Selected Topics for e-
Learning Technologies
(Mobile Learning)
Timothy K. Shih
• Overview of Mobile Learning
• Related Researches
• Mobile Learning Researches in MINE.
Lab
• Novel equipments and termin...
What is mobile learning?
Mobile learning originally
referred to the use of laptop
computers, which freed learners
from the...
Who is the buyer? 2006~2011 US
Market for Mobile Learning Products
and Services by Customer Segment
What are They Buying? Three Types of
Mobile Learning Products and Services
Next-generation Learning Technology
Trends: Mobile Learning Expands Reach
of Learning Technology
Judy Brown
• Judy was the Founder and Director of the Academic
Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Co-Lab in
partnership w...
Challenges
• Cost and Compatibility
– Cost
• Managing learning through intermittent connection
• Dial-up access to a netwo...
Challenges
• Device-independent delivery
– M-Learning solution must work for a broad
range of devices, not only for one se...
Related Research Issues
Related Research Issues
• Develop a mobile learning system applied to
specific domain.
– Tour guide in museum
– Outdoor le...
The MObile-Based Interactive Learning
Environment (MOBILE) and A Case Study for
Assisting Elementary School English Learni...
A Mobile Butterfly-Watching Learning System
for Supporting Independent Learning
• The features of these systems
– Contents had been stored at mobile devices in
advance
• Museum Guide
• Designed for spec...
Pocket SCORM
Pocket SCORM
• The system received the 2005 Brandon
Hall Excellence in Learning Awards.
• The customized version of pocket...
Our e-learning Web
Services
Context Awareness and Adaptation
Strategies Used in Mobile Learning
Environment
• Context Awareness and Adaptation in Mobi...
Select
Request
&
Response
Request
&
Response
Request
&
Response
Request
&
Response
XML XSL
CC/PP
For Note
Book
CC/PP
For
T...
Personalized Metadata
Teacher’s personalized metadata
Basic metadata
Student’s personalized metadata
Mobile learning with a mobile game: design
and motivational effects
• Design of the MobileGame prototype, exploring
the op...
Interface
• Mobile game system
– Position information.
• Indoor: Ekahau positioning engine
• Outdoor: GPS (inaccurate)
• M...
Conclusion
• Technical design issues for the MobileGame
prototype
– Accuracy of positioning
– Play on the move
– Offline a...
Mad City Murder: Augmented Reality
Scientific Role Play Environments
Key Findings
• Learners more enthusiastic about
learning
• 80% felt mobile learning games could
help reading or spelling; ...
Mobile Learning today and in
the future
1. Mobile Learning is able to support new
trends in workplace learning.
2. New, ub...
• Jane Knight
– Proposed the concept of Mobile Learning 2.0
– The founder of the e-Learning Centre
– Head of Research Serv...
Mobile Learning 2.0
Mobile Learning is taking on board and
complementing the concepts of Web 2.0 which
have led to the eme...
Mobile Learning 2.0
E-Learning 2.0 Mobile Learning 2.0
blogs
RSS
wikis
social applications
moblogs and vlogs
podcasts (aud...
Ubiquitous devices
• Most successful
devices are those
already being
significantly used
– Mobile phones
• moblogging and
v...
Moblogging and Vblogging
• A Video blog, sometimes shortened to vblog,
is a blog that comprises video
• Moblog is a blend ...
Moblog and vblog
Podcast
• A podcast is a digital media file, or a series of
such files, that is distributed over the Internet
using syndic...
Podcast
• Podcast is a collection of files (usually audio and video)
residing at a unique web feed address. People can
"su...
New podcasting
terminology
• Podogogy = “pedagogical podcasting”
• Learncasting
• Coursecasting
– audio lectures
– video l...
Various Devices
Readius
Phillips
Nintendo’s DS and Sony’s
PSP
Add on Devices
Quick Response (QR) Code
Benefits to Business
• Effective for "just in time" education through a
capability called "profiled notification.“
– Infor...
Let’s Discuss
• How could learning change?
– What if I had immediate access to
communicate or search?
– What if I could sp...
Operating Systems
• Palm OS
– fits in devices with less memory
– runs faster
– most users say it is easier to use
• Pocket...
Resources
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
• http://www.judybrown.com/
• http://mobileresources.html
• http://www.mlearnope...
• Mobile Learning
Researches in MINE. lab
An Adaptive Caching Strategy for m-
Learning Based on SCORM Sequencing
and Navigation
• Main problems
– impermanent networ...
Introduction
• Predict the required contents and
download the contents in advance
• How to predict the incoming learning
r...
Caching System Architecture
• Two Components of Caching Strategy
– Download Management Model
• On the Server Side
• Predic...
Download Algorithm
Replacement Algorithm
ReplacementManagementModel
Launch Caching Strategy
Predict Learning Order
Create Drop Order
Get Resp...
Photoshop_None
Total Waiting Time (seconds) Internet Reconnection Frequency (times)
Photoshop_KnowledgePaced
Total Waiting Time (seconds) Internet Reconnection Frequency (times)
A Custom Course
Total Waiting Time (seconds) Internet Reconnection Frequency (times)
An authoring tool for mobile
learning content using Web 2.0
technology
Hsuan Pu Chang
Motivation
• There are a lot of learning contents have been designed for
regular PCs.
• The restriction of small screen of...
Goal
• The Main Goals
– Develop an authoring tool which can
• Easily adapt the existent learning contents for
user‟s speci...
Related Studies
• Two automatic techniques of adaptation
policy
– Rule-based adaptation
– Constraint-based adaptation
Select
Request
&
Response
Request
&
Response
Request
&
Response
Request
&
Response
XML XSL
CC/PP
For Note
Book
CC/PP
For
T...
Context-Aware Interactive Content
Adaptation
• User takes the control of the adaptation
process
• Make changes until the c...
LMS
Regular Contents
Regular Contents
Repository
Instructor
SCORM
Compliant
Course
Authoring
Tool
Learner Learner Learner
...
• Questions
– If the adaptation is not proper?
– Is it possible to find a method to adapt all kinds
of learning subjects o...
LMS
Regular Contents
Repository
Instructor
Regular
Contents
Authoring
Tool
Learner
Learner
Learner
Adapt Contents by
autho...
Benefits
• Offer the better performance during the
learning process
• Authors can preview the content adaptation
result an...
The new authoring tool
• Web-based authoring tool
– Accomplish the editing process only with Internet
browser
– No more in...
• Template of presentation style
– Multi-version adaptation
• Pocket PC present template
• Smartphone present template
– W...
Pocket PC presentation style button
Image Resolution
Simplified Presentation
Style
Unsupported file type Sudden Information Density
Pocket PC Smartphone
Text Text/Audio Text/Audio
Image Image (resolution) Image (resolution)
Video Video, Image,
Audio
(res...
Summary
13 selected topics for e-learning technologies (ml).pptx
13 selected topics for e-learning technologies (ml).pptx
13 selected topics for e-learning technologies (ml).pptx
13 selected topics for e-learning technologies (ml).pptx
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13 selected topics for e-learning technologies (ml).pptx

  1. 1. Selected Topics for e- Learning Technologies (Mobile Learning) Timothy K. Shih
  2. 2. • Overview of Mobile Learning • Related Researches • Mobile Learning Researches in MINE. Lab • Novel equipments and terminologies – Hardware – Mobile Learning 2.0 • Discussion
  3. 3. What is mobile learning? Mobile learning originally referred to the use of laptop computers, which freed learners from the desktop Mobile phones opened up the concept of wireless learning (via GPRS and GSM) “Learning has moved from the classroom onto your desktop and into your pocket” Always on Always on you Independent of time and space Pocket PCs and other devices used for learning purposes led to the term handheld learning GSM/ GPRS WifFi
  4. 4. Who is the buyer? 2006~2011 US Market for Mobile Learning Products and Services by Customer Segment
  5. 5. What are They Buying? Three Types of Mobile Learning Products and Services
  6. 6. Next-generation Learning Technology Trends: Mobile Learning Expands Reach of Learning Technology
  7. 7. Judy Brown • Judy was the Founder and Director of the Academic Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Co-Lab in partnership with the Department of Defense • She was named one of the Top 100 women in computing by McGraw Hill's Open Computing magazine (December 1994) http://www.judybrown.com
  8. 8. Challenges • Cost and Compatibility – Cost • Managing learning through intermittent connection • Dial-up access to a network, small screens, slow processing and limited storage capabilities • The application must be able to link to a Learning Management System • Learners need to access all materials and exchange information that is independent of system preferences • If the Web connection is broken, any information will be lost until connectivity is restored – Compatibility • Platform-specific solution – SCORM – Be able to run any compliant content on any compliant system
  9. 9. Challenges • Device-independent delivery – M-Learning solution must work for a broad range of devices, not only for one set – Broad range of devices precludes specific solutions – One of the typical solutions: • Broaden the capabilities and flexibility of web browsers that separate the content from the format
  10. 10. Related Research Issues
  11. 11. Related Research Issues • Develop a mobile learning system applied to specific domain. – Tour guide in museum – Outdoor learning activities (bird watching) • Ubiquitous Learning – Utilize the context awareness and adaptation strategies to make mobile learning environments more available • Game Learning with mobile devices • Related concepts and applications – M-Learning 2.0
  12. 12. The MObile-Based Interactive Learning Environment (MOBILE) and A Case Study for Assisting Elementary School English Learning
  13. 13. A Mobile Butterfly-Watching Learning System for Supporting Independent Learning
  14. 14. • The features of these systems – Contents had been stored at mobile devices in advance • Museum Guide • Designed for specific areas and users. – Good performance and acceptable results – Ignore the potential problems • Network connection • Storage capability
  15. 15. Pocket SCORM
  16. 16. Pocket SCORM • The system received the 2005 Brandon Hall Excellence in Learning Awards. • The customized version of pocket SCORM has been adopted by a domestic airways (TransAsia) to perform pilot training and aircraft security routines.
  17. 17. Our e-learning Web Services
  18. 18. Context Awareness and Adaptation Strategies Used in Mobile Learning Environment • Context Awareness and Adaptation in Mobile Learning – Sense mobile environment and reacts to change context during learning process – A definition of learning context • Any information that can be used to characterize the situation of learning entities that are considered relevant to the interactions between a learner and an application. – Six dimensions • Identity dimension • Spatio-temporal dimension • Facility dimension • Activity dimension • Learner dimension • Community dimension
  19. 19. Select Request & Response Request & Response Request & Response Request & Response XML XSL CC/PP For Note Book CC/PP For Tablet CC/PP For PDA CC/PP For Mobile Phone Search Generate
  20. 20. Personalized Metadata Teacher’s personalized metadata Basic metadata Student’s personalized metadata
  21. 21. Mobile learning with a mobile game: design and motivational effects • Design of the MobileGame prototype, exploring the opportunities to support learning through an orientation game in a university setting. • Mobile learning Scenario – Used to support the orientation days at a university – Significant place tasks • Library, laboratories – Significant people tasks • Interview with important people – Significant event tasks • Events can scheduled or come as surprise
  22. 22. Interface • Mobile game system – Position information. • Indoor: Ekahau positioning engine • Outdoor: GPS (inaccurate) • Major interface versions 2004 spring (second version) 2004 summer (third version)
  23. 23. Conclusion • Technical design issues for the MobileGame prototype – Accuracy of positioning – Play on the move – Offline areas and response time – Interface Design • Conclusions and outlook – Serious limitations • Mobile user interface • Accuracy of positioning systems • Accompanying content have not yet been carefully designed – Users still liked the gaming features best.
  24. 24. Mad City Murder: Augmented Reality Scientific Role Play Environments
  25. 25. Key Findings • Learners more enthusiastic about learning • 80% felt mobile learning games could help reading or spelling; 78% felt could improve math • An iterative approach to development is best, and developing learning materials specifically for mobile is better than re- using materials developed for delivery to a regular PC
  26. 26. Mobile Learning today and in the future 1. Mobile Learning is able to support new trends in workplace learning. 2. New, ubiquitous and more functional mobile devices are helping to make mobile learning more successful 3. Mobile Learning embraces the concepts of Web 2.0, which are already changing e-learning.
  27. 27. • Jane Knight – Proposed the concept of Mobile Learning 2.0 – The founder of the e-Learning Centre – Head of Research Services, Organisational Learning Technologies, at Learning Light • Learning Light – Non-profit organisation that builds relationships between learning technology researchers, suppliers, buyers and learners providing learner-centric information to encourage the growth of learning technologies
  28. 28. Mobile Learning 2.0 Mobile Learning is taking on board and complementing the concepts of Web 2.0 which have led to the emergence of E-Learning 2.0 and … Mobile Learning 2.0 Web 1.0 Web 2.0 content content content sharing (content) collaboration syndication tagging
  29. 29. Mobile Learning 2.0 E-Learning 2.0 Mobile Learning 2.0 blogs RSS wikis social applications moblogs and vlogs podcasts (audio blogs) RSS collaborative learning
  30. 30. Ubiquitous devices • Most successful devices are those already being significantly used – Mobile phones • moblogging and vlogging – iPods/MP3 players • podcasting
  31. 31. Moblogging and Vblogging • A Video blog, sometimes shortened to vblog, is a blog that comprises video • Moblog is a blend of the words mobile and weblog – Consists of content posted to the Internet from a mobile or portable device, such as a cellular phone or PDA • Moblogs generally involve technology which allows publishing from a mobile device
  32. 32. Moblog and vblog
  33. 33. Podcast • A podcast is a digital media file, or a series of such files, that is distributed over the Internet using syndication feeds for playback on portable media players and personal computers • A specific type of webcast which, like 'radio„ • The term "podcast" is a portmanteau of the name of Apple's portable music player, the iPod, and broadcast; a "pod" refers to a container of some sort, and "cast" to the idea of broadcasting http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Podcasting
  34. 34. Podcast • Podcast is a collection of files (usually audio and video) residing at a unique web feed address. People can "subscribe" to this feed by submitting the feed address to an aggregator (like itunes). When new "episodes" become available in the podcast they will be automatically downloaded to that users computer • Podcasting is an automatic mechanism whereby multimedia computer files are transferred from a server to a client, which pulls down XML files containing the Internet addresses of the media files. In general, these files contain audio (MP3) or video, but also could be images, text, PDF, or any file type. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Podcasting
  35. 35. New podcasting terminology • Podogogy = “pedagogical podcasting” • Learncasting • Coursecasting – audio lectures – video lectures (audio + PowerPoint slides)
  36. 36. Various Devices
  37. 37. Readius Phillips
  38. 38. Nintendo’s DS and Sony’s PSP
  39. 39. Add on Devices
  40. 40. Quick Response (QR) Code
  41. 41. Benefits to Business • Effective for "just in time" education through a capability called "profiled notification.“ – Information is pushed to the person who needs it, when they need it, based on a user-created profile. • More than 50% of workers have jobs that take them away from a physical office. • Training can benefit from a shift away from classroom training to instruction provided at the job site – uses a handheld device that can act as a reference manual and performance job aid & as a communication device, calculator, data recorder, and position locator. • Throw in information tagged to object via RFID and it is easy to see how work performance can be enhanced.
  42. 42. Let’s Discuss • How could learning change? – What if I had immediate access to communicate or search? – What if I could speak to my device? – What if my location were known? – What if my device knew my interests and expertise?
  43. 43. Operating Systems • Palm OS – fits in devices with less memory – runs faster – most users say it is easier to use • PocketPC (formerly called Windows CE, Microsoft) – easily supports colour displays, graphics – miniaturized Windows packages (Word, Excel), even PowerPoint nowadays – takes up more memory and is slower – users say it is more complicated – The newest PocketPC version customized by Windows CE is “Mobile 6” • The Symbian OS – major system in European markets – offers better communications capabilities – mostly customized for phone-like platforms
  44. 44. Resources • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ • http://www.judybrown.com/ • http://mobileresources.html • http://www.mlearnopedia.com • http://mobilelearn.pbwiki.com • http://www.learninglight.com
  45. 45. • Mobile Learning Researches in MINE. lab
  46. 46. An Adaptive Caching Strategy for m- Learning Based on SCORM Sequencing and Navigation • Main problems – impermanent network environment – weak computing power and very limited network bandwidth
  47. 47. Introduction • Predict the required contents and download the contents in advance • How to predict the incoming learning resources precisely – SCORM Sequencing and Navigation – Specific devices • COD (caching on dish) mode • VMM (virtual memory management) mode – Learning record
  48. 48. Caching System Architecture • Two Components of Caching Strategy – Download Management Model • On the Server Side • Predict Data for Downloading – Replacement Management Model • On the Client Side • Predict Data for Dropping
  49. 49. Download Algorithm
  50. 50. Replacement Algorithm ReplacementManagementModel Launch Caching Strategy Predict Learning Order Create Drop Order Get Response Drop Cluster(s) Factors for Predicting Download Order Request Download Remove Unnecessary Order Download Cluster(s) Cluster(s) Download Management Model
  51. 51. Photoshop_None Total Waiting Time (seconds) Internet Reconnection Frequency (times)
  52. 52. Photoshop_KnowledgePaced Total Waiting Time (seconds) Internet Reconnection Frequency (times)
  53. 53. A Custom Course Total Waiting Time (seconds) Internet Reconnection Frequency (times)
  54. 54. An authoring tool for mobile learning content using Web 2.0 technology Hsuan Pu Chang
  55. 55. Motivation • There are a lot of learning contents have been designed for regular PCs. • The restriction of small screen of mobile learning platforms has always influenced the user‟s learning will and learning effect • The researches of overcoming the insufficient browsing and Interactions on handheld devices have been studied for years – Simplify the content presentation style • Transform the content according to the predefined and specific rules • Utilize the spatial and temporal features to reorganized the content presentation – Modify the interactive operations • Add the number of hyperlinks to reduce the complexity of content‟s presentation but increase the depth of content‟s structure – Most of studies focus on content adaptation for usual Internet web pages such as Yahoo rather than learning or educational relevant contents
  56. 56. Goal • The Main Goals – Develop an authoring tool which can • Easily adapt the existent learning contents for user‟s specific handheld devices – Abundant and exceptional learning contents have been designed and published for regular PCs. • Assist authors to produce a new mobile learning material – Quizzes – Knowledge Tips – Information Announcement
  57. 57. Related Studies • Two automatic techniques of adaptation policy – Rule-based adaptation – Constraint-based adaptation
  58. 58. Select Request & Response Request & Response Request & Response Request & Response XML XSL CC/PP For Note Book CC/PP For Tablet CC/PP For PDA CC/PP For Mobile Phone Search Generate
  59. 59. Context-Aware Interactive Content Adaptation • User takes the control of the adaptation process • Make changes until the content is suitably adapted for user‟s purposes. • Leverage user interaction (to correct the adaptation) to learning how to adapt the content based on the user‟s usage semantics • Allow users to adjust the present object until the requirements are satisfied
  60. 60. LMS Regular Contents Regular Contents Repository Instructor SCORM Compliant Course Authoring Tool Learner Learner Learner Adapt Contents Regular Contents Corresponding Content Version Corresponding Content Version Adapt Contents Adapt Contents Pocket SCORM
  61. 61. • Questions – If the adaptation is not proper? – Is it possible to find a method to adapt all kinds of learning subjects or learning contents? – How to preserve the educational essence of the original learning contents after the modification by an individual user or adaptation implemented according to a specific algorithm.
  62. 62. LMS Regular Contents Repository Instructor Regular Contents Authoring Tool Learner Learner Learner Adapt Contents by authors themselves Adaptation Information Regular Contents Adaptation Information Distribute Corresponding Contents Distribute Corresponding Contents Regular Contents Adaptation Information Corresponding Content Version Corresponding Content Version
  63. 63. Benefits • Offer the better performance during the learning process • Authors can preview the content adaptation result and decide whether the adapted contents could be published or not • Allow professional educators ensure the quality of the adapted contents instead of totally adapting all kinds of contents according to the same algorithm proposed by a computer engineer.
  64. 64. The new authoring tool • Web-based authoring tool – Accomplish the editing process only with Internet browser – No more installation requirements – With Web 2.0 technology • How to reduce the overload of reproducing the required contents for mobile learning version • Provide the semi-automatic transforming function
  65. 65. • Template of presentation style – Multi-version adaptation • Pocket PC present template • Smartphone present template – With one click to create the prior adaptation result – Manually modify parameters of the template – System can learn the author‟s editing preference according to the user‟s adjustment of template parameters and provide the more appropriate templates for other teachers.
  66. 66. Pocket PC presentation style button
  67. 67. Image Resolution Simplified Presentation Style Unsupported file type Sudden Information Density
  68. 68. Pocket PC Smartphone Text Text/Audio Text/Audio Image Image (resolution) Image (resolution) Video Video, Image, Audio (resolution/frame rate) Video, Image, Audio (resolution/frame rate) Flash Flash, Video, Image, Audio Video, Image, Audio
  69. 69. Summary

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