.. When does oxygen become destructive‘? (202. 052) 0 At high temperatures oxygen reacts with steel to cause scaling (iron oxide), 24. Why may steam at high temperatures cause scalirrg? (202 053) 0 Because the steam maybe decomposed to hydrogen and oxygen, and the free oxygen may cause severe scaling 03/04 REV 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281 . 482 . 22 53 WWW . APIEXAM5 . ORG
  44. 44. 4 5 25. Vanadium oxide corrosion does not take place below what ternpetzrttrre! (201054) - l. l()0 “F 26. Tire extent corrosive attack by hot sulfur compounds (sulf'trr'dioxide. hydrogen sulfide) depends on what three things‘? (202 055) 0 Concerrtration. temperrtture. and oxidizing power of the environment. 27. At what temperature does all gray cast iron begin to deteriorate. resulting in extreme brittleness. loss of strength, Scttlilrg, and growth? (202056) 0 800 "F 28. Growth of cast iron results fiom what two things? (202 056) o Graplritization & infiltration of corrosive gases into the structure. 29. What is graphitic corrosion? (‘.202 063) - Low temperature corrosion of gray cast irons in which metallic iron is converted into corrosion products, leaving the graphite intact. 30. In what material do you find gtaplritic corrosion and at what temperature does it occur‘? (.202 06.3) - In cast iron at temperatures below the dew point of water. .3i. . How can you recognize graphitic corrosion? (202 063) - By the soft porous structure that remains in the areas where it occurs. 32 What materials is mercury lrarrnful to? (202 064) ' - Morrel and copper based alloys (stress corrosion cracking) I Altrrninurn alloys. 33. Define Stress Corrosion Cracltirrg. (202064) - The spontaneous failure of metals by cracking under the combined action of cor rosion and tensile stress. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281 . 482 . Z2 53 WWW. APIEXAMS . ORG
  45. 45. 46 34, What is dczincii’ication'? ( 202.066) - A type of corrosion that can occur in copper - zinc alloys (brasses) containing less than 85% copper and used in water service. 35. What are three types ofdezincification? t 202 066) 0 Plug - occurs in localized areas. 0 Layer — covers large areas. I Intercrystalline » occurs along grain boundaries. 36. What are inhibited bmsses‘? (202 066) - Brasses which have been alloyed with arsenic, antimony, or phosphorus to inhibit dezincification. .37. What is galvanic corrosion‘? (.7.OZ.067) 0 An electrochemical type corrosion that occurs when two different metals are electrically connected, either by direct contact or by an electrical conductor, and are in contact with an electrical solution called an "electrolyte". 38. What is contact corrosion (crevice corrosion)? (202 .068) - A type of corrosion that occurs at the point of" contact or in a crevice between a metal and nonmetal or between two pieces of metal in the presence ofa corrodent. 39. What is biological corrosion? (202.069') - Corrosion influenced by primitive organisms. 40. What are the most important microorganisms that directly influence the rate of metallic corrosion‘? (201069) 0 Sulfate reducing bacteria found in many soils. 203 ~ Erosion All . Erosion is frequently a problem in equipment utilizing the fluidized — solids principle. What is this principle? (.203 .02) 0 lla gas stream ol" srrtlicient velocity is passed tltrottglt a mass of finely divided solids. such as a powder, the mass of particles will behave very much like a true liquid. 42. What method oideterioiation does cavitation induce‘? (203 .022) o Erosion. Cavitations erosion is associated with the formation and collapse of cavities in a liquid at the metal to liquid interface. 08/O4 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281 . 482 . 2253 WWW. APIEXAMS . ORG
  46. 46. 47 204 - Ellects of High Temperatures 43. Define creep (204 .0 I 2) - The Flow or plastic deformation of metals held for long periods of time at stress lower than the normal yield strength 44.. A stress - rupture is what type of failure‘? (204 m3) - A brittle type Failure - stress rupture relates the tiine to failure with temperature and stress. 45. When austenitic stainless steels are heated or cooled in the temper attire range of 750 to L650 "F. what does this make the material susceptible to‘? (204 .022) - Intergranular corrosion 46.. When ferritic steels are heated above a certain temperature (above L100 " F for mild steel). how does this afliect the material? 004.022) 0 Leads to gene! at lowering of the tensile strength. 47.. What is incipient melting (burning)? (204022) 0 When fenitic steels are heated above approximately 2,600 °F, melting and oxidation will begin at the grain bountlrm‘es. The steel is called "htuned" and will be very weak and brittle upon cooling. 48. What is Grnphitization? (204022) 0 A su uctural change in certain fetritic steels that have operated for along period of time between 825 and l,400°F Carbide is unstable in that temperature range and may decompose into iron tl‘ern'te) and graphite (carbon). 59.. What are the two general types oiGrapl1itization? (.7.04.0?.2) 0 Random Graphitization - graphite distributed uniformly throughout the steel. 0 Localized Graphitization - graphite highly concentrated in local regions. 50. What is Sensitization‘? What happens to sensitized steel when exposed to eonodents? (204,022) ~ When Austenitic stainless steels are exposed to temperatures of 750 to 1650 “F, precipitation of complex chromium carbides at the grain boundaries takes place, When the sensitized steel is exposed to corrodents. intergranular corrosion takes place. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281 . 482 . 2253 WWW . APIEXAMS . ORG
  47. 47. 48 5 I ‘ What is dccarburizntion? (204 .034) 0 The loss of carbon from the surface of :1 ferrous alloy as a result of heating in a medium that reacts with carbon. This results in lower tensile strength. hardness . and fatigue strength, It can only be fotrnd by metallurgical examirtntiom 52. At what temperature does hydrogen have a very destructive effect on steels? (204 035) 0 Above 450 "F 53. What curve shows the different steel/ temperature limits for hydrogen service? (204035) 0 Nelson Chart Z05 - Subuormal and Ambient 'I'emperattIre Effects 54. Define notch toughness (a property of metals). (205 0| ) 0 The amount energy necessary to cause fracture in the presence of a sharp notch or stress concentrator. 55. Brittle fiacttue can be recognized by several clnrr'acteristics. ‘What are these cl1aracter'istics'Z (205.01) 0 Cracks propagate at high speed‘ - There may he a loud report or sharp reading sound. 0 There is almost it complete lack of ductility. 0 The fractured surface has a brittle or faceted surface. 206 - Excessive Pressure 56. What is excessive pressure? (206.01 ) 0 Those in excess of the MAWP of the equipment under consideration. 57‘ Name four causes of excessive pressure. (206.02 I ; 206.022: 206 .023: 206.024; 206 .025) - :1 Added heat in excess of normal operations - b Blocking off’ against :1 pressure source 0 c Thermal expansion of a trapped liquid. 0 d Hydraulic hammer or resonant vibration. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL Z81 . 482 . 2253 WWW. APIEXAMS . ORG
  48. 48. 49 207 ~ Overloading 58. What are some indications of overloading of eqtriptnertt. ’ (Z07 ()2) - Visible distortion. 0 Change of shape. 0 Change of position. Appendix 1 59. Steel (terrorrs alloy) is an alloy of iron and carbon. What is the carbon content range? (App l. A) o 0.01% to 1.7% (Max. carbon content ol’ weld able steels for Code purposes is 0.35%) 60. Usually ("or refinery construction steels have less than what percent carbon‘? (App l A) 0 Less than I %. 6 I. Steels for welding have a maximum of what percent carbon content? (APP LA) 0 0.35% 62. There are two gener al types of steels. What are these? (App l. A) - Fcrritic Steel - ordinary carbon steel, low and intermediate alloy steels. and high alloy steels (straight chromium). - Austenitic - chromium ~ nickel stainless steels 6.3. Nonferrous metals and alloys contain what percent iron? (App 1 B) - L. ess than 50% 64. What is the only common copper — nickel alloy and what is it used for? , ("App 1 B) - Monel It is used for relatively low temperature corrosion resistance. 65. What are the major uses of commercially pure copper in refiner ies? (App l B) - Electrical conductors, gaskets, and corrosion resistance. 66. What are the major uses of aluminum and its alloys in rcfineries‘.7 (App l B) 0 Corrosion resistance and for structures which lightweight is a necessity. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482.2253 WWW. APIEXAlV| S.0RG
  49. 49. 50 CORROSIV E MATERIALS AND THEIR USES IN THE PETROCI-IEM INDUSTRY - Sulfuric Acid and Hydrogen Fluoride ~ used in alKy! ation's units as a catalyst. Concentrations of 85% to 95% for sulltuic acid and above 65% for hydrogen fluot ide. - Phenol (Carbolic Acid) - used i or the manufacttue of lubricating oils and aromatic ltydrocarbons. - Phosphoric Acid - used for a catalyst in polymer ization units. - Caustic (Sodium Hydroxide) - used for neutral ization of acidic components - Mercury - used in instruments - Ammonia — used as a rel: igemnt and for the neutralization of acidic components. 0 Chlorine - used to treztt cooling tower watet and for the manufzuzture of sodium hypochlotite used to treating oiis. 0 Aluminum Chloride - used as a catalyst For isomerization units. O8/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482.2253 WWW. APIEXAMS.0RG
  • ssuseraf698c

    Aug. 16, 2021
  • MohammedYaseen131

    Jun. 17, 2020
  • AhmedIsah

    May. 14, 2020
  • KoteshTedla

    Mar. 17, 2020
  • MOHAMMADMOUSAVI13

    Dec. 18, 2019
  • AnobejaEdem

    Sep. 24, 2019
  • KTULASIRAM

    Sep. 7, 2019
  • RaynaldiRaynaldi2

    Aug. 16, 2019
  • suchitchaudhary

    Jun. 24, 2019
  • kofiyesu

    Nov. 30, 2018
  • shethnakevin

    Nov. 12, 2018
  • ArifAlHarrasi

    Jul. 27, 2018
  • bangbg

    Jul. 2, 2018
  • zenopaul

    May. 29, 2018
  • REZA7070

    May. 19, 2018
  • FahMawika

    Apr. 24, 2018
  • TerrySookraj

    Nov. 16, 2017
  • NARUCHALAMOR

    Aug. 26, 2017
  • AmjadAbabneh

    Aug. 7, 2017
  • RohitSurwase

    Jun. 22, 2017

api

Views

Total views

11,303

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

24

Actions

Downloads

1,481

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

27

×