World Diary 130107 地球日誌 The story of Dutch. 荷蘭人的故事 (Part one) by Eddie


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World Diary 130107 地球日誌 The story of Dutch. 荷蘭人的故事 (Part one) by Eddie

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  3. 3. The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands,located mainly in North-West Europe and with some islands in theCaribbean.位於歐洲的荷蘭本土與美洲加勒比海地區的阿魯巴、庫拉索和荷屬聖馬丁 4 個主權獨立的國家共同組成「荷蘭王國」。 . 3
  4. 4. Holland is a region in the western part of the Netherlands. The term Holland is also frequently used as a pars pro toto to refer to the whole of the Netherlands. Holland 其實只是 Netherland 西邊的一個區域,但有時大家也把 Holland 當成 是 Netherlands.Holland Comitatus Hollandiae (1682) 4
  5. 5. Holland 老荷蘭 North 北方South南方 5
  6. 6. Dutch is a West Germanic language and the native language of most of the population of the Netherlands, and about sixty percent ofthe populations of Belgium and Suriname. 荷蘭語稱 Dutch ,上圖為使用荷蘭語的國家。 Dutch 也通稱荷蘭人。 6
  7. 7. Historical changes to the landscape 荷蘭土地改變狀 況 The prehistory of the area that is now the Netherlands was largely shaped by its constantly shifting, low-lying geography.The Netherlands in 5500 BC The Netherlands in 3850 BC beach ridges and dunes tidal sand flats, tidal mudflats, salt marshes peat marshes and floodplain silt areas Valleys of the major rivers (not covered with peat) River dunes (Pleistocene dunes) open water (sea, lagoons, rivers) Pleistocene landscape ( 50 m – 100 m) Pleistocene landscape ( 100 m – 200 m) 7
  8. 8. The Netherlands in 2750 BC The Netherlands in 500 BC The Netherlands in 50 AD beach ridges and dunes tidal sand flats, tidal mudflats, salt marshes peat marshes and floodplain silt areas Valleys of the major rivers (not covered with peat) River dunes (Pleistocene dunes) open water (sea, lagoons, rivers) Pleistocene landscape ( 50 m – 100 m) Pleistocene landscape ( 100 m – 200 m) 8
  9. 9. Dutch population density 荷蘭人口密度 9
  10. 10. Area : 41,543 km2Population : 16,751,323GDP Per capita : $50,355Gini(2006) : 30.9Ethnic groups 荷蘭種族 : 80.7% Dutch 5.0% other EU 2.4% Indonesians 2.2% Turks 2.0% Moroccans 2.0% Surinamese 0.8% Caribbean 4.8% others 10
  11. 11. Mark Rutte of the VVD has been the Prime Minister of theQueen Beatrix of the Netherlands 王后 Netherlands since October 2010 總理 11
  12. 12. Religion 宗教 12
  13. 13. Bronze Age 銅器時代(around 2000 BC-800 BC) Location of the Elp and Hilversum cultures in the Bronze Age A bronze ceremonial object dating from 1800–1500 BC and found south of Utrecht 13
  14. 14. Distribution of the primary Germanic groups ca. 1 AD 日耳曼民族南下 A reconstruction of an iron age dwelling on the Reijntjesveld near Orvelte in Drenthe 鐵器時代荷蘭的房屋 14
  15. 15. When the Romans arrived, various tribeswere located in the area of theNetherlands, residing in the inhabitablehigher parts, especially in the east andsouth. These tribes did not leave behindwritten records. All the informationknown about them during this pre-Roman period is based on what theRomans would later write about them.The tribes shown in the map on the left. A. Frisii, B. Canninefates, C. Batavi, D. Marsac(i)i, E. Toxandri, F. Menapii, G. Ampsivarii, H. Chamavi, I. Sicambri, J. Bructeri, K. Tubantes, L. Usipetes, and M. Tencteri. 15
  16. 16. maximal Celtic expansion, by 275 BC 16
  17. 17. Rhine Frontier of the Roman Empire around 70 ADMask of a Roman horseman, discovered near Leiden 17
  18. 18. BataviansThe Batavians are the mostfamous of the early Germanictribes inhabiting theNetherlands during the Romanera. Since at least the 17thcentury the Dutch haveidentified with the rebelliousBatavians, seeing in this tribe aprecursor of their own historicstruggle for freedom. Eventoday "Batavian" is a termsometimes used to describe theDutch people. Throughout Dutch history, but especially during the Eighty Years War, the Batavians have been romantically portrayed as the heroic ancestors of the Dutch people. "The Batavians Defeating the Romans on the Rhine", ca.1613, by Otto van Veen. 18
  19. 19. The Conspiracy of Julius Civilis, 1661, by Rembrandt, depicts a Batavian oath to Gaius JuliusCivilis, the head of the Batavian rebellion against the Romans in 69 19
  20. 20. Emergence of the Franks Modern scholars of the Migration Period are in agreement that the Frankish identity emerged at the first half of the 3rd century out of various earlier, smaller Germanic groups, including the Salii, Sicambri, Chamavi, Bructeri, Chatti, Chattuarii, Ampsivarii, Tencteri, Ubii, Batavi and the Tungri, who inhabited the lower and middle Rhine valley between the Zuyder Zee and the river Lahn and extended eastwards as far as the Weser, but were the most densely settled around the IJssel and between the Lippe and the Sieg. The Frankish confederation probably began to coalesce in the 210s. The Franks eventually were divided into two groups: the Ripuarian Franks (Latin: Ripuari), who were the Franks that lived along the middle-Rhine River during the Roman Era, and the Salian Franks, who were the Franks that originated in the area of the Netherlands. Franks appear in Roman texts as both allies and enemies (laeti and dediticii). By about 320, the Franks had the region of the Scheldt river (present day west Flanders and southwest Netherlands) under control, and were raiding the Channel, disrupting transportation to Britain. Roman forces pacified the region, but did not expel the Franks, who continued to be feared as pirates along the shores at least until the time of Julian the Apostate (358), when Salian Franks were allowed to settle as foederati in Toxandria, according to Ammianus Marcellinus.Map showing roughly the distribution of Salian Franks (in green) and RipuarianFranks (in red) at the end of the Roman period 20
  21. 21. Disappearance of the FrisiiThe ancient Frisii were forced to resettle within Roman territory asserfs (laeti) about 300, and disappeared as a distinct group. Threefactors contributed to the disappearance of the Frisii from thenorthern Netherlands. First, according to the Panegyrici Latini(Manuscript VIII), the ancient Frisii were forced to resettle withinRoman territory as laeti (i.e., Roman-era serfs) in ca. 296.[31] This isthe last reference to the ancient Frisii in the historical record. Whathappened to them, however, is suggested in the archaeologicalrecord. The discovery of a type of earthenware unique to 4thcentury Frisia, called terp Tritzum, shows that an unknown numberof them were resettled in Flanders and Kent,[32] likely as laetiunder Roman coercion. Second, the environment in the low-lyingcoastal regions of northwestern Europe began to deteriorate ca. 250and gradually worsened over the next 200 years. Tectonicsubsidence, a rising water table and storm surges combined to floodsome areas with marine transgressions. The situation wasaggravated by a shift to a cooler, wetter climate in the region. Ifthere had been any Frisii left in Frisia, they would have fallen victimto the whims of nature.[33][34][35][36] Third, after the collapse ofthe Roman Empire, there was a decline in population as Romanactivity stopped and Roman institutions withdrew. As a result ofthese three factors, the Frisii and Frisiaevones disappeared from thearea. The coastal lands remained largely unpopulated for the nexttwo centuries. 21
  22. 22. The Frisian Kingdom (West Frisian: FryskeKeninkryk), also known as Magna Frisia,was a kingdom in what is now theNetherlands and northern Germany,established around 600 AD. The kingdomcame to an end after the Battle of the Boarn(734) where it was defeated by the FrankishEmpire. 22
  23. 23. In the 7th century and 8th century, the Frankish chronologies mention this area as the kingdom of the Frisians. This kingdom comprised the coastal provinces of the Netherlands and the German North Sea coast. During this time, the Frisian language was spoken along the entire southern North Sea coast. The 7th century Frisian Kingdom (650–734) under King Aldegisel and King Redbad, had its centre of power in Utrecht. Dorestad was the largest settlement (emporia) in northwestern Europe. It had grown around a former Roman fortress. It was a large, flourishing trading place, three kilometers long and situated where the rivers Rhine and Lek diverge southeast of Utrecht near the modern town of Wijk bij Duurstede.[40][41] Although inland, it was a North Sea trading centre that primarily handled goods from the Middle Rhineland.[41][42] Wine was among the major products traded at Dorestad, likely from vineyards south of Mainz.[42] It was also widely known because of its mint. Between 600 and around 719 Dorestad was often fought over between the Frisians and the Franks.Dorestad and main traderoutes 23
  24. 24. After Roman government in the area collapsed, theFranks expanded their territories until there werenumerous small Frankish kingdoms, especially atCologne, Tournai, Le Mans and Cambrai. The kings ofTournai eventually came to subdue the other Frankishkings. By the 490s, Clovis I had conquered and unitedall the Frankish territories to the west of the Meuse,including those in the southern Netherlands. Hecontinued his conquests into Gaul.After the death of Clovis I in 511, his four sonspartitioned his kingdom amongst themselves, withTheuderic I receiving the lands that were to becomeAustrasia (including the southern Netherlands). A line ofkings descended from Theuderic ruled Austrasia until555, when it was united with the other Frankishkingdoms of Chlothar I, who inherited all the Frankishrealms by 558. He redivided the Frankish territoryamongst his four sons, but the four kingdoms coalescedinto three on the death of Charibert I in 567. Austrasia(including the southern Netherlands) was given toSigebert I. The southern Netherlands remained thenorthern part of Austrasia until the rise of theCarolingians. 24
  25. 25. In the 9th and 10th centuries the Vikings raided the largely defenceless Frisian andFrankish towns laying on the coast and along the rivers of the Low Countries.Although Vikings never settled in large numbers in these areas, they did set up long-term bases and were even acknowledged as lords in a few cases. In Dutch and Frisianhistorical tradition the trading centre of Dorestad declined after Viking raids from 834to 863; however, since no convincing Viking archaeological evidence has been foundat the site (as of 2007), doubts about this have grown in recent years. 25
  26. 26. Part of the Holy RomanEmpireThe German kings and emperorsruled the Netherlands in the 10thand 11th century. Germany wascalled the Holy Roman Empireafter the coronation of King Ottothe Great as emperor. The Dutchcity of Nijmegen used to be thespot of an important domain ofthe German emperors. SeveralGerman emperors were born anddied there. (Byzantine empressTheophanu died in Nijmegen forinstance.) Utrecht was also animportant city and trading port atthe time. 26
  27. 27. The rise of HollandIn 1083, the name "Holland" first appears in a deed referring to a region corresponding more or less to the current province ofSouth Holland and the southern half of what is now North Holland. Hollands influence continued to grow over the next twocenturies. The counts of Holland conquered most of Zeeland but it was not until 1289 that Count Floris V was able to subjugatethe Frisians in West Friesland (that is, the northern half of North Holland). 27
  28. 28. Burgundian and Habsburg period (1433–1567)Burgundian periodMost of what is now the Netherlands and Belgium was eventually united bythe Duke of Burgundy in 1433. Before the Burgundian union, the Dutchidentified themselves by the town they lived in, their local duchy or countyor as subjects of the Holy Roman Empire. The Burgundian period is whenthe Dutch began the road to nationhood.Hollands trade developed rapidly, especially in the areas of shipping andtransport. The new rulers defended Dutch trading interests. The fleets ofHolland defeated the fleets of the Hanseatic League several times.Amsterdam grew and in the 15th century became the primary trading portin Europe for grain from the Baltic region. Amsterdam distributed grain tothe major cities of Belgium, Northern France and England. This trade wasvital to the people of Holland, because Holland could no longer produceenough grain to feed itself. Land drainage had caused the peat of theformer wetlands to reduce to a level that was too low for drainage to bemaintained. 28
  29. 29. Influential Utrecht theologian Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, 1459–1523,was an advisor to Charles; in the last year of his life he became pope as PopeAdrian VI (1522-23) Desiderius Erasmus, 1466–1536, Rotterdam Renaissance humanist, 29 Catholic priest and theologian, by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1523
  30. 30. Title page of the 1637 Statenvertaling, the first Bible translated fromthe original Hebrew and Greek into Dutch, commissioned by theCalvinist Synod of Dort, used well into the 20th c 30
  31. 31. 1595 painting by Isaac van Swanenburg illustrating Leiden textile workersThe Netherlands was a valuable part of the Spanish Empire, especially after the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis of 1559. This treaty ended aforty-year period of warfare between France and Spain conducted in Italy from 1521 to 1559.[56] The Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis wassomewhat of a watershed—not only for the battleground that Italy had been, but also for northern Europe. Spain had been keeping troopsin the Netherlands to be ready to attack France from the north as well as from the south. 31
  32. 32. • The Dutch War for Independence from Spain is frequently called the Eighty Years War (1568–1648). The first fifty years (1568 through 1618) were uniquely a war between Spain and the Netherlands. During the last thirty years (1618–1648) the conflict between Spain and the Netherlands was submerged in the general European War that became known as the Thirty Years War.[70] The seven rebellious provinces of the Netherlands were eventually united by the Union of Utrecht in 1579 and formed the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (also known as the "United Provinces"). The Act of Abjuration or Plakkaat van Verlatinghe was signed on 26 July 1581, and was the formal declaration of independence of the northern Low Countries from the Spanish king.• William of Orange (Slot Dillenburg, 24 April 1533 – Delft, 10 July 1584), the founder of the Dutch royal family, led the Dutch during the first part of the war, following the death of Egmont and Horn in 1568. The very first years were a success for the Spanish troops. However, the Dutch countered subsequent sieges in Holland. At several points the Spanish soldiers committed massacred known as Spanish Fury; the most famous Spanish Fury was the sack of Antwerp in 1576, killing 10,000.• 32
  33. 33. Prince Maurits at the Battle of Nieuwpoort, 1600, by Paulus van Hillegaert 33
  34. 34. The Dutch Golden Age, Dutch pronunciation:[ˈɣʌudən ˈeːw]) was a period in Dutch history,roughly spanning the 17th century, in whichDutch trade, science, military, and art wereamong the most acclaimed in the world. The firsthalf is characterized by the Eighty Years War till1648. The Golden Age went on in peace timeduring the Dutch Republic until the end of thecentury. 荷蘭黃金時期 34
  35. 35. Daily life during the Dutch Golden Age William I, Prince of Orange also calledcaptured in a painting by Jan Steen Willem de Zwijger (William the Silent), leader of the Netherlands during the Dutch Revolt 35
  36. 36. New Amsterdam (Dutch: Nieuw-Amsterdam) was a 17th-century Dutchcolonial settlement on the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served ascapital city of New Netherland. It was renamed New York in 1667 in honorof the Duke of York (later James II of England) when English forces seizedcontrol of Manhattan along with the rest of the Dutch colony. 36
  37. 37. Dutch occupied Indonesia from 17th century to the second war. 37
  38. 38. Dutch Batavia built in what is now Jakarta, by Andries Beeckman ca. 1656荷蘭人創建雅加達 38
  39. 39. Dutch occupied Taiwan from 1624 to 1662. Taiwan 39
  40. 40. The shipyard of the Dutch East IndiaCompany in Amsterdam, circa 1750荷蘭利用東印度公司在亞洲獲取利益 Logo of the Dutch East India Company 40
  41. 41. Painting of an account of thearrival of Jan van Riebeeck, byCharles Bell 41
  42. 42. The Dutch Classicist Mauritshuis, named after Prince Johan Maurits and built 1636–1641, was designed by Jacob van Campen and Pieter Post 荷蘭黃金年代的建築 42
  43. 43. The Netherlands gained independence from Spain as a result of the Eighty Years War, during which theDutch Republic was founded. As the Netherlands was a republic, it was largely governed by an aristocracyof city-merchants called the regents, rather than by a king. Every city and province had its own governmentand laws, and a large degree of autonomy. 43
  44. 44. • Refugees• The Netherlands sheltered many notable refugees, including Protestants from Antwerp and Flanders, Portuguese and German Jews, French Protestants (Huguenots) (including Descartes) and English Dissenters (including the Pilgrim Fathers). Many immigrants came to the cities of Holland in the 17th and 18th century from the Protestant parts of Germany and elsewhere. The amount of first generation immigrants from outside the Netherlands in Amsterdam was nearly 50% in the 17th and 18th century. Indeed, Amsterdams population consisted primarmily of immigrants, if one includes second and third generation immigrants and migrants from the Dutch countryside. People in most parts of Europe were poor and many were unemployed. But in Amsterdam there was always work. Tolerance was important, because a continuous influx of immigrants was necessary for the economy. Travellers visiting Amsterdam reported their surprise at the lack of control over the influx.• Economic growth• The era of explosive economic growth is roughly coterminous with the period of social and cultural bloom that has been called the Dutch Golden Age, and that actually formed the material basis for that cultural era. Amsterdam became the hub of world trade, the center into which staples and luxuries flowed for sorting, processing, and distribution, and then reexported around Europe and the world.• During 1585 through 1622 there was the rapid accumulation of trade capital, often brought in by refugee merchantes from Antwerp and other ports. The money was typically invested in high-risk ventures like pioneering expeditions to the East Indies to engage in the spice trade. These ventures were soon consolidated in the Dutch East India Company (VOC). There were similar ventures in different fields however, like the trade on Russia and the Levant. The profits of these ventures were ploughed back in the financing of new trade, which led to its exponential growth.• Rapid industrialization led to the rapid growth of the nonagricultural labor force and the increase in real wages during the same time. In the half-century between 1570 and 1620 this labor supply increased 3 percent per annum, a truly phenomenal growth. Despite this, nominal wages were repeatedly increased, outstripping price increases. In consequence, real wages for unskilled laborers were 62 percent higher in 1615–1619 than in 1575–1579. The Semper Augustus was the most expensive tulip sold during the short-lived bubble of 1636-37, the tulip mania 44
  45. 45. By the mid-1660sAmsterdam had reachedthe optimum population(about 200,000) for thelevel of trade, commerceand agriculture thenavailable to support it.The city contributed thelargest quota in taxes tothe States of Hollandwhich in turn contributedover half the quota to theStates General.Amsterdam was also oneof the most reliable insettling tax demands andtherefore was able to usethe threat to withholdsuch payments to goodeffect. 45
  46. 46. The Anglo-Dutch Wars (Dutch: Engels–Nederlandse Oorlogen or Engelse Zeeoorlogen) were a series of wars fought betweenthe English (later British) and the Dutch in the 17th and 18th centuries for control over the seas and trade routes. The first wartook place during the English Interregnum, and was fought between the Commonwealth of England and the Dutch Republic (alsoknown as the United Provinces). The second war and third war took place after the Restoration, and involved the Kingdom ofEngland and the Dutch Republic. The fourth war took place after the Acts of Union, and involved the Kingdom of Great Britainand the Dutch Republic.The second and third Anglo-Dutch wars confirmed the Dutch Republics position as the leading maritime state of the seventeenthcentury. In the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars of 1793–1815, France reduced the Netherlands to a satellite andfinally annexed the country in 1810. In 1797 the Dutch fleet was defeated by the British in the Battle of Camperdown. 46
  47. 47. • Franco-Dutch War• The Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), often called simply the Dutch War (French: La Guerre de Hollande; Dutch: Hollandse Oorlog) was a war fought by France, Sweden, the Prince-Bishopric of Münster, the Archbishopric of Cologne and England against the Dutch Republic, which were later joined by the Austrian Habsburg lands, Brandenburg and Spain to form a quadruple alliance. The war ended with the Treaty of Nijmegen of 1678, which granted France control of the Franche-Comté and some cities in Flanders and Hainaut, all formerly controlled by Spain. The year 1672 in Dutch is often referred to as Het Rampjaar, meaning the year of disaster.• The song "Auprès de ma blonde" or "Le Prisonnier de Hollande" ("The Prisoner of Holland"), in which a French woman grieves for her beloved who is held prisoner by the Dutch, appeared during or soon after the Franco-Dutch War - reflecting the contemporary situation of French sailors and soldiers being imprisoned in the Netherlands - and remains an enduring part of French culture up to the present. 47
  48. 48. • In the naval battle of Messina the French 1676 defeated the Spanish and were invited by Messina to occupy the town. However, one year later Spanish took the town again. 48
  49. 49. • Louis XIV crosses the Rhine at Lobith on 12 June An oak statue found in Willemstad, The 1672; Deutsches Historisches Museum Berlin Netherlands, dating from around 4500 BC. On display in the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in Leiden 49
  50. 50. The Inspectors of the Collegium Medicum inAmsterdam, by Cornelis Troost, 1724. Thisperiod is known as the "Periwig Era". • Economic decline after 1730 • The slow economic decline after 1730 was relative: other countries grew faster, eroding the Dutch lead and surpassing it. Wilson identifies three causes. Holland lost its world dominance in trade as competitors emerged and copied its practices, built their own shipsand ports, and traded on their own account directly without going through Dutch intermediaries. Second, there was no growth in manufacturing, due perhaps to a weaker sense of industrial entrepreneurship and to the high wage scale. Third the wealthy turned their investments to foreign loans. This helped jump-start other nations and provided the Dutch with a steady income from collecting interest, but leaving them with few domestic sectors with a potential for rapid growth. 50
  51. 51. • The Orangist revolution (1747–1751)• During the term of Anthonie van der Heim as Grand Pensionary from 1737 to 1746, the Republic slowly drifted into the War of Austrian Succession. This started as a Prusso-Austrian conflict, but eventually all the neighbours of the Dutch Republic became involved. On one side were Prussia, France and their allies and on the other Austria, Britain (after 1744) and their allies. At first the Republic strove to remain neutral in this European conflict, but it maintained garrisons in a number of fortresses in the Austrian Netherlands. French grievances and threats spurred the Republic into bring its army up to European standards (84,000 men in 1743).• In 1744 and 1745 the French attacked Dutch fortresses at Menen and Tournai. This prompted the Dutch Republic in 1745 to join the Quadruple Alliance, but this alliance was severely defeated at the Battle of Fontenoy in May 1745. In 1746 the French occupied most of the large cities in the Austrian Netherlands. Then, in April 1747, apparently as an exercise in armed diplomacy, a relatively small French military force occupied Zeelandic Flanders, part of the Dutch Republic. 51
  52. 52. Regency and indolent rule (1752–1779)• His son, William V, was only 3 years old when his father died, and a long regency characterised by corruption and misrule began. His mother delegated most of the powers of the regency to Bentinck and her favorite, Duke Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg. All power was concentrated in the hands of an unaccountable few, including the Frisian nobleman Douwe Sirtema van Grovestins. [114] Still a teenager, William V assumed the position of stadtholder in 1766, the last to hold that office. In 1767, he married Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia, the daughter of Augustus William of Prussia, niece of Frederick the Great.• The position of the Dutch during the American War of Independence was one of neutrality. William V, leading the pro-British faction within the government, blocked attempts by pro-independence, and later pro-French, elements to drag the government to war. However, things came to a head with the Dutch attempt to join the Russian-led League of Armed Neutrality, leading to the outbreak of the disastrous Fourth Anglo-Dutch War in 1780. After the signing of the Treaty of Paris (1783), the impoverished nation grew restless under Williams rule.• An English historian summed him up uncharitably as "a Prince of the profoundest lethargy and most abysmal stupidity."[115] And yet he would guide his family through the difficult French-Batavian period and his son would be crowned king. Willem V of Orange, stadholder from 1751–1806, and Wilhelmina of Prussia with three of their five children. From left to right: the future William I of the Netherlands, Frederick, and Frederica Louise Wilhelmina 52
  53. 53. Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (1780–1784)Most of the war consisted of a series of largely successful British operations against Dutch colonial economic interests, although British and Dutch naval forces also met once off theDutch coast. The war ended disastrously for the Dutch and exposed the weakness of the political and economic foundations of the country.[116] The Treaty of Paris (1784),according to Fernand Braudel, "sounded the knell of Dutch greatness." 53
  54. 54. Firefight on the Vaartse Rijn at Jutphaas on 9 May 1787. The pro- • Patriot rebellion and itsrevolutionary Utrecht Patriots are on the right; the troops of stadholder suppression (1785–1795)William V, Prince of Orange on the left. Painted by Jonas Zeuner, 1787 • Influenced by the American Revolution, the Patriots sought a more democratic form of government. The opening shot of this revolution was the 1781 publication of a manifesto called "Aan het Volk van Nederland" (To the People of the Netherlands) by Joan van der Capellen tot den Pol, the founder of the Patriots. The aim of the Patriots was to reduce corruption and the power held by the stadtholder, William V, Prince of Orange. • Support for the Patriots came mostly from the middle class. They formed a militia called the "Free Corps". In 1785 there was an open rebellion by the Patriots, which took the form of an armed insurrection by local militias in certain Dutch towns, "Vrijheid" being the rallying cry. Herman Willem Daendels attempted to organise an overthrow of various municipal governments (vroedschap). The goal was to oust government officials and force new elections. "Seen as a whole this revolution was a string of violent and confused events, accidents, speeches, rumours, bitter enmities and armed confrontations", wrote French historian Fernand Braudel, who saw it as a forerunner of the French Revolution. 54
  55. 55. • Batavian Republic (1795–1806)Liberty tree erected in Dam Square in Amsterdam, 1795; by H. Numan • The French Revolution was popular, and numerous underground clubs were promoting it when in January 1795 a French army invaded. The underground rose up, overthrew the municipal and provincial governments, and proclaimed the Batavian Republic (Dutch: Bataafse Republiek). The stadholder William V fled to England and the estates general dissolved itself. The new government was a puppet of France and lasted until Napoleon installed his brother Louis Bonaparte as king of the new Kingdom of Holland in 1806. The Batavian Republic enjoyed widespread support and sent soldiers to fight in the French armies. Nevertheless Napoleon replaced it because the regime of Grand Pensionary Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck (1805-6) was insufficiently docile. • The confederal structure of the old Dutch Republic was permanently replaced by a unitary state. The 1798 constitution had a genuinely democratic character, though a coup détat of 1801 put an authoritarian regime in power. Ministerial government was introduced for the first time in Dutch history and many of the current government departments date their history back to this period. Meanwhile the exiled stadholder handed over the Dutch colonies in "safekeeping" to Great Britain and ordered the colonial governors to comply. This permanently ended the colonial empire in Guyana, Ceylon and the Cape Colony. The Dutch East Indies was returned to the Netherlands under the Anglo- Dutch Treaty of 1814. 55
  56. 56. • Kingdom of Holland to William I• (1806–1815)• In 1806 Napoleon restyled the Netherlands (along with a small part of what is now Germany) into the Kingdom of Holland, putting his brother Louis Bonaparte (1778–1846), on the throne. The new king was unpopular, but he was willing to cross his brother for the benefit of his new kingdom. Napoleon forced his abdication in 1810 and incorporated the Netherlands directly into the French empire, imposing economic controls and conscription of all young men as soldiers. When the French retreated from the northern provinces in 1813, a Triumvirate took over and invited the son of William V to return as "Sovereign Prince." William VI of Orange.• The Great Powers had secretly agreed to reunite the northern Netherlands with the more populated Austrian Netherlands as well as the smaller Prince-Bishopric of Liège into a single constitutional monarchy. The Congress of Vienna made it official in 1815 as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, with the House of Orange- Nassau elevated to royal status. Having a stronger country on Frances northern border was considered (especially by the Russian tsar) to be an important part of the strategy to keep Frances power in check. William proclaimed himself king William I and the states-general was reconstituted. Administrative divisions of the First French Empire in 1812, illustrating the incorporation of the Netherlands and its internal reorganisation 56
  57. 57. United Kingdom of the Netherlands • The United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1839) (Dutch: Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, French: Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas) is the unofficial name used to refer to the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, French: Royaume des Pays-Bas) during the period after it was first created from part of the First French Empire and before the new Kingdom of Belgium split off from it in 1830. This state, a large part of which still exists today as the Kingdom of the Netherlands, was made up of the former Dutch Republic (Republic of the Seven United Netherlands) to the north, the former Austrian Netherlands to the south, and the former Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The House of Orange-Nassau came to be the monarchs of this new state. • The United Kingdom of the Netherlands collapsed after the 1830 Belgian Revolution. William I, King of the Netherlands, would refuse to recognize a Belgian state until 1839, when he had to yield under pressure by the Treaty of London. Only at this time were exact borders agreed. • The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Limburg in 1839 • 1, 2 and 3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (until 1830) • 1 and 2 Kingdom of the Netherlands (after 1830) • 2 Duchy of Limburg (1839–1867) (in the German Confederacy after 1839 as compensation for Waals-Luxemburg) • 3 and 4 Kingdom of Belgium (after 1830) • 4 and 5 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (borders until 1830) • 4 Province of Luxembourg (Waals-Luxemburg, to Belgium in 1839) • 5 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (German Luxemburg; borders after 1839) • In blue, the borders of the German Confederation. 57
  58. 58. • Constitutional monarchy• William I, who reigned from 1815–1840, had great constitutional power. An enlightened despot, he accepted the modernizing transformations of the previous 25 years, including equality of all before the law. However, he resurrected the estates as a political class and elevated a large number of people to the nobility. Voting rights were still limited, and only the nobility were eligible for seats in the upper house. The old provinces were reestablished in name only. The government was now fundamentally unitary, and all authority flowed from the center.• William I was a Calvinist and unsympathetic to the religious culture and practices of the Catholic majority. He promulgated the "Fundamental Law of Holland", with some modifications. This entirely overthrew the old order of things in the southern Netherlands, suppressed the Catholic clergy as an order, abolished the privileges of the Catholic Church, and guaranteed equal protection to every religious creed and the enjoyment of the same civil and political rights to every subject of the king. It reflected the spirit of the French Revolution and in so doing did not please the Catholic bishops in the south, who had detested the Revolution.• William I actively promoted economic modernization. The first 15 years of the Kingdom showed progress and prosperity, as industrialization proceeded rapidly in the south, where the Industrial Revolution allowed entrepreneurs and labor to combine in a new textile industry, powered by local coal mines. There was little industry in the northern provinces, but most overseas colonies were restored, and highly profitable trade resumed after a 25 year hiatus. Economic liberalism combined with moderate monarchical authoritarianism to accelerate the adaptation of the Netherlands to the new conditions of the 19th century. The country prospered until a crisis arose in relations with the southern provinces. 58
  59. 59. • The Belgian Revolution was the conflict which led to the secession of the southern provinces from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and established an independent Kingdom of Belgium.• The people of the south were nearly all Catholics; half were French-speaking. Many outspoken liberals regarded King William Is rule as despotic. There were high levels of unemployment and industrial unrest among the working classes.• On August 25, 1830 riots erupted in Brussels and shops were looted. Theatergoers who had just watched an inflammatory opera joined the uproar and windows were smashed. Uprisings followed elsewhere in the country. Factories were occupied and machinery destroyed. Order was restored briefly after William committed troops to the Southern Provinces but rioting continued and leadership was seized by more radical elements, who started talking of secession. 59
  60. 60. • European powers• The European powers were divided over the Belgian cry for independence. The Napoleonic Wars were still fresh in the memories of Europeans, so when the French, under the recently installed July Monarchy, supported Belgian independence, the other powers unsurprisingly supported the continued union of the Provinces of the Netherlands. Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain all supported the somewhat authoritarian Dutch king, many fearing the French would annex an independent Belgium (particularly the British: see Talleyrand partition plan for Belgium). However, in the end, none of the European powers sent troops to aid the Dutch government, partly because of rebellions within some of their own borders (the Russians were occupied with the November Uprising in Poland and Prussia was saddled with war debt). Britain came to see the benefits of isolating France geographically.• Independent Belgium• The Abdication of William I in 1838 broke the diplomatic logjam. On 19 April 1839 the Treaty of London signed by the European powers (including the Netherlands) recognized Belgium as an independent and neutral country comprising West Flanders, East Flanders, Brabant, Antwerp, Hainaut, Namur, and Liège, as well as half of Luxembourg and Limburg. The Dutch army, however, held onto Maastricht, and as a result the Netherlands kept the eastern half of Limburg and its large coalfields.[9] Germany broke the treaty in 1914 when it invaded Belgium, dismissing British protests over a "scrap of paper." 60
  61. 61. • Democratic and Industrial Development (1840–1900)• The Netherlands did not industrialize as rapidly as Belgium after 1830, but it was prosperous enough. Griffiths argues that government policies made possible a unified Dutch national economy in the 19th century. They included the abolition of internal tariffs and guilds; the a unified coinage system, modern methods of tax collection; standardized weights and measures; and the building of many roads, canals, and railroads. However, in sharp contrast to Belgium, which was the leader in industrialization on the Continent, the Netherlands moved slowly, probably due to the high costs associated with high wages and geography, and the emphasis of entrepreneurs in trade rather than industry. However the provinces of North Brabant and Overijssel did industrialize and became the most advanced economically.• 1848 Constitutional reform• In 1848 unrest broke out all over Europe. Although there were no major events in the Netherlands, these foreign developments persuaded king William II to agree to liberal and democratic reform. That same year the liberal Johan Rudolf Thorbecke was asked by the king to rewrite the constitution, turning the Netherlands into a constitutional monarchy. The new document was proclaimed valid on 3 November 1848. It severely limited the kings powers (making the government accountable only to an elected parliament), and it protected civil liberties. The relationship between monarch, government and parliament has remained essentially unchanged ever since.• The personal union between the Netherlands and Luxembourg lasted until 1890 when William III of the Netherlands, died and was succeeded by Queen Wilhelmina (1880-1962). She ruled the Netherlands for 58 years, then retired. The rules in Luxembourg prevented a woman from becoming the ruler, so her remote cousin Adolphe became the Grand Duke of Luxembourg. 61
  62. 62. • Liberalism• In 1840 William I abdicated in favor of his son, William II, who attempted to carry on the policies of his father in the face of a powerful liberal movement. Sentiment in favor of revising the constitution increased, and, in 1848, while Europe was in turmoil, revision was undertaken by the liberal historian-statesman J. R. Thorbecke. The new liberal constitution, which put the government under the control of the states general, was accepted by the legislature in 1848. William III, who became king in 1849, reluctantly chose Thorbecke to head the new government, which introduced several liberal measures, notably the extension of suffrage. However, Thorbeckes government soon fell, when Protestants rioted against the Vaticans reestablishment of the Catholic episcopate, in abeyance since the 16th century. A conservative government was formed, but it did not undo the liberal measures, and the Catholics were finally given equality after two centuries of subordination. Dutch domestic history from the middle of the 19th century until the First World War was fundamentally one of the extension of liberal reforms in government, encouragement to the reorganization of the Dutch economy upon a modern basis, and the rise of trade unionism and socialism as movements of the working class independent of traditional liberalism. The growth in prosperity was enormous, as real per capita GNP soared from 106 guilders in 1804 to 403 in 1913.• Religion• Religion was a contentious issue with repeated struggles over the relations of church and state in the field of education. In 1816, the government took full control of the Dutch Reformed Church (Nederlands Hervormde Kerk). In 1857, all religious instruction was ended in public schools, but the various churches set up their own schools, and even universities. Dissident members broke away from the Netherlands Reformed Church in the Secession of 1834. They were harassed by the government under an onerous Napoleonic law prohibiting gatherings of more than 20 members without a permit. After the harassment ended in the 1850s, a number of these dissidents eventually created the Christian Reformed Church in 1869; thousands migrated to Michigan, Illinois, and Iowa in the United States. By 1900 the dissidents represented about 10% of the population, as against 45% in the Netherlands Reformed Church, which continued to be the only church to receive state money. 62
  63. 63. Street inAmsterdam in1891 Queen Wilhelmina, queen of theNetherlands from 1890 to 1948 63
  64. 64. Shepherdess With a Flock of Sheep by Anton Mauve (1838–1888), of the Hague School 64
  65. 65. • Neutrality during the First World War• The German war plan (the Schlieffen Plan) of 1905 was modified in 1908 to invade Belgium on the way to Paris but not the Netherlands. It supplied many essential raw materials to Germany such as rubber, tin, quinine and oil, and of course food, The British used its blockade to limit supplies that the Dutch could pass on.• However, there were other factors that made it valuable for both the Allies and the Central Powers for the Netherlands to remain neutral. The Netherlands controlled the mouths of the Scheldt, the Rhine and the Meuse Rivers. Germany had an interest in the Rhine since it ran through the industrial areas of the Ruhr and connected it with the Dutch port of Rotterdam. Britain had an interest in the Scheldt River, and the Meuse flowed into France. All countries had an interest in keeping the others out of the Netherlands so that no ones interests could be taken away or be changed. If one country were to have invaded the Netherlands, another would certainly have counterattacked to defend their own interest in the rivers. It was too big a risk for any of the belligerent nations, and none wanted to risk fighting on another front.• Nevertheless, the Dutch were affected by the war. Troops were mobilized and conscription was introduced in the face of harsh criticism from opposition parties. In 1918, mutinies broke out in the military. Food shortages were extensive, due to the control the belligerents exercised over the Dutch. Each wanted their share of Dutch produce. As a result, the price of potatoes rose sharply because Britain had demanded so much from the Dutch. Food riots even broke out in the country. 65
  66. 66. • Second world war Battle of the Netherlands• The Battle of the Netherlands (Dutch: Slag om Nederland) was part of Case Yellow (German: Fall Gelb), the German invasion of the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) and France during World War II. The battle lasted from 10 May 1940 until the main Dutch forces surrendered on the 14th. Dutch troops in the province of Zealand continued to resist the Wehrmacht until 17 May when Germany completed its occupation of the whole nation.• The Battle of the Netherlands saw one of the first major uses of paratroopers to occupy crucial targets prior to ground troops reaching the area. The German Luftwaffe utilised paratroopers in the capture of several major airfields in the Netherlands in and around key cities such as Rotterdam and The Hague in order to quickly overrun the nation and immobilise Dutch forces.• The battle ended soon after the devastating bombing of Rotterdam by the German Luftwaffe and the subsequent threat by the Germans to bomb other large Dutch cities if Dutch forces refused to surrender. The Dutch General Staff knew it could not stop the bombers and surrendered in order to prevent other cities from suffering the same fate. The Netherlands remained under German occupation until 1945, when the last Dutch territory was liberated. Major Dutch defence lines 66
  67. 67. German landings in Rotterdam德軍進攻鹿特丹 Dutch soldiers on guard, November 1939 67
  68. 68. The Grebbe line, a forward defense line of the Dutch Water Line, is shown in dark blueDutch situationjust before theBombing ofRotterdam. 68
  69. 69. • Recent history 1945–present• After the war, the Dutch economy prospered by leaving behind an era of neutrality and gaining closer ties with neighbouring states. The Netherlands was one of the founding members of the Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) grouping, was among the twelve founding members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), and was among the six founding members of the European Coal and Steel Community, which would evolve into the EEC (Common Market) and later the European Union.• The 1960s and 1970s were a time of great social and cultural change, such as rapid ontzuiling (literally: depillarisation), a term that describes the decay of the old divisions along class and religious lines. Youths, and students in particular, rejected traditional mores and pushed for change in matters such as womens rights, sexuality, disarmament and environmental issues.• Today, the Netherlands is regarded as a liberal country, considering its drug policy and its legalisation of euthanasia. On 1 April 2001, the Netherlands became the first nation to recognize same-sex marriage.• On 10 October 2010 the Netherlands Antilles—a former country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the Caribbean—was dissolved. Referendums were held on each island of the Netherlands Antilles between June 2000 and April 2005 to determine their future status. As a result the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (the BES islands) were to obtain closer ties with the Netherlands. This led to the incorporation of these three islands into the country of the Netherlands as special municipalities upon the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles. The special municipalities are collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands. 69
  70. 70. The Peace Palace (Vredespaleis), The Hague 和平宮Provinces and special municipalities of 70the Netherlands 荷蘭行省
  71. 71. Royal Netherlands Navy 荷蘭皇家海軍李常生 Eddie Lee 1/21/2013 Taipei TaiwanAll photos were taken from internet… 71