-Fun and show → zoo birds.
ﺕزان آ ی ا رPheasantsی ا وSparrowsوات واParrotم واPigeonsأ
ی اور ا ا ت ا ﺕ ا ی ا رض ا.
Poultry Terms Important
ا ی ﻥ
Aves Class of birds ر ا ﺉ
A large enclosure for holding birds in
ر ر أو
Avian Pertaining to birds ر ا ی أي
Aviculture The science of birds ر ا درا
Broilers Meat-type chicken reared till 5 wk old (2 kg). ا ج د
A surgerically castrated male chicken at 5-7
month old and weighs 3-4 kgs.
اﺡ ك دی
Chick Young chick ج ا ﺹ
Cockerel Immature male chicken ا أﺹ دی
Cock = Rooster Adult male chicken or adult male pigeon دیﺽ ﻥ
Cygnet = flapper Young swan. ا ا وز ا ﺹ
Drake Mature male duck. ا ذآ
Duckling Young ducks. ا ﺹ
Feral Wild untamed ي أو وﺡ
Flock A group of birds living together ر ا
Fowl = poultry Domesticated birds اﻥ ا ر
Gaggle Group of geese. وز ا
Gander Adult male goose. وز ا ذآ
Poultry Terms Important
ا ی ﻥ
Gosling Young goose وز ا ﺹ
Guinea cock Adult male guinea fowl ج د ذآ
Guinea hen Adult female guinea fowl ﺽ ﻥ د
Guinea cockerel Young male guinea fowl under 1 year of age أﺹ ج د دی
Guinea pullet Female guinea fowl under one year of age ﺽ ﻥ د
Hen Adult female of poultry. ر ا ع ﻥ أي أﻥ
Keet Young guinea fowl ج د ﺹ
Jake Young male turkey ا و ا ذآ
Jenny Young female turkey ا و ا أﻥ
Peacock Adult make peafowl ﺽ ا ووس ا ذآ
Peachick Young peafowl ﺹووس ا
Peahen Adult female peafowl. ا ووس ا أﻥﺽ
Pullet Immature female bird ة"ﺽ ﻥ د"
Poult Young turkey or pheasant راج ا أو و ا ﺹ
Squab Young pigeon that has not yet left the nest م ا ﺹ
Tom or Gobbler Adult male turkey ﺽ ا و ا ذآ
ر ا اع ﻥ ا ء ا
Poultry Scientific Name Poultry Scientific Name
Domestic duck Anas platyrhyncha Muscovy duck Cairina moschata
Guinea fowl Numida meleagris Geese Anser anser
Domestic chicken Gallus domesticus Peafowl Pavo cristatus
Turkeys Meleagris gallopavo Jungle Hen Gallus gallus
Japanese quail Coturnix japonica Pigeon Columbia livia
Common quail Coturnix coturnix Ostrich Struthio camelus
Swan Cygnus atratus Pheasant Phasianus colchicus
Differences between Commercial layers and Breeders
Fertile eggTable eggAim of production
Essential for fertilization.
Not present at all because
this is non fertile egg.
Presence of Male
Deep litter system only for
Deep litter system or CagesSystem of housing
Not less than 3 kg
Not more than 2 kg and if
increased over this figure this
Weight of hen
Not less than 80 gmNot more than 60 gmWeight of egg
Not less than 160 gmNot more than 120 gmAmount of feed/hen/day
Lower "higher feed intake".Higher "lowered feed intake".Feed intensity
Ranges from 160-180 eggRanges from 290-300 eggEgg productivity/year
Economically 70 weeks.Economically 60 weeks.Life Span
All vaccines including the
inactivated vaccines of IBD,
Reo and AE.
All except for inactivated
vaccines of IBD, Reo and
1-The presence of feathers which cover most of the poultry bodies.
2-The presence of preen or oil bag or gland is well developed in aquatic birds' → preening and
Vit. D biosynthesis.
2-Absence of the teeth and the lips. The lips are replaced by horny keratinized beaks of
different shapes according to the nature of the avian species. Beaks are used for pecking either
pecking of feeds or pecking of other birds for enacting the dominance "Pecking behavior".
De-beaking is a process which is used for removal of about one third of the beak to control of
ر ا ل أShapes of beak
3-Presence of comb and wattle in chickens = Snood and caruncles of turkey.
أس ﺹ ا ی ا اآ اStructures of heads
ف ا ل أShapes of comb:
Morphological characteristics of rabbits
1-Fusion of the skeleton in certain area of vertebral column e.g. synsacrum "fusion of the
14th and 15th vertebrae of caudal area of vertebral column" → increase the tensile strength of
the vertebral column.
2-The presence of the sternum ا م in all avian species except for the non-flying
birds including ostrich, rhea and emus.
1-The avian lung is non-tidal = hepatized i.e. can not inflated by air. The mammalian
lung is tidal = spongy i.e. can be inflated by air.
The differences between respiratory system of poultry and mammals.
Criteria Avian respiratory system Mammalian Respiratory system
Lung Non tidal = hepatized Tidal = Spongy
Air sacs Present Not
Pneumatic bone Present Not
Respiration Unidirectional bi-phasic air flow Bidirectional uni-phasic air flow
Efficiency Extremely efficient Efficient
2-The presence of air sacs. They are nine in number in most avian species and take their
names from their situation as follows:
1-Cervical air sac: one pair of air sac present in the cervical region.
2-Interclavicular air sac: single air sac present in-between the inter-clavicle bone.
3-Anterior thoracic air sac: one pair of air sac present in the anterior region of the
thoracic cavity under the lung.
4-Posterior thoracic air sac: one pair of air sac present in the anterior region of the
thoracic cavity between the lung and the genital organs.
5-Abdominal air sac: one pair of air sac presents behind to the last rib and extends into
the pelvic cavity.
س آ ااﺉ اAir sacs:وﺕ أ آ ﺕ س أآ ها أﺕی ا و ا م
ا ﺉ اا ﺉ وا زي ا دل ا م وا آ وا اء ا ی ﺕا زن ا آ ﺉ ی
ی ﺉ او ان اا ﺉ اا ل ﺡ اﺥ ا ارة ا در آ
ی ا ت اﻥ ا ج ﻥ خ ا یSpermatogenesis.
1-There is no lymph nodes in avian species except for ducks, geese and swans in which there
are two primitive lymph nodes. They are the cervico-thoracic node and the lumber nodes.
2-The avian erythrocytes are "nucleated" and the avian neutrophils are modified to
heterophils and the avian blood platelets are true cells i.e. "nucleated" and known as
-اء ا م ا ات آ ﺕAvian RBCsا ی وﺥThrombocytesاة ﻥ ن ر اNucleatedا
ا ا ا ا ا آ ن ی ی-1Major histocompatability complex-Iن ی و
دور ا ﺕ.
3-The presence of bursa of Fabricius. It is a unique organ and not present in any animal
except for birds.
4-Avian antibodies are three only. They are IgM, IgG and IgA. There is no IgD and IgE.
Absence of IgE means absence of anaphylaxis in birds.
Warm-blooded = homothermous i.e. their body temperature is constant whatever the
ambient temperature. No sweat gland in birds and so they are highly susceptible to the
The endocrine system is one of the controlling and regulating system in the body.
Theory of the external receptor and the second messenger
Theory of the cytoplasmic and nuclear receptor
1-Absence of the intermediate lobe of pituitary gland.
2-Presence of ultimobranchial gland.
3-There is no corpus luteum in birds.
Serous and mucous membranes ا وا ا ا
وق ا ﺽ ی ا ول وا ا وا ا ا وه ا اﺥ ا ن ﻥ ك ه:
رﻥ ا أو
Liningﺡ ا ا وی
رج ﺕ وا.
Mucous or goblet cells---+++
Exposure to antigensRarelyIntensively
Immune responseVery weak reactivityHighly reactive
ExamplesPericardiumMM lining the GIT
PleuraMM lining the respiratory tract.
MeaningesMM lining the urinary systems.
MM lining the reproductive
Glisson's capsule of liverMM lining the conjunctiva.
Bird Name Sit on Eggs Leave Nest
Robin 12-14 days 14-16 days
Dove 13-14 days 12-14 days
Sparrow 10-13 days 14-17 days
Cardinal 12-13 days 9-10 days
Hummingbird 11-14 days 14-28 days
Wren 12-14 days 12-18 days
Pigeon 16-19 days 25-26 days
Quail 21-24 days 0 days
Hawk 30-35 days 45-46 days
Eagle 34-36 days 70-98 days
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Revision of Poultry and Rabbits Biology
Dr Fares El-Khayat