01 overview of distance learning technologies


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01 overview of distance learning technologies

  1. 1. Overview of Distance Learning Technologies Timothy K. Shih
  2. 2. Outline • History of Technology for Learning • The Rise of a Web-Based Learning Industry • E-Learning Defined and its Benefits • The Big Picture of e-Learning • Distance Learning Technologies – Asynchronized/Synchronized Distance Learning – Software Systems – Standards – Intelligent Tutoring – Adaptive Testing/Assessment – Mobile Learning – Game-Based Learning, Virtual Reality – Human-Computer Interaction – Digital TV, Interactive TV
  3. 3. Historical Changes • Printing press (1436) – Mass duplication and distribution of information – Eventually lead to schooling • Telegraph, telephone, radio, film – mid-1800s and early 1900s • Television + Satellite – Just 40 years later (i.e., 196x) – Global village • Today, Web represent the latest restructuring technology Original: C. T. Chang
  4. 4. History of Technology for Learning • In 1922, Thomas Edison predicted that the motion picture would replace textbooks (and perhaps teachers). • Film was the first true modern learning technology – Used in World War II for military training – U.S. military is regarded as a pioneering and leading organization in e-learning
  5. 5. History of Technology for Learning • The military partnered with leading universities • Bring in behavioral and cognitive psychology • Teaching machines, programmed text • Commercial educational film • It was television that really got educators excited – Learning off the tube – Sesame street
  6. 6. History of Technology for Learning • However, educational television did not bring about a learning utopia. Why? – Technology was easier to justify then the programming. No money, no staff to create the program. – We really didn't know how to make instructional television • Most students found instructional “show” too boring to watch. • Most programs were devoid of instructional design, and teachers didn't know how to integrate the learning into the classroom activities. – The main reason – it lacked the very essential quality of teaching: the ability to interact with the learner, provide feedback, and alter the presentation to meet the learner’s need.
  7. 7. History of Technology for Learning • In the seventies and eighties – Computer-based training (CBT) • interactivity – Problems • Differences in hardware, software, programming languages, and other technical barriers, incompatibilities, lack of standards • Many of the programs were boring and unauthentic. • Rapidly changing knowledge base • The limitations and problems associated with computer technology as well as a lack of awareness of current instructional design approaches
  8. 8. History of Technology for Learning • Learning technologies have gone through repeated “cycles of failure.” – Film、television、CBT – Will Internet break the cycles of failure? – It might, only if we are careful about how we view and use the Web.
  9. 9. The Rise of a Web-Based Learning Industry • Traditional university that offers online curricula – Penn State Univ. – Florida State Univ. – Univ. of Maryland
  10. 10. E-Learning Industry • For-profit University – University of Phoenix – Jones International University – Walden University
  11. 11. E-Learning Industry • Dotcom e-learning companies – Eduprise – Blackboard+WebCT – Knowledge Planet – DigitalThink
  12. 12. E-Learning Industry • Learning Portals – Click2learn – Ehow – Headlight – Smartforce – learnitonline
  13. 13. E-learning Industry • Three keys to e-learning market segments – Content – Technology – Services • Businesses are adding learning to their web sites to provide more value for their customers and to create increased site loyalty. Examples: Kodak, Dow Jones, etc.
  14. 14. Summary of History • 1922: Thomas Edison predicted that the motion picture would replace textbook • W.W.II: Army training film (efficiency was the consideration) • After W.W.II: Television/Video Tape for Learning, but no interaction • 70’s and 80’s: Computer Based Training (CBT) increases interactivity (limited to the drill and practice strategies). Stability is the concern to build CBT programs due to the rapid change of hardware and O.S. • 80’s: Satellite TV learning • Early 90’s: Multimedia presentations, CD ROM titles (CAI), Internet • Mid 90’s: Intelligent/individualized tutoring, WWW • Late 90’s: Distance Learning/Virtual University • The New Millennium and the Beyond: synchronized distance learning, mobile learning, virtual university, adaptive content development, remote lab, computer aided assessment, and …
  15. 15. What We Have Learned from the History • Efficiency – Trains a large number of students in a short period – Example: army training film • Stability – The change of technology and subjects (hot subjects, new technologies, software and hardware systems) • Suitable for subjects that are not changed for a longer period of time • Example: English grammar, mathematics • Time consuming to develop contents • Lack of Interactions • Three Players: Students, Instructors, Computers (Contents)
  16. 16. What We Can Improve • Efficiency and Flexibility: Global Internet, Instant Content • Stability: Reusable courseware (i.e. SCORM) • Interaction: Real-time communication • And More … – Any time and anywhere: Convenience and Flexibility of VoD or LoD – Lower cost for students: less travel expense and less travel time – Content is more timely: Efficiency, Precision • Large number of students: Scalability • Business opportunity: knowledge is for sale • Builds virtual community: make friends, E-Commerce
  17. 17. E-Learning Defined • E-learning refers to the use of Internet technologies to deliver a broad array of solutions that enhance knowledge and performance. Source: C. T. Chang As one of the many definitions
  18. 18. E-Learning Defined • 1. E-Learning is networked, which makes it capable of instant updating, storage/retrieval, distribution and sharing of instruction or information. – CD-ROM(DVD) lack the networkability, so they should not be classified as e-learning.
  19. 19. E-Learning Defined • 2. It is delivered to the end-user via a computer using standard Internet technology. – The definition of just what is a computer is constantly changing. • WebTV、cell phone、PDA、PalmPilot – Key characteristic is the use of standard internet technologies, such as TCP/IP and Browsers that create a universal delivery platform.
  20. 20. E-Learning Defined • 3. It focuses on the broadest view of learning – learning solutions that go beyond the traditional paradigms of training . – The delivery of information – Tools that improve performance • E-learning is a form of distance learning, but distance learning is not necessarily e-learning. – e-learning distance learning – E.g., traditional open university may not use e- learning, but use distance learning
  21. 21. Benefits of E-Learning • 1. E-learning lowers cost • 2. E-learning enhances business responsiveness • 3. Messages are consistent or customized, depending on need • 4. Content is more timely and dependable • 5. Learning is 24/7 • 6. No user “ramp-up” time
  22. 22. Benefits of E-Learning • 7. Universality • 8. Builds community • 9. Scalability • 10. Leverages the corporate investment in the web • 11. Provides an increasingly valuable customer service
  23. 23. The Big Picture Elements of Distance Education Policy People Technology • Criteria for Diploma or Degree • Standard (e.g., SCORM) • Intellectual Property (IP) • Classification of Virtual Universities • People/Sociological Considerations • Educational Professional • Administrator • Engineer • Artiste • Student/Customer • Internet/Internet II • WWW • Educational Theory • Intelligent Methods • Software Engineering
  24. 24. Policies for Distance Education • Approval and Trusty • Evaluation Standard of Distance Education Programs • Courseware/Platform Standard • Intellectual Property and Legal Issues • Internet Propriety and Culture of Virtual Society
  25. 25. Human Issues of Distance Education • Motivation of Students • Drop/Sustentation Rate • Instructor load in e-mail Q and A • Instructor load in content development • Instructor Suffering in Video Recording • The threat from “the big professor” and “the super university” • Awareness from others at a regular interval • Tutor and Mentor • Sociological Behavior of Students
  26. 26. Technology Needs of Distance Education • Broadband and real-time communication • Efficient courseware development tools • Unbiased exam and student assessment • FAQ summarization and auto reply • Intelligent tutoring • Universal and mobile accessibility • Computer-assisted lab and simulation • Scalability • Effective & efficient administration system
  27. 27. Questions in DL Panel Discussions • 18 questions • List of Answers from International Researchers – [Shih]: Timothy K. Shih, Tamkang University, Taiwan – [Dow]: Chyi-Ren Dow, Feng Chia University, Taiwan – [Li]: Sheng-Tun Li, National Kaohsiung 1st U. of Sci. and Tech., Taiwan – [Lin]: Fuhua Oscar Lin, Athabasca University, Canada – [CYS]: Yam San Chee, National University of Singapore, Singapore – [Jin]: Qun Jin, Waseda University, Japan – [Jung]: Insung Jung, Ewha Women's University, Korea – [David]: David Asirvatham, Multimedia University, Malaysia – [Leong]: Hong Va Leong, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong – [Sala]: Nicoletta Sala, University of Italian Switzerland, Switzerland – [Antoni]: Gianni Degli Antoni Institute for Educational Technology, Italy – [Arndt]:Timothy Arndt, Cleveland State University, USA
  28. 28. Policy Issues • What levels of distance programs are realistic (e.g., colleague education vs. elementary education)? – College level is suitable [Shih, Li, Lin, CYS, Jin, David, Leong, Arndt] – K-12 [Shih, Jin, Arndt] – Adults and job training [Jin] • Is the classification of virtual universities (i.e., university ranking for different purposes) necessary? – Virtual universities may have different missions and focuses [Shih, Li, CYS, Jin, David, Leong, Arndt] • What about the intellectual property of the course material? Should the copyright belong to the instructor, or to the university (and for how long)? – Belong to the instructor, but commercial profit should be shared with the university [Dow, David] – Belong to the university [Li, Lin] – To be decided by different government and institutes [CYS, Jin, Arndt]
  29. 29. Policy Issues (Continue) • Does student need grade in a virtual university? – Need grade to gain a trust from the society [Shih, Lin, CYS, David, Leong] – Need grade to enforce and encourage students [Dow, Li, David] – Grade can be used as a feedback from students [Dow] – May not need grade (let the society to make the justification) [Shih, CYS, Jin, Leong] – Virtual university should support both graded and non-graded (audit) options [Arndt] • Does the industrial society trust the quality of distance education? – The reputation of a virtual university may depend on its founding university (a traditional university) [Shih, Jin, David, Leong] – Good quality of service and contents will gain trust [Dow, Li, Lin, Jin]
  30. 30. Human and Sociological Issues • Will the sociological behavior of students be different in virtual university? – Students can still make some virtual friends [Shih, Dow, Li, Lin, Jin] – Sociological behavior could be different [CYS, David] – Easy to find a friend, but hard to gain trust [Jin, Leong] – Face-to-face interaction in the beginning will facilitate further discussion [Arndt] • Do traditional and virtual university students behave differently in different culture? – Sending e-mail for question is common everywhere [Shih, Jin, Arndt] – Distance education may benefit oriental students in off-line discussions [Li, Dow, David, Leong]
  31. 31. Human and Sociological Issues (Continue) • Can students learn from each other? Is group discussion less efficient in distance education? – Student can learn from each other if better communication facility is provided [Shih, CYS, Jin, David, Leong] – Discussion using chat room tools will be efficient as well and discussion should be a requirement [Dow, Li, David, Leong, Arndt] – Communication techniques should be considered (i.e., human to human and human to computer interactions) [Jin] – Conflicts with different view points in an off-line discussion may be higher than those proceeded on-line or face-to-face [Leong] • Will there be a threat from “the big professor” and “the super university”? – Yes [Shih, Dow, Li, CYS, Jin, David, Leong] – Yes, but still need a large number of instructors for on-line tutoring to fit individual needs [Leong, Arndt]
  32. 32. Distance Learning Technologies • Asynchronized/Synchronized Distance Learning • Software Systems • Standards • Intelligent Tutoring • Adaptive Testing/Assessment • Mobile Learning • Game-Based Learning, Virtual Reality • Human-Computer Interaction • Digital TV, Interactive TV
  33. 33. Same time (synchronous) Different time (asynchronous) Same place Interpersonal  Tutorial  Informal discussion Group  Lecture/Seminar  Laboratory  Group/Project work  Information Discussion Interpersonal  Library  Interactive video  CD-ROM Group  TV (broadcast/cable) Different place Interpersonal  Telephone  Internet phone systems(e.g.:Nettalk,Net2Phone)  Talk (real-time interactive text with another user) Group  Teleconference  Audio conference  Video-conference  Chat (system used for live discussion: some system involve multimedia)  MUs (variants: MUD, MUCK, MUSH,MOO-real-time interaction system, usually text, used for social role-playing, gaming) Interpersonal  Printed material (book, letter, memo, fax. Etc.)  Videotape/audiotape  Answering machine / voice mail  Email (allows a user to send messages to another user)  Computer program Group  Mailing list expander, such as LISTSERV (mailing- list program for group communication)  USENET (asynchronous text discussion on many topics separated into newsgroup)  Groupware (collaboration system which includes shared libraries, dialogue, text, graphics spaces, etc.)  WWW (universe of HTTP servers that allow text, graphics, sound files, etc. to be mixed together) A Taxonomy of Communication Tools
  34. 34. Instruction Delivery Approaches • Synchronous versus Asynchronous • Interactions in E-Learning – Leaner-Content Interaction (e.g., Web-based content) – Leaner-Instructor/Learner Interaction (e.g., MSN, Skype, Chat room) – Leaner-Intelligent Agent Interaction (e.g., Intelligent tutoring) • Current Approaches of Content Delivery – Web-based course content (asynchronous, no interaction) – E-mail Q and A (asynchronous, low interaction) – Internet telephony (synchronous, high interaction) – White board and chat room (synchronous, high interaction) – Video-on-demand (asynchronous, no interaction) – Video conferencing/virtual classroom (synchronous, high interaction) – Virtual Reality-based classroom (synchronous, highest awareness) – In-class lecture (synchronous, highest awareness) – Or, combination of the above
  35. 35. • Traditional University vs. Distance Education • A hypothetical hybrid distance learning model • A hybrid assessment model • Hybrid instruction models S. K. Chang and Timothy K. Shih A Distance Learning Scenario
  36. 36. A Hybrid Distance Learning Scenarios Communication Bandwidth AwarenessImpact Live Teaching Live Tutoring Audio Conference Video Conference Email Conference Chat Room Conference Web & Video Courseware Text Book & Class notes Min. Max.
  37. 37. A Hybrid Assessment Model Complexity of Computational Intelligence IntentionImpact Midterm and Final Exams Quizzes Project Reports Assignments Min. Max. Chat Room Participation Web Navigation Factors Quizzes Midterm and Final Exams Surveillant tool Surveillant tool
  38. 38. The Hybrid Instruction Model – Basic E-Classroom Time AwarenessandIntentionImpact 1. Live Teaching 4. Quizzes 2. Text Book & Class notes 5. Email Conference 6. Chat Room Conference 3. Assignments 8. Live Tutoring 7. Chat Room Participation 9. Midterm and Final Exams
  39. 39. The Hybrid Instruction Model – Advanced E-Classroom Time AwarenessandIntentionImpact 1. Video Conference 1. Chat Room Conference 1. Web & Video Courseware 2. Project Reports 3. Quizzes 4. Email Conference 3. Web Navigation Factors 5. Video Conference 7. Midterm and Final Exams 5. Web & Video Courseware 6. Web Navigation Factors
  40. 40. The Hybrid Instruction Model – Community-Based Learning Time AwarenessandIntentionImpact 2. Video Conference 1. Chat Room Conference 4. Email Conference 5. Video Conference 3. Project Solution 6. Chat Room Conference 7. Project Completed
  41. 41. The Hybrid Instruction Model – Target-Based Learning Time AwarenessandIntentionImpact 2. Video Conference 5. Chat Room Conference 3. Quizzes 1. Web & Video Courseware 4. Web & Video Courseware 6. Quizzes 7. Web & Video Courseware 8. Midterm and Final Exams
  42. 42. Administration Awareness Assessment • Curriculum Development • Student Records and Accounting • Student Service Center • Digital Library • Web-Based Instruction Delivery • Lecture-on-Demand • Group Communication • Awareness of Participators • Course Evaluation • Instruction Evaluation • Student Evaluation • DL Program Evaluation The 3 A’s Operation Criteria
  43. 43. Tools for the Administration Criterion • Student record maintenance tool • Accounting tool • Course catalog maintenance tool • Curriculum schedule maintenance tool • Virtual library maintenance tool • Public announcement tool • Course development tool • Course annotation tool • Lecture-on-demand tool • FAQ auto reply agent • Course selection and on-line registration tool • Transcript/diploma inquiry tool
  44. 44. Tools for the Awareness Criterion • Course annotation playback • Lecture-on-demand playback • Student notebook tool • Office hour scheduling agent • Audio communication tool • Video communication tool • Chat room tool • White board tool
  45. 45. Tools for the Assessment Criterion • In class student participation guard • Web navigation patrol • Class record bookkeeping and grading tool • Learning curve analysis tool • Student performance assessment agent • Intelligent tutoring agent
  46. 46. Asynchronized Distance Learning • Multimedia Presentations • Hypermedia • Web-based Instructions • Learning Management Systems • Web/Web 2.0 Technologies
  47. 47. Synchronized Distance Learning • White Board and Chat Room • Voice over IP • Video Communication Technologies • Media Synchronization • Smart Classroom
  48. 48. Distance Learning Software Systems • Learning Space • Moodle • WebCT • Blackboard • Standardization Issues
  49. 49. Distance Learning Standards • IMS Learning Design • Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) • Question & Test Interoperability (QTI) • Common Cartridge • Content Object Repository Discovery and Registration/Resolution Architecture (CORDRA) • Others
  50. 50. Intelligent Tutoring • Ontology • User Profile • Concept Map • Influence Graph • Petri Net • Student-Problem Chart • Deductive Reasoning • Neural Network
  51. 51. Adaptive Testing/Assessment • Item Respond Theory • Assessment Methods – Placement evaluation – Formative evaluation – Diagnostic evaluation – Summative evaluation – Self-evaluation
  52. 52. Mobile Learning • Mobile Devices • Middleware for Mobile Learning • Adaptation of Learning Resources and User Interaction • Guidelines for Developing m-Learning Contents • Location-Aware and Situated Learning
  53. 53. Game-Based Learning and Virtual Reality • Taxonomy of Video Games • Simulation • Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality • Game Development Tools • Assessment of Game-Based Learning
  54. 54. Human-Computer Interaction • Augmented Paper • Multimodal Interaction • Smart Classroom • Wearable Computer
  55. 55. Interactive Digital TV • Video-on-Demand • Multimedia Home Platform (MHP) • Digital TV
  56. 56. • Course and user management: An administration system should provide efficient management tools for administrators, instructors, and students. If on-line course materials are provided on the Web, a friendly interface and supporting tools are required. For instance, an on-line student service center helps students to find references, suitable courses, and answers to general questions. • Efficient courseware development tools: It is time consuming for a course designer to develop high quality courseware. A friendly courseware tool helps instructors to design or customizes course materials from reusable course components. In addition, a problem database and exam composition tool may help an instructor to design an examination easily. • Instance hints and intelligent tutoring: While a student is navigating an on-line course, an intelligent agent is able to analyze his/her behavior, and provides real-time and useful suggestions. In some cases, an agent program will guide the student through different learning topology depending on the behavior of the student. Challenges Issues of Distance Learning Technologies 1/4
  57. 57. • FAQ summarization and automatic reply: It is also time consuming for an instructor to answer questions from students’ e-mails. An auto- reply system should be able to use information retrieval techniques to summarize frequently asked questions, and reply to new questions with proper answers. • Unbiased examination and student assessment: It is difficult to ensure the behavior of students while an on-line examination is under processing but without a human monitor. A surveillance tool can randomly take a snapshot of on-the-spot screen while the examination proceeds. Also, in some distance learning programs, chat room participation will be counted as an evaluation criterion. An intelligent tool should be able to check if a student has devoted himself/herself in a discussion. • Individualized quizzes: Some distance learning systems are able to generate different test questions for each individual student on the basis of a similar difficulty level. This type of system will ensure an unbiased examination as well. Challenges Issues of Distance Learning Technologies 2/4
  58. 58. • Privacy of student: Personal information of a student should be hided from another student, the administrator, and even the instructors. Unless it is necessary to assess student performance from his/her personal data (such as answers to an assignment or exam), privacy should be enforced. • Broadband and real-time communication: For on-line discussion using video conferencing, quality-of-services should be guaranteed with the support of broadband and real-time communication facilities. • Universal and mobile accessibility: Students and instructors should be able to access the distance learning Web site from any location with different devices, such as PDAs or cellular phones. Wireless communication techniques may be incorporated in a distance learning system. Challenges Issues of Distance Learning Technologies 3/4
  59. 59. • Scalability: As the number of students enrolled becomes larger, distributed Web services should be able to re-direct requests of students to different Web servers to share bandwidth and hardware load. • Remote lab and simulation: Domain specific remote labs connected to Internet need to be developed to support on-line experiments. If remote labs are not available, on-line simulation tools (i.e., virtual lab) should be provided. • Multilingual support: Since distance education can be accessed from anywhere in the world, distance education platform and systems should consider multilingual support for the international society. • Evaluation standard of distance education: Standard criteria and questionnaires should be setup to allow teaching evaluation, evaluation of courseware, student performance evaluation, and the evaluation of a distance learning program. Challenges Issues of Distance Learning Technologies 4/4
  60. 60. Summary • History of Distance Learning • Understanding Your Role from the Big Picture • Off-the-Shelf Distance Learning Systems • Technologies for Distance Education • Challenge Issues of Distance Education • Reading Assignments – A Survey of Distance Education Challenges and Technologies.pdf – Internet and Related Technologies for Distance Education.pdf