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1.introduction

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විශිෂ්ට සාමාර්ථ (A)
ඔබේ දරුවා දුර්වලද? අඩු ලකුණු ගනීද? එසේ නම් PERIPATOS SCHOOL & EDUCATION INSTITUTE හි පුහුණුවට සහභාගී වී සියලු විෂයන්ට විශිෂ්ට සාමාර්ථ (A) ලැබිය හැකිය. මෙය අදියර 05 යුතු සති 04 ක මාසික පුහුණුවකි.
1. විභාග ආතතිය දුරු කර ගැනීම (Exam Stress Killer)
2. මතක සංවර්ධන ක්රුම (Memory Development)
3. විභාග රහස් (Exam Secrets)
4. අධිවේගී ඉගෙනුම් ක්ර ම (Speed Learning Methods)
5. කාල කලමනාකරණය (Time Management)
පහත දැක්වෙන අයුරින් මේ වැඩසටහනට සහභාගි විය හැකිය.
ආයතනය තුළ දී
 පුද්ගලිකව (INDIVIDUAL) CLASSES
 SMALL GROUP CLASSES
 HOME VISITE (කොළඹ හා නුවර ද පිටපළාත්වල ද පැවැත්වේ)
මේ පිළිබඳව වැඩි විස්තර පහත ලිපිනයෙන් විමසන්න :
Principle,
PERIPATOS SCHOOL & EDUCATION INSTITUTE
546/A, Peradeniya Road, Kandy
Hot Line: 078-8189926

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1.introduction

  1. 1. 1 01 mrspzfPAoh (01 Chapter) fu;a;d ixl,amh : YnzodrA: jsNd.h yd Ndr;Sh ft;sydisl miqnsu ( Metta Concept : Semantics & Indian historic background ) YnzofldaI ;`< fu;a;d hk mohg oS we;s jsjsO wrA:hka ms<snZoj wjfndaOhla ,nd .ekSu m<uqfldgu jeo.;a fjz' Metta hk jpkh iZoyd ixCIsma; md,s – bx.@Sis YnzofldaIfhys oelafjk wF:!h jkqfha ia;@S ,sx.drA:!h wZ.jk ( f. amity;benevolence ) amity yd benevolence hk jpk folhs'1 –kammatthana, nt. –bha- vana, f. cultivation of benevolence.-yana, f. friendly feeling. –vihari, a. abiding in kindliness.tfiau fu;a;d hk wF:!h fok fuu Amity hk jpkh iZoyd ixCIsma; TlaiarAvz YnzofldaIfhys oelafjk f;areu jkqfha Friendship;Friendly relations hk us;@Fjh uQrA;su;a lsrSuhs'2 Amity hk jpkh wF:! olajkafka o us;@Fjh yd us;@Ndjh wZ.jk Friendship yd Friendly hk f;areuz folhs'3 TlaiarAvz YsIHhkaf.a mdrsNdIsl YnzofldaIfhys Metta yd Amity hk jpk folu wka;rA.; fkdfjz' ta fjkqjg tys tu wF:!h f.k oSu msKsi olajd we;af;a Friend – Ship yd Friendly hk jpk folhs'4 fuu jpk foflka tlla jQ Friend – Ship hk jpkfhys wF:!h f,i olajd we;af;a ( an instance,Period,of ) the feeling or realation ship that exists between friends hkakhs' tfiau fuys wfkla jpkh jQ Friendly hk jpkfhys wF:!h f,i olajd we;af;a acting or ready to act as a friend; be friendly to / towards hk wrA:hhs' tfukau bx.@Sis – md,s YnzofldaIfhys fuu Amity hk jpkfhys wF:!h f,i oelafjkqfha Metta yd Metti hk f;areuz folhs'5 tfiau Amity hk jpkfhys wF:!h f,i bx.@Sis – isxy, YnzofldaIfhys oelafjkafka us;@lu" us;@Ndjh" iuZ.slu" idu.@sh" iud.@s;dj hk wF:!hka iuQyhhs'6 tfukau fuu Amity hk jpkfhys wF:!h ;j;a bx.@Sis iy bx.@Sis – isxy, YnzofldaIhl oelafjkafka ( am'i-ti ) n. Friendship ; agreement ; good- will f,ighs'7 ;j;a bx.@Sis - isxy, YnzofldaIhl Amity hk jpkhg fok wF:!h jkafka us;@Fjh" idud.@sh hkakhs'8 tfukau ;j;a bx.@Sis - isxy, YnzofldaIhl fuu Amity hk jpkfhys wF:!h us;@Fjh" hdZMlu jYfhka fmkajd oS ;sfnz'9
  2. 2. 2 ksrela;s iys; isxy, Ynzo fldaIfhys us;@" ffu;@sh yd fu;a;d hkqfjka Ynzo ;`ku tlu wF:!fhys olajd ;sfnz' fuhska us;@ ( ix' us;@ ) hk jpkh uZ.ska hyZM yd ys;j;a hk f;areuz f.k fok nj fmkajd oS ;sfnz' tfukau tu Ynzohu ysre fyj;a iQrAhhd weZ.jSu iZoyd mrAhdh kduhla f,i o Ndjs;hg f.k we;s nj o fmkajd oS ;sfnz' fuhg wu;rj fu;a;d ( md' fu;a;d ) hk moh ffu;@sh" ish,q i;aFjhka flfrys lreKdj oelajSu msKsi Ndjs;d jS ;sfnz' tfukau .il kduhla oelajSu msKsi;a fuu fu;a;d kduh jHjydrhg f.k we;s nj tu YnzofldaIfhys fmkajd oS ;sfnz' ta hgf;a jsfYaIfhkau iZ|=ka .i yeZoskajSu msKsi fuu jok Ndjs;hg f.k we;s nj olajhs' tfiau tys fuu wF:!hkau f.k oSu msKsi fu;" ffu;@sh" fu;a ( ix' ffu;@sh ) yd ffu;@sh hk jpk Ndjs;hg f.k we;s nj o olajd ;sfnz'10 iZ|=ka .i iqjZoj;a jDCIhls' fnfyjska wd.usl lghq;` iZoyd Ndjs;dlrk iqjZo |@jHhka ;ekSu msKsi Wmfhda.S lr.kakd Ydlhls' fuysoS fu;a;d hk Ynzofhkao hul .`K iqjZo uQrA;su;a lsrSu msKsi fyj;a biau;` lsrSu;a" uD|=nj" T#IOSh nj" uqyqK meyem;a lr,k iajNdjh jeks fudf<dla .`K jsfYaIhka ksrEmKh lsrSu msKsi fu;a;d Ynzoh iZ|=ka jDCIh wrNhd o jHjydr jS ;sfnk nj fuhska Ozjks;drA:j;a flfrA' fu;a;d hk jpkfhys wF:!h md,s - isxy, YnzofldaIhl olajd we;af;a 'ffu;@sh' f,ihs' tys ia;@S ,sx.sl kdu moh 'fu;a;d' f,i;a mqreI ,sx.sl kdu moh 'fu;a;' f,i;a olajd we;'11 tfiau 'fu;a;d' jpkh 'fu;a' kue;s kdu m@lD;sh uq,a lrf.k we;s jQ nj m@dfhda.sl isxy, YnzofldaIfhys olajhs'12 tys wF:!h f,i ffu;@S lrkjd yd 'fu;' olajd ;sfnz' 'fu;a;d' jpkh o kdu m@lD;shla f,ig tysu oela fjz' jsfYaIKh kuz 'fu;' hkakhs' wF:!h 'ffu;@S' hkakhs' 'fu;a;d' hk jpkh jsydrs hk jpkh iuZ. fhoS we;' tys'fu;a;d jsydrs' hkafkys wF:!h ffu;@sfhka hqla;j hkak f,i olajd ;sfnz' tfukau 'fu;a Ouz' hk kdu m@lD;sfhka ffu;@S Ou!h yd ffu;@sh wF:!j;a flfrA' 'fu;a' hk kdu m@lD;sh jHjydrfha oS 'fu;a mereuz' ( kd' m@' ) hkafkka ffu;@S mdrus;dj o" 'fu;a msrs;a ' ( kd' m@' ) hkafkka lrKSh fu;a; iQ;@h o 'fu;a ndjkd' ( kd' ) hkafkka ffu;@S Ndjkdj o" 'fu;a fndai;a ' ( kd' m@' ) hkafkka ffu;@s fndaOsiFjfhda" wkd.;fhys fuf;a nq|=ka kuska nq|= jSug mereuz mqrkakdo" 'fu;a uqks' ( kd' m@' ) fuf;a nq|=yqo" 'fu;a is;a ' ( kd' m@' ) hkafkka ffu;@s iy.; is;"ffu;@sfhka hqla; ps;a;h o" 'fu;a iq;^ fu;a iq;`r' ( kd' ) lrKSh fu;a; iQ;@ho woyiajk nj olajd ;sfnz' ixialD; NdIdfjys fuu jpkh ffu;@ f,i uQ,sl iajrEmfhka we;' thska ia;@S ,sx.sl mohla jQ ffu;@S hk jpkh ksIamkak fjz' YsIHhkaf.a ixialD; - bx.@Sis YnzofldaIfhys fuu ffu;@ rEmh ( Ajective ) yd ffu;@S ( Feminine ) hk jpk fol olajd we;'13 fuys ffu;@S hk jpkhg wF:! ;`kla olajd ;sfnz' bka m<uq wF:!h jkqfha Belonging to a
  3. 3. 3 Friend hs' fojeks wF:!h jkqfha Given by a friend f;jk wF:!h jkqfha Friendly, Well - disposed, Amicable, Kind hkakhs' tfiau fuu jpkh us;@ fojshdg kEluz olajk njo fuys jsia;r flfrA' fuh ;yjqre lsrSu msKsi ixialD;-bx.@Sis YnzofldaIfha ( us;@ ) hk jofka wF:!h mrSCId lr n,f;d;a ta iZoyd Friend ( iy<" iypr" ineZos" ydo" ysff;Is" ys;j;a" hdZM" hyZM" lreKdjka;" us;@" l`ZMm." wkql~," us;@j;a ), Amicable ( iuZ.s iuzmkak" ys;j;a" iqyZo" us;@" us;@j;a ), Affectionate ( yqr;,a" ohdnr" fma@ujka;" ysff;IS" wdorKSh )" Kind ( <f;;a" ujzyia" ohdjka;" ohdnr" fidar;" f;;" f;;a" ldreKsl" lreKdjka;" l`,qKq" jrA.h" fidar;sh" fudaia;rh" wdldrh" cd;sh ), A Brahman Who has arrived at the higest state of human perfection. hk woyia iuQyhla oS ;sfnk wdldrh oel.; yel'14 Y@S iqxu., YnzofldaIfhys ( isxy, - isxy,dF:! ) fuu jpkh 'fu;a' jYfhka olajd ;sfnz' tys wF:!h jkqfha ffu;@shhs'15 fuysu fu;a l`ZMKq hk moh tlajr Ndjs;d jS ;sfnz' tys woyi ffu;@sh yd lreKdj hkakhs'16 .`Kfiak isxy, uyd wldrdosfhys 'fu;a;' yd 'fu;a;d' hk jpk folu ffu;@sh yeZoskajSu msKsi jHjydr lr ;sfnz'17 fuhska fu;a; hk jpkh iZoyd ffu;@S iy.; hk wF:!hg wu;rj fldgzgh yd .`osrsh hk wF:! follao oS ;sfnz' 'fu;a;d' hk jpkh iZoyd ffu;@sh yd iq|= iZ|=ka .i hk wF:! fol oS ;sfnz'18 ls@ia;shdks wd.usl Ynzo fldaIhla jq lf;da,sl m,a,sfhys TlaiarAvz YnzofldaIfhys fu;a;d Ynzoh Mithraism f,i olajd we;' thska woyia jS ;sfnkqfha o us;@Fjh hkakhs'19 tfukau nhsn,fhys m@Odk fukau flaJ|@Sh b.ekajSula jk fm@auh hk wF:!ho ksIamkak jSug mokuz jS ;sfnkqfha fuu us;@ ixl,amh nj meyeos,s fjz' tfukau us;@ Ynzoh ( us;@hsiuz Mithraism ) fyj;a us;@ keue;s wd.usl u;jdoh olajd jsldYh jQ nj fmfka' tuZ.ska lf;da,sl Y`oaO wd.usl .@ka:hla jk nhsn,hg fuys wdNdIh oevsj n,md we;s nj meyeos,sh' kj n@s;dkH jsYajfldaIh hk fldaI .@J:fhys us;@ ( Mithra ) Ynzoh ms<snZoj olajd we;af;a th ixialD; us;@ Ynzoh wkqj us;@dia f,i WpzpdrKh jk jpkhla f,ihs' tfiau ixialD; NdIdfjys us;@ jYfhka olajkqfha bka|= - BrdKSh mqrdjD;a;hkag wkqj wdf,dalfhys fojshd nj ie,fla' fuu wf,dalfhys fojshd ms<snZo weoys,a, bkaoshdfjz isg jHdma; jQjla nj ms<s.efka' kefZ.kysr isg b;du;a wE;ska
  4. 4. 4 msysgs ngysr m@foaY olajdu fuu weoys,a, jHdma; jQ nj;a thg miqnsuz jQfha bkaoshdfjz fuh fnfyjska m@p,s;j mej;s mej;s ksid nj;a ;yjqre jS ;sfnz' fuu weoys,a, jHdma; jS .sh ngysr m@foaYfha jQ rgj,a w;rska m@xYh" uy n@s;dkHh yd crAuksh hk rgj,a jsfYaIfhka iZoyka l< yelsh' m<uqfjkau ffjosl us;@ ms<snZoj ,shejS we;af;a l@s' mQ 1 400 g fmr isgh' fuu us;@ jkaokh mrAishdfjys b;du;a oevsj uq,a nei f.k jHdma;j mej;sks' bka miqj f,dal m@lg fy,ksla hqoaOfhysoS mrAishkajre jsiska wef,laiekav@shdj w;am;a lr.ekSfuka wk;`rej uqZM uy;a wef,laiekav@shdj mqrdu fuu weoys,a, jHdma; jS .sfhah' 3 jk yd 4 jk Y; jrAI j,oS us;@ weoys,a, iuzmQrAKfhkau mdfya fuu m@foaYj, jHdma;j mej;s nj i,lkq ,efnz' tfiau Tjqka jsiska /f.k hk ,o fuu fu;a;d weoys,a, l@sia;shdks wd.fuys kj;u ixjrAOkh jSuz olajd m@Odk .Kfha m@;sjdosfhl` f,i frdau wOsrdchdf.a finZMka jsiska Ndjs;hg .kakd ,oS' frdau wOscrdchka jQ flduvqia ( Commodus ) yd cq,shka ( Julian ) hk fofokd us;@jdofhys ( Mithraism ) iudruzNlhka f,i oelafjz' ;`kaish y;la osfhdlsiShdkqjre vekshqnz weoys,af,a isg ( vekshqnz weoys,a, mQj!fhys frdaufhys ;snQ tla;rd wd.usl weoys,a,la f,i ie,lsh yelsh' tu wd.usl weoys,a, jHdma; mej;s ixialD;sh vekshqnz ixialD;sh f,io tu wd.usl ksldhlhska vekshqnz .`re l`,h f,io yZ|=kajd ;sfnz' ) us;@ olajd ta fjkqfjka jsydria:dkhla mdrsY`oaOshg m;a lr .;ay' fuu vekshqnz weoys,a, fukau us;@ weoys,a,o wOsrdcHfhys wdrCIl Wml@uhla f,i Ndjs;hg f.k ;sfnz' mqrdjD;a;j,g wkqj us;@f.a Wm; ms<snZoj olajd we;af;a wdf,dalfha meje;au we;s lrkakd jQ foh f,ihs' tfiau Yia;@hlska ikakoaOj tla milska .,d niskd Y`oaO jQ .x.djlska o" Y`oaO jQ .ila hg isgskakd jQ fmd<fjys orejd f,i th ta jsiskau wF:!l:kh lr ;sfnz' Tyq w;lska hIagshla /f.k isgsk mqoa.,hd f,i yd miqj ta uZ.ska urKh lrd iuzm@dma; lrkakd jYfhka o ( udrhd)" tfiau cSjs;h ,nd fokakd jYfhka o ( W;amdolhd ) " f,dal jsIh ms<snZoj jDINhd jYfhkao ish,q jDCI,;djkaf.a ftYaprAhu;a M,orkakd jYfhkao yZ|=kajkq ,nhs' us;@f.a jDINhd urd oeuSu ( l:dfjys mriamr jsfrdaOS jdlHh jekiSu) hk ixl,amh fy,ksla l,dfjys ckm@shu wF:!l:kh jS mej;sks' us;@ weoys,a, ;`< mQcd jsOSkaf.a idM,H;djh f,i ie,flk jDINhd urdoeuSu ( l:dfjys mriamr jsfrdaOS jdlHh jekiSu ) us;@ weoys,af,ys uQ,dlD;sh njg m;ajsh'20 wdf,dalfhys fojshd f,i ie,flk us;@ iyhlfhl` jkqfha .@Sl iQrAhhd fojsfhl` f,i ie,flk fy,shia ( Helios iQrAhhd ) iuZ.hs' tfiau th frdaudkq w,x>kSh miajk iajrhhs'
  5. 5. 5 Tyq ksrka;rfhka c,hg wOsm;sj c,h idrj;a lrkaksh jYfhka oelafjk wkys;d ( Anahita ) fojZ.k iuZ. hq., jYfhka fhfoa'21 fu;a;d hk mofhys jHdlrK jsNd.h msKsi wjOdkh fhduqlsrSu uZ.ska jd.a jsoHd;aul mCIfhka tys mrsKduh wjfndaO lr.ekSu msKsi msgssjy,la ,efnz' fuz uZ.ska fu;a;d hk moh ms<snZoj jvd;a wx. iuzmQrAK js.@yhlg fhduq jsh yelsh' md,s NdIdfjz ‘fu;a;d (Metta)’hkqfjka yeZoskafjk jpkfha isxy, woyi ‘us;`renj’ hkakhs'22 fuh md,sfha bF:s ,sx. kdu mohla jk w;r wldrdka; m@:ud jsNla;s tal jpkfha ‘fu;a;d’ hkqfjka fhfoa'23 uz +t = fu hkqfjka oelafjkafka ug" uf.a hk woyihs' ( wuzy – Ynzo p – P tl ) fuys kdu Od;`j jkqfha 'fu;a;dh;s' hkakhs' fuhska wF:!j;a jkqfha ffu;@S lrhs yd fu;a is; m;`rejhs hk f;areuzh' tfukau bF:s ,sx.drA:fhka 'fu;a;dhkd' hk jpkh ffu;@S lsrSu hk wF:!fhka jHjydrfha fhfoa' tfukau ;j;a jsfgl 'fu;a;d' hk bF:s ,sx. joko ffu;@sh hk wF:!fhkau jHydr fjz' md,s NdIdj ;`< ‘fu;a;d’hkqfjka fhfok fuu jpkh ixialD; NdIdj ;`< ‘ffu;@S’hkqfjka tu wrA:fhkau Ndjs;d fjz'24 we;euzjsg isxy, jHjydrfhyso tys ixialD;‘ffu;@S’hk rEmho fhfok nj oel .; yelsh'25 bx.@Sis NdIdfjz ‘Metta’ hk jpkfhka woyia lrk foh ‘Amity’ f,i olajd ;sfnz'26 tys woyi o us;@Fjh hkakhs' ta wkqj md,sfha Bg oS we;s wrA:h jk ‘ffu;@S iy.;’ hkak fuz jpkh iZoyd Ndjs;d l< yels fydZou wF:!h nejz fmfka'27 fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZoj wF:! olajk jsg lreKdj fyj;a ldreKslFjh ms,snZoj o iZoyka l, hq;`uh' ula ksid o h;a ffu;@shlska f;dr ldreKslFjh;a" ldreKslFjfhka f;dr ffu;@sh;a idrOrAu mCIfhka .;a l< mrudrA: jYfhka wrA: Y~kH jk nejsks' ta wkqj kshu jYfhka ffu;@sfhys wF:! oelajSu ldreKslFjfhys miqnsu u; isg l< hq;` jkafka ffu;@sh yd lreKdjo" tfukau ffu;@sh yd uqos;dj o" ffu;@sh yd WfmaCIdj o wfkHdakH jYfhka iyfhda.fhka Wmhqla;h' tfukau Wmfhda.s;duh jYfhka .;a l< wfkHdakHdOdr o jkafkah' fuz ksid fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZoj wjOdkh olajk jsg th kshudldrfhka ksrEmKh flfrkqfha lreKdj uqos;dj yd WfmaCIdj hk fiiq idrOrAu ixl,amj, o .enzjSu fu;a;d ixl,amfhys jsoHudk jkafka kuz muKs' fjk;a f,ilska olajf;d;a wmg idrOrAu ixl,amhla jYfhka fu;a;d ixl,amfhys w.h udkj prAhdjkaf.ka jshqla;j .; fkdyels w;r tfia l<fyd;a th yqfola is;sjs,s ud;@ jQjla jkq we;' kuq;a fu;a;d ixl,amh lsis jsfgl;a tfia jkafka fkdfjz' huzlsis ixl,amhla idrOu!hla f,i ie,lSug wjYHjk uQ,sl iq|=iqlu jkqfha tu ixl,amh ldhsl" jdpisl yd udkisl jYfhka uqZM uy;a ffcj m@cdj jsIfhysu Okd;aul mCIfhka olajkakd jQ Wmfhda.S;djhhs' tfukau tu ixl,amh fiiq iudka;r ixl,am iuZ. taldnoaO;djh msKsi olajkakd jQ keushdjhs' huzlsis ixl,amhla
  6. 6. 6 idrOrAuhla jSug olajk ,o iq|=iqluz ish,a, fu;a;d ixl,amfhys iuzmQrAKh' fu;a;d ixl,amh thg iudka;r wfkla ixl,am jQ lreKdj" uqos;dj yd WfmaCIdj iuZ. wfkHdakH jYfhka iuznJO;djhla fmkajhs' fu;a;d ixl,amh yg .kqfha o isf;a wkHhka ms<snZoj ldreKsl yeZ.Sula fyj;a lreKdjla" wkHhkaf.a iqL jsyrKh ms<snZo fiduzkila fyj;a uqos;djla" wkHhka ms<snZoj jspdr mQrAjlj is;Sug m@udKj;a uOHia:;djhla fyj;a WfmaCIdjla" isf;ys we;s jsgl muKs' fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Ndr;Sh miqnsu ms<snZoj wOHhkhl ksr; jkafkl` yg us;@ fojsfhl` f,i ksrEmKh jkq oel.; yelsh' fu;a;d ( us;a;" us;@ ) hkq Ndr;fha merKsu jHjydrhls' bka|+-BrdKSh hq.fha oS fuz jpkh Ndjs;dl< njg idOl yuqfjz'28 bka|+- BrdKSh f.da;@sl ckhd jsiska ;u f.da;@sl mqomQcd lghq;`j, oS fuu jok Ndjs;d fldg ;sfnz' Tjqkaf.a f.da;s@l psyakh f,i i,lk,o wd.usl ixfla;h jYfhka iQrAhhd Ndjs;d fldg ;sfnz'29 iQrAhhd yeZoskajSu iZoyd jHjydr lrkq ,enQfjz ‘us;@’hk jpkhhs'30 fuu lreKg meyeos,s yd m@n, idOl wfjia;dfjys yd mrAishdkq wd.usl ixl,amj,oS;a oel.; yelsh'31 tys oS us;@ uZ.ska ksrEmKh jkafka wksjdrAhfhkau iQrAh foaj;djdh' iQrAhhdf.a wdf,dalu;a nj us;@ hkafkka woyia lr ;sfnz' wdf,alh wZ|=r |=re lr th wE;g m,jd yrshs' tfukau ukqIHhd ;`< olakg ,efnk ish,qu wZ|=re is;sjs,s |=re fldg m,jd yer Tjqka ;`< iudc taldnoaO;djh we;s lrjSu ixfla;j;a lsrSu msKsi us;@ hkak Ndjs;d lr ;sfnz'32 kuq;a ksrela;drA:h wkqj wfjia;dfjys us;@ hkakg ,nd|=ka woyi wod, jpkh js.@y fldg ,nd .; fkdyels nj fmfkkakg ;sfnz' iD.a fjzofhys fuz jpkh us;`re nj f.k oSu msKsi jHjydr jS ;sfnz' ta wkqj wfjia;dfjys fuu jpkh iydhl fyda us;@Fjh hkak f.k oSu msKsi jHjydr l,d jsh yelshs'33 wdfjzia;sl .@J:hkays us;@ jsYajdifhys wdrCIlhd f,i yeZoskajS we;' fuu fojshdf.a ldreKsl iajrEmh o fjzofhys ksrka;rfhka u iZoyka jS we;' taaaa ksid uq,a wjia:dfjys us;@ hk jpkfhka woyia lrkakg we;af;a iajNdj Ou!h yd iajNdj Ou!h wdrCId lsrSu msKsi ksrka;rfhkau fidhd n,d lghq;` lrkakd jQ iQrAh foj;djd ;`< .enzjQ w;sYh uD|= fudf<dla ldreKsl iajNdjh nj meyeos,sh'34 fuys iajNdj Ou!h hkakg iuia; ffcj m@cdj o wka;rA.; cSjS" wcSjS mrsirh nejz ie,ls,a,g .ekSu jeo.;ah' fuhska weZ.fjkqfha uq,a ld,fha oS mgkau udkjhd ish ffcj m@cdj yd iuia; mrsirh ms<snZo olajk ,o ldreKsl us;@YS,S wdl,amfhys h:d iajNdjhhs' " us;@ fojsfhda l;d lruska usksiqka l@shdYS,S lr;s' us;@ fojsfhda mD:sjsh wyi ord isgs;a' us;@ fojsfhda msh fkdfy<k weiska ck;dj ksrSCIKh lr;s' us;@ fojshdg .sf;,a nyq, hd.h mqojq' " 35
  7. 7. 7 we;euzjsg oS us;@ uZ.ska mD:sjsh yd wyi ord isgsk iajrEmhla olajd we;af;a iajNdj Ou!fhys pu;aldr ckl iajrEmh ksrEmKh fldg oelajSu Wfoid fukau th lsishuz j.lSuz iy.; wdl,amhlska iuia; ffcj m@cdjf.au hym; Wfoid lghq;` lrk nejz fmkajSug jsh yelsh' ;ukaf.a hym; Wfoid lghq;` lrk iajNdjOu!h keue;s us;@g ;uka jsiska o m@;Hqmldr l< hq;` nejz fmkajd oS we;af;a us;@g hd. l< hq;` wdldrh oelajSfuks' idudkHfhka .sf;,a tod ffjosl iudcfhys by< fmf,a m@KS; wdydrhla f,i ie,lsks' tnZ|= wdydrhlska us;@ hd.fhka mqokakg kshu fldg ;snSu uZ.ska wF:!j;a jkqfha us;@ ixl,amh flfrys ffjosl ckhd oelajQ iuzNdjkdjhs' "wdos;H ( us;@ ) fojshks" hfula Tng ( Tfnz ) kshuhg wkqj m@Kduh lr;a o" us;@ fojshks" ta kefik iq,q hd. mQcdj ms<s.kq uekjs' Tn jsiska Wmldr lrkq ,enqfha fkd kefikafkah' mrojkq fkd ,nkafkah' Tyq fj; uE;ska lror fkdths' wE;ska o fkdths'" 36 fuys us;@g ;j;a mrAhdh kduhla oelafjhs ta wdos;H hkakhs' fuh o us;@ jHjydrh fukau m@p,s; jQjls' us;@ keue;s iajNdj Ou!hd fj; huz lsisfjl` l<.`K i,ld o ta mqoa.,hd o iajNdj Ou!fhys .enzjkakd jQ wmQrAj uysuh fya;`fjka wdrCId lrfokq ,nk nj fuhska meyeos,s lr oS ;sfnz' nq|=iufhys iZoyka jk " Ouzfud yfjz rlaL;s Ouzupdrs " ( Ou!fhys yeisfrkakd ta Ou!h jsiskau iqrCIs; lrkq ,nhs' ) hk jelsfhka lshfjkqfha o fuhg uZola iudk uq;a Bg jvd mqZM,a wF:!hls' fuz wkqj iajNdj Ou!hg ( uq,a ld,fhys Ou!h jYfhka ms<s.kakd ,oafoa iajNdjslFjh yd uqiq jqkq cSjs;hla .; lsrSuhs' ) wkql~,j ;u osjs fmfj; ilia lr.kakd ,o ;eke;a;dj iajNdj Ou!h uZ.skau iqrCIs; lr,k njg fuhska lshfjz' "f,v frda. j,ska us|=Kq" ( Tn fj; ) ms|=Kq wdydrfhka i;`gg m;a jk" jHdma; jQ mD:sjsh mqrd ia:djr jQ" wdos;Hf.a ( us;@ fojshkaf.a ) kshufhys neZoS isgsk wms us;@ fojshkaf.a fydZo ysf;ys /fZouq' " 37 iajNdjslFjh wdrCId lruska thg wk`l~, fjuska .; lrkakd jQ osjs fmfjf;ys iajNdjh fuhska fy,s fjz' tkuz uqZM uy;a cSj wcSj f,dalh flfrys us;@Fjh m;`rejd jsiSu fuys oS iajNdjslFjh f,i f.k we;s njhs' us;@ fojshkaf.a fydZo ys; ;ukag ,efnkafka tjsg nj ffjoslhska l,amkd fldg we;' fuh tla;rd wdldrhlska iajNdjslju ffcj iqrCIs;;djh we;s lr,Su msKsi yd iudc idrOu! ( Social Values ) j, m@Njh iksgqyka lrk jeo.;a iJOs
  8. 8. 8 ia:dkhls' us;@ fyda us;@Fjh we;s lr.ekSu uZ.ska fuf,dj ishZM fokdgu iuZ.s iuzmkakj jdih l< yels ;ekla njg mrsjrA;kh lr.ekSu iZoyd Tjqka jsiska orK ,o idOdrK m@h;akfhys iajNdjh fuz ;`,ska wmQrejg fy,s fmfy,s fjz' fuys meyeos,sju hd.h jsia;r fldg we;af;a i;`ka urd lrk ysxidjdoS ns,s mQcdjla jYfhka fkdj wdydr mdk muKla mqod is|= lrkq ,nk mQcdjla jYfhks' mQrAj ld,Sk jYfhka wdruzNl hq. j,oS hd. hkafkys kshu iajrEmh o fuhska uQrA;su;a lr fmkajhs' wdruzNl hq.j, oS hd. hkqfjka woyia lrk ,oafoa ;uka fukau wka who wdydr mdk j,ska i;mjd Tjqkaf.a us;@Fjh ms<s.ksuska i;`gska hq;`j osjs f.jSu nj fuhska fmfka' ienjskau us;@ foaj;djd msoSfuz kshu l@uh jYfhka Tjqka jsiska ms<s.kq ,enqfha o fuu l@uhhs' ffjoslhka m@Odk jYfhka wdydrhg .kq ,enqfjz lsrs" .sf;,a" OdkH" t<j,q iy m<;`re muKs' uia udxY wdydrh iZoyd Ndjs;d l< njg iZoyka fkdfjz' we;euz jsgl oS mYapd;a ld,Skj hd.hka iZoyd i;`ka urd ns,s mQcd lrk isrs; wdruzN jQ miqj kuz tu hd. lrk ,o i;`kaf.a uia wdydrh iZoyd .kakg we;ehs Wml,amkh l< yelsh'38 tfia uia jrA. Ndjs;d lrk ,o kuz nyq, jYfhka ta iZoyd Ndjs;d lrkakg we;af;a yrla uia nj lsj yelafla hd. iZoyd Ndjs;d lrkq ,o m@Odku i;ajhd .jhd jSu ksihs' us;@ foaj;djd msoSu iZoyd hd.hka meje;ajSfuz oS m@Odk jYfhkau Ndjs;hg .kq ,enQ uOHidr jrA.hka jQ fidau mdkh ms<sfh< lrkq ,enQfjz fidau me,Egsh wUrd bka Wlyd .kq ,nk hqI jrA.hlsks' idudkH wjia:djkays mdkh lsrSu iZoyd fjk;a OdkH jrA.hlska ms,sfh< lrk ,o fjk;a uoHidr jrA.hla Ndjs;d lrk ,oS' " mQcdrAN" w;Hka; lreKdkajs;" fuz us;@ kuz" ukd md,khla mj;ajk jsOdhl rfcla bmso isgS' b;ska wms ta Y`oaOjka;hdf.a fydZo ysf;ys l,HdK jQ ohdfjys /fouq' " 39 ishZM .`Khka w;r us;@ .`Khu m@Odk jk nj fmkajd oSu msKsi fuys jsOdhl rfcla hk jHjydrh Ndjs;hg f.k ;sfnz' tfukau fuys ;j;a jsfYaIhla o olakg ,efnz' tkuz us;@ ixl,amh jvd;a mqZM,a iajrEmhlska hq;`j Ndjs;hg f.k we;s wdldrh fuysoS olakg ,efnkafka w;Hka; lreKdkajs;" l,HdK jQ ohdj" fydZo ys;" Y`oaO nj" mQcdrAN hk wF:!hka us;@ ixl,amhg wdfoaY lr olajd we;s fyhsks' mqZM,a jYfhka .;al< us;@ ixl,amfhys l@udkQl~, jHdma;sh fuhska oela fjz'
  9. 9. 9 nq|= iuh ;`< n@yau jsyrKhkays lreKd yd fu;a;d ixl,am folla jYfhka f.k js.@y l< o fuys oS us;@ ixl,amhgu tu ixl,am foflysu .`Khka wdfrdamKh lr we;s wdldrh wkqj lsh yelafla uq,a ld,Sk ukqIHhd iuia; mrsirh yd ffcj f,dalh w;r ish meje;au ;yjqre lr,Su wrUhd us;@ ixl,amhkaf.ka Tyq wfmaCId lrk ,o .`K jsfYaIhka uQrA;su;a lr oelajSfuz wNs,dIh fmroers lrf.k Tyq jsiskau us;@ ixl,amh ksmehqKq njhs' tfiau fiiq .`K jsfYaIhka we;s lr,Sug fuz m@Odk .`Kh jk us;@ ixl,amh msysg jQ fyhska thg m@OdkFjh ,nd fokakg we;s njhs' tfiau hful` ;`< us;@Fjh yg .kqfha wkHhka jsIfhys Tyq ;`< we;s lreKdj fya;` fldg f.kh' tfukau lreKdj yg .efkkqfha ish,q ffcj m@cdj jsIfhys mqoa.,fhl` ;`< we;s us;`re nj ke;fyd;a ys;j;a nj flaJ|@ fldg f.kh' fuz ksid ffu;@sh yd lreKdj .`Kdx. folla f,i jsia;r lrkq ,enqj;a ta folu wF:!j;a jkafka ienjskau huzlsis mqoa.,fhl`f.a isf;ys ta .`Kdx. folu frdamKh jS we;s jsglh' ;jo m@cdj md,kh lrkakg iq|=iq rdcH md,lfhl`f.a jsjsO .`Kdx. w;r m@Odku .`Kh f,i fuz us;@ .`Kh ;snsh hq;` nj o fuz uZ.ska fmkajd fohs' rgjeishd flfrys ohdfjka hqla;" tfiau ish,a,ka flfrys tlf,i fydZo ys; me;srjsh yels" rgjeishka ish orejka f,i i,ld Tjqka jsIfhys w;Hka; ldreKslFjh me;srjsh yels" l@shdjkaf.ka mdrsY`oaO wej;`uz mej;`fuka iukajs;" il,jsO ck;djgu mQcdrAN f,i wNHka;r.; .`K iuqodhlska iukajs; jQ md,lfhla ms<snZoj bZ.shla fuz ;`<ska imhhs' th i;HjYfhkau md,lfhl` i;` jsh hq;` .`K iuqodh fmkajd fok w;r jHx.drA:fhka ixfla;hla f,i o Ndjs;d fjz' fuhska ixfla;j;a jkqfha OdrAusl njhs' hqla;s .rel rdcH md,k m@;smodjla jQ oirdc OrAuh njg miql,l l@uslj jrAOkhjQfha funZ|= wdl,am nj meyeos,sfjz' ixfla;hla f,i .ekSfuz oS mYapd;a ld,Sk pl@jrA;s ixl,amfhys uQ, nSchka fuz ;`<ska ksrEmKh jkq oel.; yelsh' "ck;dj Wkka|= lruska w;Hka; lreKdjka; .dhl ( us;@ )" fY@aIaG wdos;Hg ( us;@g ) m@Kdufhka <Z.d jsh hq;` fuz m@KS; hd. msfoaksh ta w;Hka; m@YxidrAN us;@g w.aksfhys mqojq' " fuys oS us;@ ixl,amh w;Hka; lreKdjka; .dhl f,i ;j;a jsfYaIK mohlska hqla;j yeZoskajS ;sfnz' fuys .dhl hkq .dhkd lrkakd hk wF:!hhs' fuhska fmfkkafka us;@f.a lreKdjka; Ndjh .S;j;a iajrEmhlska hqla;j oelajSu msKsi W;aiy l< njhs' us;@ ixl,amfhys wdfjzzok mCIh .enzjkakd jQ iaks.aO iajrEmh .dhl hkafkka wF:!j;a lrkakg fm<Uqkq nj is;sh yelshs' us;@ ixl,amfhys wdfjzok me;slv jvd;a ishquzj
  10. 10. 10 ksrEmKh lr fmkajSug .;a W;aidyhla fuz uZ.ska oela fjz' .dhk hkafkys l@udkQl~, Ndjhla fukau rs;auhdkQl~, Ndjhla o .enzfjz' ;d,hla o ;snsh hq;`h' ta ish,af,ys wka;rA.;h jkqfha isf;ys wdfjzokd;aul mCIfhka huzlsis uD|= iajNdjhla yg .ekajSuhs' ienjskau .S;fhka flfrkqfha o tu uD|= nju ps;a; ika;dkfhys w;s lrjSu jk fyhsks' us;@g msosh hq;` hd. msfoaksh m@KS; iajNdjfhka hqla; jsh hq;` nj fuhska mejiS we;' us;@ f.a iajrEmh w;sYhskau ishquz Ndjuh ;;ajhls' tu Ndjuh ;;ajh rEmuh jYfhka oelajSfuz oS ta msKsi Ndjs;d lrk ,o jpkhkays .enzjk pu;aldr ckl iajrEmh fuz ;`<ska meyeos,sju u;` jS fmfka' m@KS; hd. msfoaksh mjd us;@ fj;g <Z.d jsh hq;af;a m@Kdufhka fyj;a iEufokdf.au Nla;su;a iajrEmfhka nj fmkajd oSu ;`< us;@ fyj;a us;@Fjh ck uki .@yKh lr.;a wdldrh jsps;@j;a whqrska fmkajhs' tfukau uq,a jrg hd.h iZoyd w.aksh fyj;a .skaor Ndjs;d lr .;a whqre;a tu .skafkka wdydr us;@ fj;g muqKqjk whqre;a fuhska meyeos,s fjz' by; us;@ ixl,amh jrAKs; iajrEmh wkqj meyeos,sju fmfkkafka mYapd;a ld,Sk n@yau ixl,amhg iudk lula fuys .enzjk njhs' hd. msfoksh uZ.ska us;@ ixl,amh i;`gg m;alrjSu;a" ta iZoyd .skak udOHhla fldg .ekSu;a hk lreKq fol m@Odk jYfhka tlS iudkFjhg fya;` idOl fjz' tfiau n@yau ixl,amh cSjudk n@yauhdf.a iajrEmfhka fmd|= ck uki weZo neZo ;nd .kakd whqrska jrAKkd l,dla fukau" us;@ ixl,amh o us;@ keue;s l,ams; foajshl`f.a fjzIfhka fmd|= ck uki weZo neZo ;nd .ekSu msKsi fujeks jD;a;dka; rpkh b;du;au idrA:l wdldrfhka Wmfhda.S lr.;a whqre fmfka' "hoskakkag msysg jk us;@ fojshkaf.a m@idoh hym; f.k ths' ( hym; ) w;Hka; oSma;su;a Okh f.k ths' " 40 us;@ ixl,amh l@ufhka wdOHd;ausl ;,h w;sl@uKh lruska f,#lsl ;,h lrd <Z.d jkakd jQ ijrEmhla oSma;su;a Okh hk fh|=u uZ.ska .uH fjz' fmr oS us;@ ixl,amfhka n,dfmdfrd;a;` jQfha wdOHd;ausl m@idoh muKs' kuq;a jrA;udkfhys wdOHd;ausl m@idoh muKlau fkdj f,#lsl oshqKqj o fuz uZ.ska Wod lr.; yelsh hk ;ekg ffjoslhkaf.a us;@ ixl,amh mrsKduh jSu iduQyslFjh ;`<ska tlS YsIagdpdrh Wod lr.kq ,enQ tla;rd ch.@yKhla f,i o wF:! oelajsh yelsh' iduQyslFjh jeo.;a jkqfha tl, fnfyjska jHdma; meje;s cSjk rgdj wkqj ;ksj cSj;a jSu w.h fkdlrk ,o w;r Tjqka iduQysl f,i ish cSjk rgdj f.dv kZ.d .kq ,enQ nejsks' lDIslrAuh" iFjmd,kh" fj<odu" rgj,a wdl@uKh jeks l`uk
  11. 11. 11 fyda lghq;a;l oS jqj;a tod mej;s wrA: l@uhg wkqj uq,a nei f.k ;snqfka iduQysl cSjk rgdjhs' tnejska fuu wF:!l@uh wkqj Tjqkag jeo.;a jQfha udkj m@.aOkh fyj;a usksia Y@uhhs' usksia Y@uh yiqrjd,Sug fukau h:d mrsos th l<ukdlrKh uZ.ska fhdojd .ekSu msKsi wdl,amuh jYfhka udkjhd ;`< iduQyslFjh f.dvkeZ.su wjYH jS ;snqKs' fuz iZoyd ffjoslhka Ndjs;d lrk ,o ixl,amh f,i us;@ ixl,amh yZ|=kajd osh yelsh' us;@ ixl,amfhys fuu jsldYh uZ.ska fmkajd fokqfha tu ;;ajhhs' fmr wdOHd;ausl jYfhka yqfola m@idoh ckkh lsrSu iZoyd muKlau Ndjs;d lrk ,o us;@ ixl,amh fN#;sl w.hla jQ Okh keue;s f,#lsl jgskdlu ckkh lsrSu iZoyd o Ndjs;hg f.k ;snSu uZ.ska fuh ;yjqre fjz' us;@ ixl,amh uZ.ska ,nd fokq ,nk Okh wksjdrAhfhkau hym;a fydZo Okhla jSfuz wksjdrAhh ,CIKh o tys .enzjk nj ffjoslhka m@ldY fldg we;af;a tu Okh fydZo" OdrAusl Okhla fyj;a oSma;suka Okhla f,i fmkajSu uZ.sks' iduQyslFjh fukau idOdrK nj o us;@ ixl,amh ;`<u wka;rA.; ;j;a udkj idrOu!hla f,i fuz wdldrhg ffjoslhska jsiska m@lg lr ;sfnz' " lSrA;su;a ta us;@ foajsfhda uysufhka fojz f,djg W;a;rS;rh'" f;aciska uy fmdf<djg W;a;rS;rh'" us;@f.a wdOHd;ausl ;,h uysuh f,i;a" f,#lsl ;,h f;aci f,i;a fmkajd oS ;sfnz' fuys uysuh lsishuz W;a;rS;r udkqqIsl .`KOu! /ila ksfhdackh lsrSu msKsi Ndjs;d lr ;sfnz' ohdj" wkHhka jsIfhys iudkd;au;djfhka hqla;j lghq;` lsrSu jeks .`Kdx. us;@g wh;a fia olajd we;' fuzjd idudkH ukqIHFjfhka Tnzng jsyso hk nejska idudkH ukqIHhdf.ka fjkia jk lreKla f,i f.k W;a;rS;r ;;ajh m@odkh lr we;' fmd|= nj iudkd;au;djh jeks lreKq ffcj jsoHd;aulj o udkj taldnoaO;djh iqrCIs; lsrSu msKsi bjy,a jsh yels lreKqh' iduqysl cSjk meje;aulska hqla; ukqIHhdg fujeks foa b;du;a w.kd iudc fuj,ula jQjdg iel ke;' ta Tiafia fujeks lreKq W;a;rS;r ;;ajfhka by,g Tijd ;nkakg we;' fuys f;aci hkq (Social Organizational Behaviour) udkj iudch l@uj;aj md,kh (Control) lsrSuhs' funZ|= l<ukdlrK l@shdoduhloS ( Management process ) l<ukdlrK uQ<OrAu ( Management Principles ) Ndjs;hg .kS' fuysoS udkj m@d.aOkh yeisrjSfuz wjYH;djh yg.kS' udkj m@d.aOkh ;ukag wjYH wdldrhg l<ukdlrKh
  12. 12. 12 lsrSfuys,d us;@ ixl,amh olajkakd jQ odhlFjh i,ld thg f;aci hehs jHjydr lr ;sfnz' us;@ ixl,amfhys f,#lsl mCIh wjOdrKh jkqfha fuz wdldrfhks' " us;@ fojshkag hg;a j hosk ishZMu ck;djg Wojq lrkakg iu;a fy;u il, foaj iuQyh ord isgS'" 41 us;@ ixl,amh fuys oS BYajr ;;ajhg Tijd ;sfnz' tkuz il, oeh ord isgsh iEu fohlu wOsm;shd jYfhks' ffjoslhka talfoajjdoSka fukau nyqfoajjdoska f,i;a lghq;` l< njg idOl uska imhhs' tla tla oehg wOsm;SFjh Wiq,kq ,nk tla tla foaj;djre jev isgsk w;r ta ish,a,kagu by,ska us;@ jev isgsk nj yd lghq;` lrk nj mjikafka tfyhsks' fuys foaj hkak jHjydr lrkq ,nkqfha idudkH ukqIHFjhg jH;sfrAl jYfhka .; yels tla tla udkj .`Kdx.hkays wfmaCIs; mrsidOk ugzgu weZ.jSu msKsi nejz jgyd .ekSu fuys oS jeo.;ah' " us;@ f;fuz wdZ{djg wkqj" fojz usksiqka w;r hd. ;DKh we;`rE ckhdg wdydrh imhd we;' " 42 Ndr;Sh ixialD;sl b;sydih ;`< foajjdoS wdl,am talfoaj jdofhka nyqfoaj jdohg ixl@uKhjSu wd.usl wxYh iuznJOfhka b;du;a jeo.;a iJOsia:dkhla lksgqyka lrkakls' us;@ ixl,amh jsldYh jSu;a iuZ.u us;@ ixl,amhg muKla wh;a f,i i,lk ,o fndfyda .`K jreK keue;s ;j;a ixl,amhlg wdfoaY lr tu ixl,am oajsFjh uZ.skau us;@f.a iajrEmh olajk ,oS' fuu oajsFjh i;` jsfYaI .;s.`K iy ldrAh isoaOs m@fhda.sl jYfhka iudkh' fuu oajsFjh ms<sisZo f.k we;af;a ;dreKHhjh' orAYk lD;H lrkakd jQ wei ysre fjz' ysre /ia m;s; jkafka l@udkql~, f,i .ufkys ks;r jS isgshoSuh' wZosk m<Zok jia;@ b;du oSma;su;ah' wyfiys rsh uZ.ska .ufkys ksr; fjz' fojz f,dj msysgs rkauqjd ksjil jdih flfrA' th l`,qKq oyilskao" fodr oyilskao" iukajs; fnfyjska Wia jQ ia:djr iqjsi,a ksjils' fuys rcjre f,i l@shd lrk b;du;a nqoaOsu;a ryia T;a;` lrefjda fj;a' Tjqyq pl@jrA;s rcjreh' fuu ixl,am oajsFjh udhd kuska yeZoskafjk .`ma; n,hlska l@shd lrk tfukau ishZM ;kays ish wdOsm;H m;`rjd yer lghq;` lrk wiqr kuska yeZoskafjkafkda fj;a' Tjqkaf.a lD;H jQfha wreK bj; m,jd yerSu;a" wjldYh yryd ysre fufyh jSu;a" th jeiafika yd j<dl`,ska jid oeuSu;ah' fuu ixl,am oajsFjh iuia; f,dalhu md,kh lrkafkda fj;a' Tjqyq wyi" fmd<j iy iq<Z. ord isgsk w;r wdrCIlhka f,i o l@shd lr;s'
  13. 13. 13 .x.d iuQyfhys iajdusm@;@hka kuz fuu ixl,am oajsFjhuh' jrAIdj usksiqka fj; m@odkh lrkafkda fudjqyqh' tksid fndfyda usksiqkaf.a ksr;`re m@olaIKdjkag fudjqyq ,la fj;a' Tjqkayg ukqIHhka hd. msKsi okafok lEu nSu yd uOqmdkhkays m@udKh fld;ruz o h;a tajd osiajkqfha osh myrj,a fuks' ishZM c,hg iy jrAIdjg wOsm;s nj ork Tjqyq ta ish,a, md,kh lrkq ,nkafkdah' Tjqyq ;Knsuz .sf;,a keue;s jrAIdfjka yd wNHdjldYh uOq mdkfhka o f;ud yrs;s' Tjqyq wyiska uqod yrskafka jeiai yd jsY@dka;shhs' jeiafika ,efnk c,h jQ l,S osjHuh jQjls' fuz whqrska iuzmQrAK iQla;hlau fudjqka fjkqfjka fjka jS we;' us;@ ixl,amfhys fuu oajsFjfhys n,h fl;ruzo h;a" fuys jHjia:dj ia:sr fkd fi,afjk tlls' th wurKSh fojsjreka mjd W,a,x>kh fkdlg yelalls' ksrka;rfhka u wdZ{dj ord isgskafkda kuz us;@ ixl,amfhys fuu oajsFjh iajrEmhhs' tfiau tu wdZ{dj lv fkdfldg th wdorfhka /l n,d .kafkdah' ;uka jsiska wkHhkaf.a jro oel th ms<sl`,a lrk thg oKavkh mKjk th m,jd yrsk iajNdjh we;af;ah' tfiau lsisfjl` th lrf;d;a" thg tfrysj keZ.S isgskafkda fj;a' tfiau ;ukag kshus; hd. fydau iy mqo mQcd fkdlrkakjqka yg ksis oZvqjuz oSugo Tjqyq wu;l fkdlr;s' tjka whg f,v frda.dndO iEojSfuka ysxid mSvd is|= lr;s' us;@ ixl,amfhys fuu oajsFj .`Khkayg lrkq ,nk jkaokdj bka|= - brdK hq. jljdkqfjys b;du;a |=rd;S;h olajd wE;g osj hhs' thg fya;` jkqfha wfjia;dfjys fuz wdldrfhkau wyqr yd us;@ ixl,amhkays oajsFj .`Khkayg lrkq ,nk fuz wdldru jQ mqo mQcd weoySuz yd wd.usl ixialdr jsOSka wka;rA.; nejsks' mYapd;a ld,Skj hqfojz pska;khg mjd fuhska huzlsis n,mEula jQ nj is;sh yelshs' BY@dh,a cd;slhka ;`< we;s mdruzmrsl wd.usl weoys,s yd jsYajdi cks; jSu iZoyd fuhska huzlsis msgsjy,la ,efnkakg we;ehso iel flfrA' jsfYaI jYfhka lf;da,sl oyu ;`< wka;rA.; m@Odk udkj fm@arKh jQ fm@au ixl,amh yd fuu us;@ ixl,amh w;r huzlsis iuznJOhla we;aoehs jsuiSu jgS' ohdj yd fm@auh hk jHjydrhka lf;da,sl oyu ;`< fkdfhla f,iska jHjydr jS ;sfnz' us;@ ixl,amfhys iudf,dapkhla fyda ixfCIamhla fuz ;`< .enz fkdfj;;a" iduQyslFjh yd fmd|= nj ms<snZoj huzlsis b;du;a iqZM wdl,amuh idudkFjhla osia fjz' fuu hq.fhys tla;rd iJOsia:dkhl oS us;@ ixl,amh oajsFj iajrEmhlg mrsjrA;kh fjz' ta us;@ yd jreK hkqfjks' fuys oS us;@ ixl,amh jreK iuZ. iuznJO lsrSfuz wrA:h jsuiSu jeo.;ah' us;@ jreKf.a iydhlhd f,i olajd ;sfnz' msysg yd
  14. 14. 14 wdYsrAjdo me;Sfuz oS idudkHfhka us;@ hoskq ,nkqfha fuu jreK yd tlguh' us;@ ixl,amh uZ.ska br yd br t<sh ksrEmKh lrhs' Tyq fuf,djg m@Ndj f.k tkafka hehs ie,fla' us;@ ;`< wka;rA.; .`K iuyrla us;@ ;`<u wka;rA.; fldg oelajSu fjkqjg jreK keue;s ixl,amhla ksrAudKh fldg tuZ.ska us;@g wdfjzKsl .`K iuyrla ksrEmKh lr olajk ,oafoa bka iduQysl nj ms<snZoj mKsjqvhla ,nd oSug jsh hq;`h' flfia fj;;a" us;@ ish,a, olakd iqZM jQ o" ish,a, wjfndaO l<d jQo" ish,a, flfrys wOsm;SFjh mj;ajkakd jQo" i;H .rel" i;HlduS idrOu! iqrCIs; lsrSu msKsi lemjS ls@hd lrkq ,nk iduh .re lrk fi#uH iy.; fojsfhl` f,i wF:! ksrEmKh lr ;sfnz' wkql@ufhka us;@ ixl,amh jreK yd iuzznJO lsrSfuz oS fuf;la tlu wdf,dalh f.k fokakd jQ uQ,h f,i ie,l`Kq us;@f.a n,Yla;sh fldgia follg f.k us;@ m@Nd;df,dalh iuZ. o jreK rd;@S wjldYh iuZ. o iuznJO lr olajk ,oS' tfiau fuz ksid us;@ yd jreK wdhH!uka yd N. iuZ. wdos;Hfhdah' ( ysre ) ke;fyd;a wos;sf.a mq;@fhda hehs olajkq ,efnz' wdos;Hhg ysre ke;fyd;a iQhH! hehs lshkq ,efnz' us;@ yd jreK fhoSfuka woyia lrk ,oafoa fuz iQhH!df.a n,h fldgia follska hq;`j ksrEmKh lsrSuhs' Woh ld,fhys iQhH! wdf,dalh us;@f.ka o rd;@S iQhH! wdf,dalh wia;hg hEu jreK f.ka o olajk ,oS' us;@f.ka ksrEmKh lrk ,o ysre jkaokdj f,dal YsIagdpdrfhys iEu m@d.a ft;sydisl wd.usl wNspdr jsOs ish,a, ;`<u jsjsO iajrEm j,ska jsjsO kuz j,ska oel .ekSug ,efnz' " jreK ( iy us;@ ) fojshks" fofojz Tnf.a mshlre wei jQ ysre ( /ia ) m;`rjuska by< kZ.S' hfula il, f,dal i;a;ajhka jsuid n,hs o" fyf;u uefrkakjqka w;r mrudrA: ksrSCIKh lrhs' " fuys oS jreK yd us;@ hk fojsjrekaf.a weia f,i ysre olajd ;sfnz' weiska is|= lrkqfha oY!k lD;Hhhs' fuys oS wei ysre f,i ksrEmKh jSu uZ.ska wdf,dalh yd wZ|=re iajNdjfhys .enzjk odrAYksl ldrAhNdrh u;`lr fmkajhs' odrAYksl ixorANh ;`< wdf,dalhg fukau wZ|=rg o jgskdula we;' idudkHfhka fjk;a jsIh oekquz moaO;Ska ;`< nska|=jg jgskdkula fkdue;sjqj o fmros. orAYkfhys nska|=fjys b;du;a jsYd, jgskdlula .enzjk nj fmkajd oS ;sfnz' orAYksl ixorANh ;`< nska|=j yeZoskafjkafka Y~kHh kusks' fuys Y~kHh hkq ixLHd;aul jYfhka lsisjla fkdue;s nj fkdj fuz f,dj we;s ;dla ish,af,ys u .`Kd;aul jYfhka lsis|= yrhla fkdue;s njhs' odrAYksl mCIfhka Y~kHfhys .enzjk jgskdlu fjk;a Bg jvd jsYd, ixLHd;aul w.hl .enz fkdfjz' tfukau
  15. 15. 15 wdf,dalfhys jgskdlu f,djg fmfkafka wZ|=r ksid fyhska wdf,dalhg fukau w.hla wZ|=rg o ,efnk nj fmkajd fohs' fjk;aa f,ilska lsjfyd;a wdf,dalh yd wZ|=r Tjqfkdjqkag idfmaCIlh' fuu Yaf,dlfhys wrA:h mrudrA: .fjzIkh lsrSuhs' ukqIH iajNdjhla jYfhka urKh Wreu jqjo urKfhys jsoHudk fmd|= nj" mrudrA:uh i;a;dj .@yKh lsrSu iZoyd idudkH weiska ksrSCIKh lr ,nd .kakd f;dr;`re j,g jvd by< ksrSCIKhla fukau odrAYksl pska;khla o wjYH nj fuz ;`<ska u;` lrfohs' jreK yd us;@ ixl,amhkaf.ka fmkajk us;@Fjh ( yeufoku ush hkafka kuz ush hEu Wreu fldg we;s ish,q iFjhka jsIfhys oelajsh hq;` wkqluzmdj uqiq us;@YS,S iajNdjh ) urKh keue;s fmd|= mrudrA:uh i;a;dj .fjzIKh lsrSu uZ.ska ,nd .;hq;` by,u nqoaOsM,h nj fuhska fmkajd fokq ,nhs' " us;@ iy jreK fofokdKks" ta ieoeyej;a mQclhd ( uu ) Tn fofokdg |=rska wefik iaf;da;@ .S;sld tjhs' nqoaOsu;`ka fofokdfKks" ta Tyqf.a hd;sld wi;ajd! huz nqoaOshlska fuka Tjqkaf.a cSjs;fha wjika iuh mqrjkq uekjs' " wksjdrAfhkau fuu iaf;da;@ .dhkd lrkq ,nkafka wd.usl mQcljrfhls' ke;fyd;a lskuz fyda mqoa.,fhla fuz iaf;daia;@ .dhkd lsrSfuka fy;u taldka; jYfhka ta fya;`fldg f.ku mQcljrh ,nhs' fuys iaf;daia;@ mGkh hkq fu;a;d ixl,amfhys .`K .dhkd lsrSuhs' fu;a;d kuz us;`renjhs' us;@Fjh m;`rejk ,nkakd fyj;a us;@Fjfhys .`K .dhkd lrkq ,nkakd taldka;fhkau mQcljrfhls' ke;fyd;a ta fya;`j ksidu mQcljrh ,enQfjls' fuys mQcljr ,enSfuz fya;`j f,i oelajkqfha us;`renj me;srjSuh' ish,q iFjhka fj; us;`re nj m;`rejkakd is|=rkqfha ish,q iFjhkag cSjs; odkh ,nd oSuh' ta fy;`fjka fy;u urKhg m@;sjsreoaO Yla;sfhys n,fjz.h fjz' us;`renj m;`rejk mQcljrhd urKh Wreu fldg isgskakd jQ f,dj jeis iFjhkayg wNh fokafkla fjz' cSjh fokafkla fjz' Tyqg us;`re nfjys wOsm;s jQ jreK yd us;@ hk fojsjreka i;` osjHuh n,h wdrdamKh fldg we; tfukau jreK yd us;@ fojsjrekaf.a ksrka;r msysgg yd ie,ls,a,g nZ|=ka jkakd jQ w;sYhska ldreKsl mqoa.,fhla o jkafkah' " us;@ iy jreK fofojshks" ;Hd.YS,SkS" ( Tn ) jHdma; jQ mD:sjsfhka uy;a Wi jQ" Wodr jQ wyiska" msh fkd fyZME weiska ( n,d ) wdrCId lrk Ydlhkays;a" ( usksia ) ksjykys;a fjk fjk u ryia T;a;`lrejka uekjska fhdokafkdah' " us;@ yd jreK hk ixfla; folska wdf,dalfhys me;srSu yd wia;h hk fol ksrEmKh fjz' tfukau us;@Fjfhys WKqiquz nj fukau iqug nj o fmkajhs' us;@f.a
  16. 16. 16 fojshdf.a iajrEmfhka us;@Fjfhys WKqiqu oyj, ysre f,i o" jreK foajshdf.a iajrEmfhka us;@Fjfhys iqug nj rd;@sfhys ysre wia;hg hdu fya;`fjka yg .efkk isis,a nj f,i o ksrEms;h' fuh iuia; ffcj f,dalfhys werUquhs' usksid we;`ZM iuia; cSjSkau wdYajdi m@dYajdi lrk jdhqfhys wka;rA.; wuz,lr ( Tlaiscka ) iajNdjh yg .efkkqfha osjd l, us;@f.a fijfkys we;s Ydl uZ.sks' tfukau rd;@sfhys oS jreKf.a wkqn,fhka tu Ydlu m@;s – wuz,lr ( ldnkavfhdlaihsvz ) ksmojkq ,nhs' fuu iQrAhdf,dalh flaJ|@ lrf.k Ydl m;@ ;`< wka;rA.; yrs;m@o Wmfhda.Sfldg m@Ndixiaf,aIK l@shdj<sh ksid yg .efkk funZ|= wuz,lr yd m@;s – wuz,lr iajNdjh us;@ yd jreK oajs l@shdldrSFjh ksid we;sjk tla ffcj ridhk ixisoaOshla muKs' idudkHfhka funZ|= ffcj ridhk ixisoaOSka b;d jsYd, m@udKhla wdf,dalfhys yd wkaOldrfhys moku jQ iQrAhhd fya;`fldg f.k yg.kS' jsoHd;aul pska;kh jrAOs; jrA;udkfhys fuka ta iEu ixisoaOshlau ijsia;r f,i fN#;sl jsoHd yd Y`oaO jsoHd kHdkqidrSj mejiSug yels fkdjQ |=rd;S;fhys oS tnZ|= jsoHd;aul ixisoaOSka ryia yd fkdjsiZosh yels .egZM f,i ie,lsKs' |=rd;S;fhys mej;s oekqu wkqj tnZ|= oekquz moaO;Ska wkdjrKh lr .ekSu uy;a jsYd, fohla f,i fmksks' ryia f;dr;`re .fjzIKh iZoyd m@OdkSka fhdojk ,o ta ioZyd mqre|= mqyqKq l, jsfYaIs; mqoa.,hka ryia T;a;`lrejka yd pr mqreIhka f,i yeZoskajsKs' jreK yd us;@hk fojsjre m@OdkSka f,i ie,l`Kq fyhska Tjqka iajNdj Ou!hdf.a ryia iajNdjh wkdjrKh fldg tuZ.ska ck;djg Wojz Wmldr lsrSu WmudrEml yd w,xldrj;a f,i idys;Huh iajrEmhlska hqla;j mejiSug h;ak ord we;s wdldrh fuz Yaf,dalh uZ.ska b;d losug ksrEmKh fjz' " ( uu ) us;@f.a;a" jreKf.a;a wKil jrAKkd lrus' ( Tjqkaf.a ) n,h" uyd jsl@ufhka fodf,dj ( wyi iy fmdf<dj ) fjka lrhs' hd. fkd lrkakjqkaf.a udi ( ld,h ) mq;`kaf.ka f;dr j .; jS fhajd! hd.h flfrys ;u is; ia:djr l< ;eke;af;a ( ish ) mrmqr jrAOkh flfrAjd! " 43 fuys uu hkqfjka jrAKs;j we;af;a funZ|= hd. ldrAhhka iZoyd ks, jYfhkau kuz flrS isgskakd jQ mQclhska jsh hq;`h' us;@@ yd jreK fojshkaf.a wKil jrAKkd lrkafka tu wKil os.ska os.gu mj;ajd f.k hEfuz ldrAhNdrh tu mQcl fmf<ka;sh w;ska bgq jQ hq;`lula jQ fyhsks' tu hq;`lu bgq lsrSu hkq iudcfhys wdlD;sluh iajrEmh ta jQ wdldrfhkau ixjsOs;j mj;ajd .ekSug W;aiy .ekSuhs' fuys wka;rA.; wKil hk jofkys wK hkq jsOdkd;aul iajrEmhhs' tfia fyhska wKil hkak mqZM,a jYfhka wF:!l:kh l< jsg tys ffk;sl isoaOdka; ish,a,u .enzjS we;' tfukau fuys wka;rA.; n,h ms<snZo ioyk kQ;k orAYkfhys yd iudc jsoHdfjys n,h ( Power ) ms<snZo b.ekajSuz iuZ. tla;rd wdldrhl iudk njla Wiq,kq ,nhs' kQ;k jsIhhka j,oS n,h ms<snZo fokq ,enQ wrA:l:kj,ska n,h
  17. 17. 17 hym;a f,i fhdojkafka flfiao hk meyeos,s lsrSuz iuZ. fuzjd jvd;a jevs iudkFjhla olajhs' ta wkqj us;@ yd jreK ixl,am uZ.ska fmkajkq ,nk us;@Fjh ms,snZo wdl,amh n,h flfia l@shdfjz fhosh hq;` oehs hk m@Yakhg ms<s;`rla f,i bosrsm;a jS ;sfnz' fuys hd.h hkqfjka jsia;r jS ;sfnkqfha ffu;@sh oelajSuhs' ta wkqj il,jsO ffc m@cdj flfrysu ffu;@sfhka hqla;j jdih lsrSu jsYd,u hd.hhs' tfia jdih fkdlrkakd jQ mqoa.,hdf.a mrmqr mj;ajd f.k hEfuys Yla;sh wju jk nj fuys fmkajd fokq ,nhs' mq;`ka jsrys;j l,ayerSug is|=jk nj fmkajd oS ;sfnkqfha fuz ksidh' tf,i iuia; ffcj m@cdj jsIfhysu ffu;@sh me;srjSug yels mqoa.,hka flfrys ish mrmqr mj;ajd f.k hEfuys Yla;sh fkduZoj msysgk nj fuhska fmkajd fokq ,nhs' fuhska jHx.fhka lsh fjkafka ffu;@S n,fhka iuia; ffcj m@cdj tlai;a jk nj;a tfia fkdjQ l, yeu jsg hqouh yd W;am;a;suh jYfhka Tjqka jskdYhg meusfKk njhs' " nqoaOsu;a n,j;`ka fofoKdKks" huz ;ekl wreuhla fkd fmfkk" wnsryila fkd jk ( fkd fmfkk ) fuz ish,a, ( m@Yxid ) Tn fofokdghs' ( Tnf.a ) ryia T;a;`lrejda usksiqkaf.a us:Hdjka ,qyq neZo fh;a' Tn fofokd fkd oek is|= jk ryia oek .kakg ke;' " jsYajh i;` usksia nqoaOshlska oek .ekSug wiSre tfy;a il,jsO f,dal iajNdjh wkdjrKh lsrSug tlu udrA.h jkqfha us;@ yd jreK ixl,am folska fmkajk mrsos ffu;@sh jevSuhs' iuia; ffcj m@cdfjys iuzNjh meje;au yd jrAOkh ms<snZoj tlu ryi jkafka o thhs' usksiqka jsIfhys ta ryi wkdjrKh lr .ekSu msKsi Tn foofkdf.a ryia T;a;` lrejka jQ us;@ yd jreK fojsjreka i;` wiydh ffcj wdnJOkSh ,CIKh tkuz fu;a;d ixl,amh jsjsO iajrEm j,ska fmkS isgS' tu ixl,amh usksiqka w;r me;sr we;s jsjsO jQ uk%l,ams; ms<s.ekSuz w;rg tkafka tu ms<s.ekSuzj, ksrEmKh jkakd jQ jsjsO iajrEmj,ska hqla;jh' ohdj" fm@auh" ifydorFjh" lreKdj" fifkyi" ud;DFjh yd us;`renj tjka ijrEmhkaf.ka iuyrls' usksiqkaf.a ms,s.ekSuzj,g wkqj Tjqkaf.a jsjsO is;sjs,sj,g wkqrEmj us;@Fjh fl;ruz jsYd, yeZ.Suz m@udKhlg mrsjrA;kYS,S jqjo ta yeu yeZ.Sulu moku us;@Fjhhs' fuz ksid us;@Fjh ta ms<snZoj fkdoek l`uk yeZ.Sulaj;a fyda is;sjs,a,laj;a cSjS is;lg we;s fkdfjz' us;@Fjfhys ryia wkdjrKh lr.ekSfuz yelshdj t;ruzu wisrsu;ah' ffcj f,dj ;`< yg .kakd iEu is;sjs,a,lau oek .kakd iqZM iajNdjhla us;@Fjfhys .enzjk nejska us;@ yd jreK uZ.ska ksrEmKh jk fu;a;d ixl,amh i;` fkdjkakd jQ ryia wkdjrKh fkdjkakd jQ l@ufjzohla we;af;a ke;' o; hq;` jQ ryiH jQ ish,af,au wkdjrKlhd kuz us;@ yd jreK hk fofokdh' fuhska lshfjkafka fu;a;d ixl,amh ;`< .enz fkdjkakd jQ fohla fkdue;s nj yd iEu fohlau fu;a;d ixl,amh uZ.ska ksrEmKh jk njh'
  18. 18. 18 " ( uu ) oeka kuialdr iys; j hd.h Tn fofokdg lem lrus' ( uu ) us;@ yd jreK jQ Tn fofokdg Woafhda.fhka yZv kZ.d lshus' ( fuz ) kj ixl,amkd Tn fofokdg m@Yxikh msKsi hs' fuz msrskuk ,o hd;sldfjda Tn fofokd i;`gq lr;ajd' " fu;a;d ixl,amh isf;ys jrAOkh lr .ekSu msKsi jer jvkakd jQ mqoa.,fhl` jsiska fuz wdldrfhka l,amkd l< hq;` nj by; Yaf,dalfhys fmkajd oS ;sfnz' fndfydfia f.#rjfhka hqla;j us;@Fjh jrAOkh lsrSug leu;s jkafkus' th tfiau nj us;@ yd jreK foaj ixl,amfhka uqrA;su;a jkakd jQ us;@Fjh kuska oevs wdya,dofhka hqla;j ta us;@Fjh fjkqfjkau lemfjus' th yZv kZ.d wduka;@Kh lsrSu hkqfjka wF:!j;a jkqfha thhs' kshudrA:hka iZ.jd lshk ,oafoys ienE wF:!hka fy,s lrjSu Tn fofokdg wkq.@y msKsihs' wik fndfyda fokdo fu;a;d ixl,amfhys .`K yeZosk ta uZ.g fhduq jk nejska fuz ms<snZo oek .ekSu ish,q fokdf.au i;`gg fya;`jla o fjz' tu .`K kshudldrfhka oek yeZoska myka is;ska hqla;j iqprs;fhys yeisr fu;a;d ixl,amkdj fmrgq fldg f.k ia;~;s m@Yxid msrskuk is;ska hqla;j l,a yerSu us;@ yd jreK ixfla;fhka uQrA;su;a flfrk fu;a;d ixl,amfhys ienE .`K iqjZo iamrAY lsrSula o fjz' fu;a;d ixl,amh ksrka;r isf;ys i;`g ckkh lrkq ,nkakla f,i o fuz ;`<ska fmkakquz flfrA' " us;@ iy jreK fofojshks" hd.hkays oS fuz mQcl fiajdj Tng bgq lerefKah' wm ish,q |=la lror Tiafia ( bka Tnzng ) f.k uekjs' Tn wm iZoyg u fi;a Ydka;sfhka hqla; j wdrCId lr;ajd' " 44 wjidkfhys fu;a;d ixl,amfhys Wmfhda.S;djh ms<snZoj wkHhka oekqj;a lrkq ,nk mQcljrhd ms<snZoj wjOdkh fhduq lrkq ,nhs' us;@ yd jreK hk fojsjreka ukqIHhka w;rg f.k hkq ,nk md,u f,i l@shdlrkafka fulS mQclhka nejska fuu fu;a;d ixl,amh m@cdj ;`< jrAOkh lrjSu ms<snZoj m@udKSlD; ldrAhNdrhla Tjqka w;ska bgq fjz' fojshkag iDcqju usksiqka w;rg hd fkdyels nejska usksiqka w;rg f.dia fojsshkaf.ka ,;a odhdoh jk us;@Fjh usksiqka w;r jHdma; lr yrskakd jQ mQcljreka fojsjre jsiska o iuzudks; nejz fuz uZ.ska fmkajd fokq ,nhs' usksiqkaf.a ish,qu |=la lror |=re lrkakd jQ tu |=la lror j,ska Tnzng Tjqka leZojd f.k hkq ,nkakd jQ mqoa.,hd kuz mQcljrhdh' ta iZoyd mQcljrhdg us;@ ixl,amfhys;a fkduZo iyh ,efnz' us;@ ixl,amfhka ,efnk fkduZo iyh msgsjy,a fldgf.k ish,a,kaf.au ish,qu |=la luzlfgdZM bj;g m<jd yrskq ,nhs' fu;a;d ixla,mh isf;ys jrAOkh lrjSu fya;`fldg f.k is;g we;sjk mgs>
  19. 19. 19 is;sjs,s yd .efgk iajNdjh bj;a lr is; m@uqos;j i;`gska ;efnhs' by; ish,q |=la luzlfgdZM m<jd yrsk nejz iZoyka jSu uZ.ska fmkakquz lrkqfha fuhhs' is;g wjYH m@udKhg ffu;@sh jrAOkh lr.;a ;eke;a;dg wjYH ;ruz ld,hla wjYH ;ruz m@udKhlska is;g m@S;sh we;`,;a fldg f.k iqrCIs;j jdih l< yelsh' nsh" wkdrCIs; yeZ.Su" ielh" BrAIHdj" |=la uqiq is;sjs,s fu;a;d ixl,amh fkdue;s nfjys ,CIK jk w;r fuu yeZ.Suz is;ska bj;a jSug kuz fu;a;d ixl,amh wjYH m@udKhg isf;ys jrAOkh l< hq;`h' mYapd;a ld,Skj ffjosl ckhd jsiska iQrAh fojshka yeZoskajSu iZoyd m@Odk kuz ;`kla Ndjs;d lr we;' tajdkuz ‘us;@’jsIaKq yd mQIka hk kuz ;`khs' thska ‘us;@’ hk kduh bka|=-BrdKSh hq.fha mgka jsldYh fjuska mej; wd jpkhhs. uq,oS ffjoslfhda us;@ jsIaKq yd mQIka hk kuz ;`k iQrAhhdg jsfYaIK kdu f,i jHjydr l<y.miqj th ta ta f.da;@hg wh;a iQrAhh foaj;d iuQyhlg jHjydr jkakdjQ kdu f,i jsldYhg m;ajsh' 45 iEu m@d.a ft;sydisl wd.usl YsIapdpdrhlu wNspdr jsOs ;`< jsoHudk ysre msoSfuz isrs; usksia udkisl l@shdldrSFjh wkqj b;d iajNdjsl ixisoaOshls' fuh .@Sl wd.usl wNspdr jsOs ;`< wksjdrAh wx.hla f,i oela fjz' maf,afgda jsiska rps; Republic ( iuQydKavqj )46 kuz .@J:fhys iQhH!hdg lrkq ,nk fuu mQcdjka mrudorAY njg m;alrkq ,ensks' Tyqg wkqj iQhH!hd hkq idOqFjfhys ixfla;hls' mrAishdfjz o fuu iQhH! mqcdj oel .ekSug ,efnz' f,dalfha ish,q wdf,dalfha yd cSjfha l;D jQ iQhH!hdg mjrd fok ,o W;a;rs udkqIsl n,hka we;' ia:djr yd cx.u ish,af,ys u cSjh jkafka o Tyqh' ish,a, olakd jQ ish,a, fufyhjkq ,nkakd jQ f,dalfhys wOsm;shd Tyqh' Tyq usksiqka Tjqkaf.a ldhH!hka bgq lsrSug mqnq|=jhs' wZ|=r |=r ,hs' t,sh fohs' ia:djr cx.u ish,af,a u wdrCIlhd jQ iQhH!d usksiqka foi my; n,uska usksiqka w;r yrs jeros wjf,dalkh lruska WNh f,dalhka ;rKh lrkq iZoyd Wodfjhs' fuz wkqj iQhH!hd f,dalfhys uejquzlre yd tys woajS;Sh md,lhd njg ksrdhdifhka u m;a fjhs' us;@ ixl,amh uZ.ska ksrEmKh lr olajkq ,nkafka fuu iQhH!hd i;` n,hhs' fuz wkqj us;@ ixl,amh uZ.ska uqZM uy;a udkj YsIaGdpdrfhys u .enzjk w;sYhska m@d.a ft;sydisl wd.usl jsYajdihla ksrEmKh fldg olajhs' 47 us;@ weoys,a,g ;j;a ksoiqkla kuz mqrdK mrAishdkqjka yd bkaoshdkqjkaf.a ysre fojshdhs' fuz ysre fojshd ms<snZo weoys,a, l@s' mQ' 67 jk Y; jrAIfha oS frdauh wdl@uKh l< fY@aIaG wef,laiekavrA wOsrdchdf.a
  20. 20. 20 wOsrdcHfhka Tnzng mjd jHdma; jQ wd.usl ixialdr jsOshls' th mqZM,aj(180 – 92) jHdma;j mej;sfha rdclShhka w;r mej;s ufyaYdlH weoys,a,la f,ihs'48 jd.a jsoHdZ{hska jsiska jd.a jsoHd;aul mrAfhaIKhka wkqj fmkS hk lreKla kuz bka|= wdhH!hka kuska yZ|=kajkq ,nk ckfldgzGdYfhao" BrdKShjrekaf.ao" hjkhkaf.ao" ia,djz ,s;afjzkshka iy crAuka cd;slhkaf.ao" b;d,s cd;slhkaf.ao" hkdoS wdldrfhka wdishd;sl yd ngysr f,i jrA;udkfhys m@p,s;j we;a;djQ cklKavdhuzj, wdoSu uq;`ka us;a;ka w;r fu;a;d ixl,amh ms<snZoj jHdma;j mej;s tlu iajrEmfha wd.usl weoys,s yd jsYajdi wdosfhys mej;s mq|=u M<jk iq,q iudkjh ksid Tjqka |=rd;S;fha NdIdj yd isrs;a jsrs;a w;ska wfkHdakH iuznJOluz olajuska tlu jsYd, m@foaYhl iuQy jYfhka cSj;a jQ msrsila njhs' ;jo |=rd;S;fhys lsishuz osfkl tlu msrsila f,i jsiQ ngysr foaYjdiS ck iuQyhkaf.ka fjkaj wd Ndr;foaYSh jeisfhdao" BrdKSh cd;slfhdao" tfia fjkaj wd kuq;a tlg fjfiuska bka|=- BrdKSh ck iuQyh kuska jsfYaIfhka yZ|=kajkq ,enQy' fuz ld,fhaoS fudjqka w;r mej;s fu;a;d ixl,amh jv jvd;a ixjrAOkh jkakg jsh' miqj BrdKShjrekaf.ka o fjkajQ m@dpSk wdhH!hka tkuz Ndr; foaYjdiS wdhH!hka ta ngysr m@foaYj,ska bkaoshdjg ( Ndr; foaYhg ) bka|=l`Ia lZ|=jegsh yryd m@fjzYjkakg we;ehs ie,fla' fudjqka uZ.ska iuia; Ndr;h mqrdu fu;a;d ixl,amh jHdma; jkakg we;'49 us;@ ixl,amh ia;@SFjh yd ud;DFjh uQrA;su;a lsrSu msKsi Ndjs;d jS we;s wdldrh ffjosl idys;Hh wOHhkh lrkafkl`g oel .; yelsh' iQrAhhdf.a jsjsO ,CIK ms<snZoj wjOdkhg ,lal< ffjoslfhda tajd W;amdol Yla;sh m@dKj;a lsrSfuz n,h os,sfik iajNdjh jYfhka jrA.SlrKhg ,lafldg tu jsjsO ,CIK iZoyd jsjsOdlr mhH!dh kduhka wdfoaYl<y.Bg wkq.;j iQrAhhdf.a <ysre /iaj,ska kefZ.k m@Nd;h fldau< iajrEmhla .kakdnj ie,l~ ffjoslfhda tys wka;rA.; ,d,s;Hh ksid we,au we;s lrjk .`Kh hk wrA:fhka thg‘us;@’hk kduh jHjydr l<y.fuz wkqj ffjoslhka ‘us;@’Ynsofhka uq|=njo ia;@SFjfha iyc .;s iajNdjhka jQ ,d,s;Hh o fldau, iqkaor ugis,sgs pu;aldr ckl iajNdjho ta ksid is;a i;kays ,d W;alrAIj;a jk we,auo ksrAjpkh fldg ;sfnz.fuz woyia jrAOkh jSfuka miq l,l ‘us;@’Ynzoh fj; iuia; ia;@S iajNdjh yd ia;@SFjh wdfrdamKh fldg ;sfnz.ia;@SFjh ksrEmKh lrjkakdjQ fohla f,i ‘us;@’Ynzoh Ndjs;d lsrSu ksid iduQyslFjh neZoSu j.lSu udkj ys;jdoSnj jeks .`K wka;rA.; ia;@SFjfhys iyc ,CIKhla jQ ud;DFjfha iuzmrAlh fuhg ,efnkakg jsh.50
  21. 21. 21 jsfYaIfhka iqrAhhd i;` jQ W;amdol Yla;sh flrys ffjosl ckhdf.a wjOdkh fhduq jS mej;sks' uqZM uy;a jsYajfhau W;amdolhd iQrAhh Yla;sh uZ.ska m@Njh jkakd jQ fohla hk yeZ.Su fujlg ffjoslhka ;`< uq,a nei.kakd ,o yeZ.Suls' b;sydiZ{hka yd udkj jsoHdZ{hka fmkajd fokafka fuh ffjoslhka muKla i;` wdl,amhla fkdj m@d.a udkj ish,qq YsIagdpdrj, meje;s m@druzNl wNspdruh ixl,amhla njhs' udkj m@cdjf.a iuzNjh is|=jkqfha ia;@Sh i;` cSj W;amdol iY@SlFjh ksid nj ms<s.efka'tfyhska iQrAhhd i;` jQ uSg iudk jQ W;amdol Yla;sh ia;@shf.a tlS ksirA. Yla;shg iudk lr oelafjz' tksid iuia; ffcj m@cdjf.a wdruzNl Yla;s m@Njh f,io ish,q pu;aldr ckl oE tlaj neZo ;nkakla f,io us;@ ffjoslhka w;r ms<s.ekSug md;@jsks'uska us;@ ixl,amh pu;aldr ckl iajrEmhla .kakd,oS'tu iajrEmh ia;@shlf.a Ndjuh ,S,dj yd iudk hehs ie,lSug ffjoslhka fm<USug fya;`j us;@ i;`jQ nJOkSh iajrEmhhs'tksid il,jsO ffcj m@cdj w;r ifydaorFjh fyda us;@Fjh jeks Tjqka tluq;` lrkakd jQ lsishuz neZoSula yg .ks;ehs Tjqka jsYajdi l< nj meyeos,s fjz'51 fmroS ud;DFjh jeks iyc ia;@S,laIK wdfrdamKh lr ;snqfka iajNdj OrAuh fj;h' t;l`|= jqj;a wdl,am mrsjrA;kh;a iuZ.u iajNdj OrAuh fj; wdfrdamKhlr ;snQ foajFjh miqld,Skj udkj iajrEmfhka oelajSfuz wjYH;djh u;` jsh'foaj;ajh udkj yevfhka uQrA;su;a lsrSfuz wjYH;djh u;` jSu;a iuZ.u mdfya ndysr |@jHh uZ.ska Tjqkaf.a wNka;r ps;a; ixl,am bosrsm;a lsrSfuz l,d;aul pska;khg uQ,sl moku fuhska jegsks' mYapd;a ld,Sk hq.j, oS nsys jQ jsjsO l,d ksrAudKhka iZoyd wjYH lrk ksrAudKYS,S wdl,am o fuz wd.usl woyia Tiafia jsldYhg m;ajsh'52 us;@ ixl,amfha b;sydih .fjzIKhlrk mrAfhaIlfhl`g fuz ixl,amh uZZ.ska ffjosl ixialD;sh fmdaIKhjQ whqre oel.; yel' fuz jsIh fCIa;@h ms<snZoj mrAfhaIKh l< tuz' jskagksgzia ( M.Winternitz ) kue;s mZvsjrhd Tyqf.a ‘bkaoshdkq idys;H b;sydih’ ( Histoty of Indian Literature ) kuz lD;sh uZ.ska by; olajk ,o us;@ ixl,amfha mrsKduhg iuznJO jeo.;a lreKq /ila fmkajd oS ;sfnz' tys‘us;@’ fojshd yqol,d fojsfhl` fkdj foaj iuQyhlg wh;a jkafkl` nj olajd we;' uska meyeos,s jkqfha flaj,;ajhg jvd iduQyslnj jeo.;aluhs' fuu foajiuQyhg wh;a fiiq fojsjre jkafka bka|@"jreK"us;@ wos;s" jsIaKq" mQIka" ure;a" re|@" mc!kH" wYajska hk fojsjrehs' uq,oS fuu fojsjreka fhdod .;akd ,oafoa iajNdjsl jia;~kag foajFjhla wdfrdamKh fldg jK!kd lsrSfuz oS fhdod .kakd ,o jsfYaIK mo f,ih' miqj fuu kduhka ta iajNdjsl jia;~kays Wm,CIKdrA: jsfYaIKfhka tajd yZ|=kajdoSu msKi jHjydr jsks. wk;`rej ta kduhka tu
  22. 22. 22 iajNdjsl jia;~ka yeZoskajSu msKsi Ndjs;dlrkakd jQ mrAhdh kdu njg fmr<S wjidkfha oS iajNdjsl jia;~kaf.ka fjkia jQ iajdOSk fojsjreka f,i jHjydr jkakg jsh.53 ‘us;@’fojshd ms<snZo woyio uq<oS ‘us;@’kue;s ixl,amh weiqrefldg by; olajk ,o wdldrfhka jsldYhjQ tlls' fuz ksid ‘us;@’fojshd ksremkh lsrSfuzoS tys uq,a ‘us;@’ ixl,amfha oelafjk wdldrhg uD|=nj yd ,d,s;Hh fmkajk whqrska ksrEms; jsh' fuz ‘us;@’ ixl,amh fnfyjska uq,anei m@p,s;j meje;sfha bka|= ksuzk ixialD;sh ;`<h' us;@ ixl,amfha weiqr ,enSu ksid bka|+ksuzk jdiSka idulduS yd b;doshqKq iNHFjhlg ysusluz lS msrsilajQy' fudjqyq lDIs lrAudka;h iFjmd,kh yd fjk;a Ys,am lrAudka; wxYj,ska oshqKqjg m;aj iuDoaOsu;a cSjs; .; l<y.54 wdrAhhka kuska ;ukaj yZ|=kajd .;a ffjoslckhd ;u ixialD;sl wdOsm;Hh wfkl`;a ixialD;Ska flfrys me;srjSu;a iuZZ. bka|=ksuzk ckhd ffjosl ixialD;sfhys .@yKhg k;`jsh'ta iuZ.u bka|= ksuzk iuh ixl,am hgm;a lrf.k ffjosl iuh ixl,am wOsm;SFjh orkakg jsh'bka|=ksuzk jdiSka w;r m@p,s;j mej;s‘us;@’ixl,amfhys wdNdih ffjosl ixialD;shg ,enqks'kuq|= ffjosl ixialD;sh ;`< ‘us;@’ixl,amh bka|=ksuzk ixialD;sfha ;ruz jHdma;j fkdmej;sfhah' thg jsjsO ldrKd fya;`jsh' tajd my; oelafjk mrsos oelajSug yel. 1. ‘us;@’ixl,amh ffjosl ixialD;shg wd.ka;`l ixialD;shlska meusKs fohls'tksid tu wd.ka;`l ixialD;sh flfrys we;s |=rjfndaOh" fkdie,ls,a, yd fkdms<s.kakd iqZMnj jeks iDKd;aul wdl,amj, n,mEu. 2. fuzjk jsg ffjosl ixialD;sh uq,a;ekf.k ;snsKs'tfiau Tjqka jsiska bka|=ksuzk jdiSkaj hgm;a lrf.k ;snsKs'tksid ish ixialD;sh bka|=kuzk ixialD;shg jvd Wiiah hk udkisl wdl,amhl ffjoslhka miqjSu. 3. ;ukag jvd my< ixialD;shl fjfikakkaf.a iuh ixl,am nqoaOs f.dapr fkdfj;ehs ffjoslhka ;`< ;snQ miq.duS m@;s ffjosl wdl,amh. 4. ;uka jsiska hgm;a lr.kakd,o ixialD;shl jQ ixialD;sl ,CIK yd wkHkH;d ,CIK ke;slr .ekSug fm<USu TzkEu wdl@uKsl ck;djlf.a ,CIKhlajSu. 5. ta hgm;a lrk,o ixialD;sfhys jQ iuh ixl,amhka flfrys iDcqju jsreoaO jSu fjkqjg Wmydid;aul f,i yd wjZ{d iy.; f,i ta foi ne,Sug ckhd fhduqlrjSu ksid ksrdhdifhkau iuh ixl,amhka hgm;ajSu. 6. bka|=ksuzk jeishkaf.a ‘us;@’ixl,amh ;ukaf.a iuh ixl,amhkg wEZod.kq ,enqfjz mQrAK wjfndaOhlska fyda ioaNdjhlska fkdjSu.
  23. 23. 23 7. bka|=ksuzk jeishkaf.a iuh ixl,amhka ;uka jsiskao ms<s.kq ,enSu ;`,ska ffjoslhka Wml@uYS,S f,i ;u iuh fj; wdlrAYKh lr.ekSfuz Wml@usl fpz;kdj u; l@shd lsrSu. 8. bka|= ksuzk YsIagdpdrh ffjoslhka jsiska w;am;a lr.kq ,enQfjz hqouh jYfhka Tjqka ,nd;snQ w;aoelSuz ksidh'tayer bka|= ksuzkjdiSkag muK YsIag ixialD;shla fyda oshqKq iNHFjhla ffjoslhkag fkd;snsK' 9. fj<odu yd wdl@uKYS,SFjh uZ.ska w;am;a lr.;a oshqKq YsIaGdpdrhl iNH;ajh wjfndaO lr.ekSug ;ruz jsfjzl nqoaOshla fyda Wjukdjla ffjoslhkag fkd;snSu'iEu jsgloSu ffjoslhskaf.a uQ,sl wfmalaIdj jQfha jdKsc wruqKls'fuz ksid wdOHd;ausl foa ms<snZo Tjqkaf.a Wkka|=j wju ugzgul mej;sK' 10. bka|= ksuzk YsIagdpdrh i;` ixialD;sl wkkH;dj ms<snZoj ffjoslhka i;` w,amud;@ oekqu ksid ta oshqKq YsIaGdpdrh i;` Wiia iNH;ajh yd uqiq jSug ffjoslhkag fkdyels jSu' 11. bka|= ksuzk jdiSka ;ukag jvd fkdoshqKq ixialD;sl ,CIK we;s ffjosl YsIagdpdrh iuZ. ksr;`re u;jdoSj yd odrAYkslj .efguska ffjoslhkag ish Wiia ixialD;sl ,CIK yd wkkH;dj ms<snZoj lreKq wjfndaO lrjSfuz m@cd;ka;@jdoS W;aiyhkaj, ksr;jSu ksid Ndr;h mqrdu odrAYksl jsma,j werUSu' 12. fu;a;d ixl,amh flaJ|@ lr .kakd ,o Ndr;Sh odrAYksl jsma,jfhys uQ,sl moku jQfha wjsysxidjdoS yd ysxidjdoS b.ekajSuzh' tksid tu odrAYksl jsma,jh m@lg jQfha jsjsO Ydia;Djre yd jsjsO wd.usl b.ekajSuz w;r mej;s idrOrAu jsma,jhla f,ihs' by; olajk lreKq ;`,ska fmfkkafka ‘us;@’ ixl,amh ffjosl ckhd ;`< t;ruz jHdma;j os.`l,la fkdmej;`kq njhs. miql,l oS n@dyauK iuzm@odh nsysjkafka ffjosl ixialD;sh miqnsuzfldg f.kh.55 b;d os.` l,la ffjosl ixialD;sfhka negluska hgm;aj tfy;a iuzmQrAKfhkau fkdkeiS mejf;uska wd bka|= ksuzk ixialD;sh miqnsuz fldg f.k miql,l oS Y@uK iuzm@odh nsys fjz'56 Y@uK iuzm@odh nsys jSu iZoyd uQ,slju mokuz jkqfha bkaoSh YsIaGdpdrfhys wdrAhd.ukh ksid hgm;aj .sh wkdrAh YsIaGdpdrh i;` m@d.a ft;sydisl ixialD;sl ,CIK nejska Y@uK iuzm@odfhys uQ,sl b.ekajSuz ilia jkqfha wdrAhh YsIaGdpdrh mokuz fldg nsys jQ n@dyauK b.ekajSuzys idrOu! jsfrdaOS iudch fj; n,y;aldrfhka mgjk ,o oroZvq wdlD;sluh ,CIKhkag jsreoaOj hk wdldrfhks'57 fuz fya;`j ksid n@dyauK b.ekajSuzys wka;rA.; whqla;s iy.; ysxidjdoS yd idrOu! jsfrdaOS ,CIKhka foi jspdr mQjlj l,amkd lr ne,Sug tod idudkH ck;djg
  24. 24. 24 wjia:djla ie,isks' ysxidj" ffjrh yd rgj,a wdl@uKh uZ.ska tod wdrAhhka n@dyauK b.ekajSuz uqZM uy;a Ndr;h mqrdu jHdma; lsrSug W;aiql jQ w;r tjeks l@shd uZ.ska oevs f,i mSvdjg m;a jQ idudkH ck;djg o tjeks foa j,g jsreoaOj l@shd lsrSfuz uy;a wjYH;djhla o ygf.k ;snsKs' ulaksid o h;a wdrAhhka fuka ysxidjdoS l@shdj, ksr; jSfuka fkdj wkHhka w;r us;@Fjh iyfhda.S;djh yd ifydaorFjh jrAOkh lsrSu uZ.ska ;Dma;su;a jkakg iajNdjfhka u bka|= ksuzk jdiSka yqre mqre|=luz ,enQ YsIaGdpdrhla jQ fyhsks'58 us;@ ixl,amfhys iuzmrAlh Igz Ydia;Djrekaf.a jsjsO b.ekajSuz jsIfhys Wmhqla; jQ wdldrh ms<snZoj lreKq wOHhkh lsrSu uZ.ska nq|=iuh my< jSug wdikak ld, jljdkqj ;`< tu ixl,amfhys jsldih .ek ukd wjfndaOhla ,ensh yels fjz' by; olajk ,o jsia;r wkqj us;@ ixl,amh nsysjQfha;a th mqZM,aj yeoS jevS fmdaIK jQfha;a Y@uK iuzm@odh nsysjSug miqnsuzjQ bka|= ksuzk ixialD;sh ;`< nejz ;yjqre jsKs.fuz wkqj us;@ ixl,amh Y@uK iuzm@odh i;` wkkH;dj m@lg lsrSfuz ,CIKhla f,io yZ|=kd.; yelsh.miq ld,hloS n@dyauK iuzm@odh wnsnjd .shdjQ mQrK liaim" ulaL,S f.daid," wcs; flailuzn," ml`Olpzpdhk" ixch fn,a,gzGsmq;a; yd ks.KaGkd:mq;a; hk Igz Ydia;Djre wh;ajQfhao Y@uK iuzm@odhghs.Igz Ydia;Djreka my<jSu tod ld,Sk iudc wjYH;djhla jQfhao n@dyauK iuzm@odh i;` wd.usl ixl,am ;`< nyd md,l mx;sh fj; ms<s.kajk ,o" uqZM uy;a iudch mSvkhg m;a lrjk" oroZvq iudc md,k Wml@u wka;rA.; b.ekajSuz j,ska Ndr;Sh iudch fyuzn;aj mej;s nejsks'59 Igz Ydia;Djrekaf.au wd.usl b.ekajSuz taldka; jYfhka n@dyauK iuzm@odfha uqZM uy;a iudch mSvkhg m;a lrjk" oroZvq iudc md,k Wml@u wka;rA.; b.ekajSuzj,g jsreoaOj bosrsm;a jQfha iudch oevs jevjiuz mx;s.; ffjrfhka yd ysxikfhka uqojd .ekSu ta Ydia;Djre ish,q fokdf.au wNsm@dh jQ ksidhs' iudch Wia my;a l`, mx;s jYfhka fnod mSvs; fldgia ;j|=rg;a mSvhg ,lalsrSug wkq.@y olajk b.ekajSuz j,g iDcq f,i tfrysjhEu ;u iuh ixl,am f,i yZ|=kajd fokakg Y@uK iuzm@odh ks;ru Wkka|= jsh' fuz ksid Y@uK iuzm@odfha we;euz b.ekajSuz jspdr mQrAjl f,i fyda tlaflda uqZMukskau wodk.@dyS f,i fyda iudcfha mej;s nuqKq iuzm@odhg tfrysj nsysjsh' tys uQ,sl woyi iudc ysxikhg tfrysjSu muKls' kuq|= fuys wdpdr jsoHd;aul fkd.e,mSuz jsoHudkh' funZ|= b.ekajSuzj, wNsm@dh nuqKkaf.a m@dK>d;l hd.h m@;slafIam lsrSuhs'nuqKka l`i,.duS m@;smodjla f,i yZ|=kajd fokq ,enQ m@dK>d;l hd.h idjoH jQjla nj ck;djg fmkajdfokq ,ensK' fuhg fya;`jQfha
  25. 25. 25 Y@uK iuzm@odh jsiska hd.h m@;slafIamlsrSu msKsi bosrsm;al< odrAYksl wdl,amhs'fun|= lreKq ksid hym;a fpz;kdjla Tiafia Y@uK iuzm@odh ;u wd.usl b.ekajSuz bosrsm;a l<nejz ms<s.ekSug is|= fjz' fuz hgf;a iDcqju fu;a;d hkqfjka jHjydr fkdjQjo iuzmQrAK jYfhka idrA:l fyda ffck iufhys fuka wrAO jYfhka idrA:l jHdhduhla fkdjQjo" fu;a;d hkafkys woyi .enzjk b.ekajSuz Y@uK iuzm@odh ;`< b;d nyq, jYfhka bosrsm;a lsrSug huzlsis wjxl mrsY@uhla ord we;snj fmfka. fu;a;d ixl,amfhka flfrkafkao ish,q wdldrfha ysxikhkag jsreoaO jSu nejsks' kuq;a wjdikdjlg ffck iuh yer fiiq Y@uK iuzm@odhhka uZ.ska bosrsm;a lrk ,o b.ekajSuz ksid iuia; Ndr;Sh iudch wdpdr jsoHd;aul mCIfhka oevs f,i mrsydksh lrd .uka l< nj;a tlS wvqmdvqj ksidu tu wvqmdvqluz |=re lsrSu msKsi nq|=iuh my< jQ nj;a fmfkkag ;sfnz' Igz Ydia;Djreka w;rska wka; fN#;sljdoS u;hla ork wcs; flailuzn,f.a b.ekajSuz wkqj fmfkkafka ish,qu wdldrfha l@shdjkaf.a m@;sM, fudyq jsiska m@;sfCIam lrk ,o njhs'60 tfukau ish oyfuz uQ,sl ixl,amh f,i wlsrshjdoh bosrsm;a lrk mQrK liaim ta b.ekajSuz uZ.ska fydZo krl jYfhka l@shdjka jsksYaph lsrSu m@;sfCIam lrk ,o nj fmfka'61 ;u uQ,sl b.ekajSu f,i ima;ldh jdoh bosrsm;a lrk ,o ml`O lpzpdhk ish b.ekajSuz uZ.ska fmkajd fokqfha Tyq lu!h yd lu! M,h fkdms<s.;a njhs'62 oevs ixYhjdoS odrAYksl ia:djrhla weiqre lsrSu ;u uQ,sl oyu f,i olajk ,o ixch fn,a,gzGs mq;a; ish b.ekajSuz uZ.ska ksYaps; l`i, m@;smodjla yZ|=kajd fkd|=ka nj fmfka'63 ksh; ix.;sjdoh ish uQ,sl oyu f,i fmkajd fokq ,enQ ulaL,S f.daid, jsiska wlsrshjdoh" wfya;`ljdoh yd ixidr Y`oaOsjdoh jeks wfya;`l wm@;Hjdohka ;yjqre l<d jskd fya;`M, jdoS wd.usl b.ekajSula bosrsm;a fkdl< nj Tyqf.a b.ekajSuz wkqj fmfka'64 fuu b.ekajSuz foi ne,sh hq;` jkafka yqfola wdpdr jsoHd;aul oDIags fldaKhg jvd ;;a hq.fhys m@p,s;j mej;s iduzm@odhsl wOsldrSjdoS wd.usl b.ekajSuz wrNhd fuu b.ekajSuz ljr wdldrhl n,mEula t,a, lf<ao hk lreK wkqjh' fuu b.ekajSuz wcs; flai luzn," mQrK liaim" ml`O lpzpdhk" ixch fn,a,gzGs mq;a; yd ulaL,S f.daid, hk Ydia;Djreka miafokd jsiska bosrsm;a lrkq ,enSfuz wruqK jQfha nuqKq wdOsm;Hfhka iudch uqojd .ekSuhs' ful, n@dyauK b.ekajsuz b;du;a ;on, f,i iudch fj,d me;sr mej;s hq.hla jS ;snsKs' b;d oevs wka;jdoS wd.usl ia:djrhla mej;s hq.hls'nuqqKka jsiska wd.usl b.ekajSuz f,i iudchg bosrsm;a lrk ,oafoa iudch mSvdjg m;a lrk ffjrh jmqrjk" ysxidj Wodlrjk" l`,fNaoh ;yjqre lrk" mx;sfNaoh we;s lrk"
  26. 26. 26 iudch oevs oroZvq wdlD;s.; ;;ajhlg yd wdjD; iajNdjhlg /f.k hkakd jQ lreKqh' Tjqka jsiska tfia ish wd.usl b.ekajSuzj, yevfhka bosrsm;a lrk ,oafoa udkj jsuqla;shg bjy<ajk pska;khla fkdfjz' iudc iuznkaO;d ms<snZoj jspdrmQrAjl jSug usksiqka yqre fjuska mej;s tu ld,jljdkqfjz ke;sjS hk ish wdOsm;Hh kej;;a iudch ;`< ;yjqre lr.ekSug wjYHjk u;jdo jHdma;sh msKsi nuqKka uy;a fjfyila .kq ,ensK'65 tu ksid tjka iudc wdrA:sl wd.usl foaYmd,k jd;djrKhla yuqfjz ld,Sk iudc wjYH;djhla jS ;snqfKao yels Wmrsu whqrska tu wka;jdoS ysxidjdoS n@dyauK b.ekajSuzj,g tfrysj l@shdlrkakd jQ b.ekajSula bosrsm;a lsrSu usi tuZ.ska iudcfhys wdpdr jsoHd;aul moku nsZo jefgk nj is; is;d l,auruska isgSu fkdfjz' fuz ksid iFj >d;kh wdoS fkdfhl`;a ysxil l@shd wkq.ukfhka mj;ajkq ,enQ hd.fhys yd hZ{fhys udrA.fhka jsuqla;sh Wodfj;ehs i,lkakg lshd|=ka nuqKq oyu ijoH jQjla nj;a" tys fydZo krl l`i, wl`i, mska mjz f,i fmkajd oS ;snQ lrKq idjoH nj ;rAldkqidrSj fmkajd oSu;a hq.fhys ld,Sk iudc wjYH;djh fia ie,lsks'66 ta uZ.ska wysxil ck;dj fj;" n@dyauK b.ekajSuz uZ.ska we;s lrkq ,enqjd jQ" nuqKq wdOsm;Hfhka ksoyia lr .ekSfuz hym;a fpz;kdj fmrgq lrf.k ;;a hq.fhys ish,qu Y@uK iuzm@odhhkays b.ekajSuz bosrsm;a jsKs' fuz wkqj fN#;sljdoh" wlsrshjdoh" ixYhjdoh jeks b.ekajSuz bosrsm;a jQfha o fulS wdl,amh fmroers lrf.kh' we;euz fofkl` fuu b.ekajSuzj, wka;rA.; wdpdr jsoHd;aul wufkdaZZ{nj fmkajd fokq ,nkafka tajd bosrsm;a lsrSfuz uQ,sl wruqK yd ;;a hq.fhys iuh miqnsu ksis f,i jgydfkdf.kh' t;ruz oekW.;aluz fkdue;s idudkH ck;dj fujeks b.ekajSuz idjoH wdldrhg .@yKh lr.ekSu ksid iudcfha we;s jshyels wdpdr jsoHd;aul nsZo jegSu flfrys muKlau wjOdkh fhduq lsrSu jspdrmQrAjlnjg fkd.e,fma'67 fuz w;r nq|=iuh yqfola n@dyauK b.ekajSuz j,g jsreoaO jSfuka muKla fkdkej;S wkq.ukh lsrSu iZoyd iq|=iq irAj iuzmQrAK jsuqla;sh Wod lr.ekSfuz wdpdr jsoHd;aul yd Z{dk uSudxil l@ufjzohla yZ|=kajd fokq ,enSh' fiiq Igz Ydia;Djreka w;rska wcs; flai luzn," ml`O lpzpdhk" mQrK liaim" ulaL,S f.daid," ixch fn,a,gzGs mq;a; hk Ydia;Djreka mia fokdf.a b.ekajSuz yqfola n@dyauK b.ekajSuz j,g jsreoaO jSu muKlau ish b.ekajSuzj, wruqK lr.ekSu ksid tajdfha wdpdrjsoHd;aul |=rAj,;d jsoHduk nj meyeos,sj fmfkkakg ;sfnz' 68 fu;a;d ixl,amh ffck Ou!h jsIfhys we;sl< n,mEu ms<snZoj wOHhkh lsrSu tys mYapd;a ld,Sk jsldih l`uk mokula u; ilia jsKs oehs f;areuz .ekSug jsYd,
  27. 27. 27 msgsjy,la fjz' Igz Ydia;Djre w;rska ks.KaGkd: mq;a; jsiska bosrsm;a lrk ,o b.ekajSuz ffck oyu nsys jSug WmldrS jsh'69 ffck oyfuz moku f,i ie,lsh yels mru wjsysxidjdoh uZ.ska o us;@ ixl,amhg ,efnkafka ukd msgsjy,ls' fuu wjsysxidj jkdyS cSjh iys; iEu fohlska u wE;a jsh hq;` hehs mjik YsCIK udrA.hhs' kuq;a nq|=iuhdkql~,j fuu YsCIK l@uh ksrjoH hehs mejish fkd yelafla b;du;a wka;.duS f,i w;a;ls,u:dkqfhda.hg .shd jQ l@ufjzohla fudjqka jsiska wkq.ukh l< nejsks' lsishuz cSjSka fldgilg ydks is|=fj;ehs hk nsfhka iuyr ffckfhda .uka lrk uZ. msioeuSu o" wdYajdi lrk jsg im@dKsl laIq|@ cSjSka weoS t;ehs hk nsh ksid .uka lrk jsg ysi yd uqyqKq wdjrKh fldg .ekSu o" c,h fmrd mdkh lsrSu o" uS meKs mjd m@;sfCIam lsrSu o lr;s' fudjqka jsiska wkq.ukh l< wjsysxidj wka;hgu .sh fohla nejska idudkHfhka wkq.ukh lsrSu b;du;a |=Ialrh'70 fuz |=IalrFjh uydNdr;fhys fufia olajd ;sfnz' weiska olskq ,ensh fkdyels jQ;a" ;rAlfhka wkqudk lrkq ,ensh fkdyels jQ;a" m@dKSkaf.ka f,dj msrS we;' wm weia msydgq fid,jk jsg Wkaf.a w;a md levS jefgz' hkqhs'71 Nd.j; mqrdKh olajkafka o fujeks woyils' tkuz m@dKh m@dKfhys m@dKh hehs olajhs'72 fuz iqZM i;Hh wu;l lr oeuQ jsg cSj;a jSu wmyiq jk ;ruzh' fld;kl fyda fjfik lsishuzu m@dKsfhl`yg ;uka w;ska b;du;a iqZM ysxidjla fyda is|=fj;ehs hk nsfhka ;ukaf.a wOHd;auhg mKjd .kakd ,o wd;au jOfhka yd wd;au ysxikfhka hqla;j l,ayerSug fujsg is|= fjz' wd;au ysxikh yd wd;au jOh .enzjk b.ekajSuz i,ld ne,Q l, ffck iuh mQrAK wjsxidjdoS b.ekajSulehs mejish fkdyelsh' ffck iuh;`< jsia;rjk fulS wd;au jO yd wd;au ysxik l@ufjzohka w;a;ls,u:dkqfhda.S m@;smodjka f,i nq|=iufhys fmkajd oS we;' ta w;r wkHhka jsIfhys wysxidjdoS jqj;a ;uka jsIfhys w;a;ls,u:dkqfhda.h f,i wd;au jOh yd ysxikh wkq.ukh l, hq;` jQ wd.usl m@;smodj f,i fmkajd oS we;s nejska ffck iuh ;`< we;af;a wfkla wdpdr jsoHd;aul wd.usl b.ekajSuzz ish,af,ysu wka;rA.; jkakdla fuka wrAO wysxidjdohla nj iuh iudc jsoHdj wkqj o fmkajd osh yelsh' fu;a;d ixl,amfhys iudc yd fm#oa.,sl Ndjs;dfjz Wmrsuh ms<sUsnq jkafka mQrAK wjsysxidjdoS mokul nejska tnZZ|= mokul isg ish wd.usl b.ekajSuz bosrsm;a lrkakd jQ ;@smsgld.; b.ekajSuz ;`< muKla tu ixl,amfhys WmrSu Wmfhda.s;d ,CIK jsoHudk jk nj fmkajd osh yelsh' fuz wkqj iuhdka;r miqnsu;`< nq+|=iufhys oelafjk b.ekajSuz;`< fu;a;d ixl,amfhys WmrSu ixjrAOkd;aul wjia:djka lrd <Z.d jsh yels ffcj idrOrAu ugzguz l@shd;aul jk nj meyeos,s fjz' idrOrAuhkays WmrSu ;,h yeujsgu fmd|= uy;a jsYajhgu fmd|= tald;ausl njla yd ffcj iqrCIs;;djhla mokuz lrf.k we;sjQjla jk fyhska fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdOHd;ausl yd iudc Wmfhda.S;dj
  28. 28. 28 jvd;a m@n, f,i nq|=iuh jsiska fuysoS jvd;a oevs f,i wjOdrKh lrkq ,nhs' fuz wkqj ;@smsgld.; iEu b.ekajSulskau mdfya iuia; ffcj m@cdj fj; f.k tk mKsjqvh jkqfha o fu;a;d ixl,amfhka m@uqos; ffcj ys;jdoS njuhs' isjzjkla msrsi w;rska .sys mejsos fomsrsigu fu;a;d ixl,amfhys .enzjk ffcj ys;jdoS ,CIK nq|=iufhka fmkajd oS we;s w;r mejsos Ndjfhys uQ,sl moku ilia jS we;af;ao fu;a;d ixl,amh fmroers lrf.k nejska nq|=iuh fiiq iuhjdohka blaujd .sh irAj iuzmQrAK wjsysxidjdoS b.ekajSula bosrsm;a lrkakd jQ oyula jQ nj fmkajd osh yelsh'

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