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9 herbs in our region 30.08.2013


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9 herbs in our region 30.08.2013

  1. 1. Herbs in our region Medical plants in Pavlikeni area Проект „IT’S FUN TO BE IN AND GREEN” по Европейската секторна програма Коменски на програмата „Учене през целия живот” - Многостранни партньорства
  2. 2. Herbs Herbs, also called medicinal herbs, comprise a large group of plants which are used in medical and veterinary practice for the prevention and treatment of diseases.
  3. 3. Principles of Herbalism When herbs are collected, processed and used, some principles should be observed:  When you need only the leaves of the plant, do not pluck its fruits and flowers, do not hurt the plant unnecessarily in order not to lose their ability to reproduce.
  4. 4. Principles of Herbalism  Do not spoil all the herbs (one type) of a given territory, but to keep copies for further propagation.  Scrutinize herbs in the descriptions and illustrations in the literature, especially when herbs have useless or toxic drug counterparts.
  5. 5. Principles of Herbalism  The herbs are harvested only in dry weather (when they do not have even dew on them) and dried in the shade and in well-ventilated areas.  The use of herbs should only be prescribed by a specialist phytotherapeutist.
  6. 6. Basil( Ocimum basilicum) Description: Herbaceous plant with a distinctive flavor. The flowers are white, rarely pink. It flowers from June to August. Distribution: Cultivated in the gardens as an ornamental plant and spice. Usable part: Flowering aerial parts, cut about 20 cm from the top. Action: Anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, appetite, etc., due to the essential oil.
  7. 7. Yarrow( Achillea millefolium) Description: Herbaceous plant with straight unbranched stem. On top of the stem colored baskets are collected in a thick plate. It blooms from June to September. Distribution: It grows in grassy places, in meadows, the bushes throughout the country and over 1000 m altitude. Usable part: For healing purposes using colorful baskets and aerial parts. Action: Yarrow has an astringency, refreshing and analgesic action. It normalizes the motor and digestive function of the stomach .It has inflammatory action, too.
  8. 8. Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) Description: Branched tree or shrub. The flowers are white, gathered in clusters peltates. The fruit is red, fleshy, knobby with one stone. Distribution: It grows in the forests and bushes all over the country up to 1500 m altitude. Usable part: Leaves are used with flowers or just flowers or fruits only. Action: It is used in diseases of the cardiovascular system. It increases the energy of cardiac contractility and calms the heart. Expanding acting on the blood vessels and improves blood flow of heart and brain. It lowers the cholesterol content in the blood.
  9. 9. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Description: It blooms in early May, herbal plant. Distribution: Occurs often in meadows and wetlands. Usable part: Leaves for salads Action: For digestive disorders.
  10. 10. Rest Harrow (Ononis spinosa) Description: Herbaceous thorny plants growing dark brown rhizome passing in root. Stem is up to 70 cm, with many spines. Flowers are single or double. Distribution: Grows throughout the country in arid, grassy and sandy areas on the banks of rivers up to 1500 m altitude. Usable part: Root, harvested in the autumn after ripening of fruits. Action: Diuretic and anti- inflammatory.
  11. 11. Plantain (Plantago lanceolata) Description: Herbaceous plant with bare, leafless flowering stem 10-15 cm high. Leaves have short stalks. Distribution: Growing through grassland in dry grassy and sandy places. It is found throughout the country. Usable part: leaves, seeds and fresh juice. Action: Anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, laxative, anti- ulcer and diuretic.
  12. 12. Centaury yellow (Hypericum perforatum) Description: Herbaceous plant. The colors are yellow, gathered at the top of the stem. It blooms from May to September. Distribution: Growing through grassland in dry grassy and sandy places. Usable part: upper leafy floral stem parts of the plant. Action: reduces anxiety, antidepressant, soothes the nervous system, helps restore mucous membranes, astringent action, anti- inflammatory effect
  13. 13. Geranium (Geranium macrorrhizum) Description: The leaves are large, slightly sticky to the touch, highly aromatic. It blooms from June to July with pink flowers. Distribution: It grows in semi- shaded places, rocks and bushes. Usable part: For therapeutic purposes using the leaves and roots of geranium. Action: There is astringent action prevents the release of liquids, slows the absorption of iron and other elements , increased blood clotting, reduce nasal bleeding, heal stomach and intestinal bleeding and bleeding in the mouth.
  14. 14. Aesculus (Aesculus hippocastanum) Description: A large tree with a conical crown. The stem is covered with gray-brown bark. The leaves are opposite, complicated. The flowers are collected in large, upright panicles up cluster. The fruit is spherical, green, covered with thorns box. Blooms in April and May. Fruits ripen in September and October. Distribution: It grows as a landrace tree in Preslav mountain, 380 to 500 m altitude. Aesculus is a protected plant species. As an ornamental tree ,it occurs everywhere in our country parks and gardens. Usable part: bark of younger branches and stems and fruit. Action: venotonic, anti- inflammatory, and analgesic , strengthens capillaries, reduces the increased tendency to coagulation and clotting - blood clots.
  15. 15. Nettle (Urtica dioica) Description: Herbaceous plant, up to 150 cm long with a creeping rhizome. The leaves are oblong, heart-shaped. The whole plant is covered with stinging hairs. Distribution: Widespread plant across the country. Usable part: Leaves and roots. Leaves are collected from May to September and the roots from September to November. Action: hemostatic, diuretic, smoothing, antianemic
  16. 16. Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla ) Description: Herbaceous plant. The stem is erect, to 50 cm.The whole plant, especially the color petals have authentic pleasant odor and pungent, bitterish taste. It blooms from May to August. Distribution: It grows in lawns, meadows, pastures, around settlements throughout the country. Usable part: For healing purposes using colorful baskets .. They are removed with stalk not longer than 3 cm. Action: Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, analgesic, antispasmodic, sedative, diaphoretic .
  17. 17. Lime (Tilia cordata) Description: The leaves are heart-shaped . The flowers are collected in bunches. Clusters are small. Distribution: Lime-tree is widespread in the country. Is also occurs as an ornamental tree. Usable part: Inflorescences with and without bracts, collected during the flowering season. Action: Lime blossom possesses diaphoretic, mild disinfectant, anti-inflammatory and diuretic
  18. 18. Melissa – lemon grass) (Melissa officinalis) Description: Herbaceous plant with a pleasant lemon scent. The stem is branched, 30-80 cm high, covered with a cloth. The leaves are broadly ovate rhombic or oblong. It blooms from June to September. Distribution: It grows in scrub and rare woods in grassy and rocky areas throughout the country. Usable part: Leaves and flowering tops of the stems before flowering. Action: Calms nervous system, has antispasmodic, antispastic, analgesic and anticonvulsant action. Stimulate appetite and digestion process suppresses nausea and vomiting.
  19. 19. Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Description: Light green herb. The stem is 30-50 cm high, erect. Leaves are consistent. Flowers are as yellow-orange baskets. It flowers from June until late autumn. Distribution: Grown as an ornamental plant. Usable part: For healing purposes using colorful baskets. Action: It has antimicrobial activity and ability to accelerate wound healing.
  20. 20. Sumac ( tetra) (Cotinus coggygria) Description: Shrub, up to 2 m tall or small tree reaching up to 4 m. Leaves are consecutive, 3-8 cm long, ovate with long handles. The flowers are greenish, collected in inflorescence panicle. It blooms from May to June. Distribution: It grows in scrub and oak forests in dry and stony places almost all over the country to 800 m altitude. Usable part: Leaves harvested during flowering. Action: Astringent, anti- inflammatory and promote wound healing.
  21. 21. Canker rose (Rosa canina) Description: Shrub with straight or curved stems, reaching a length of 3 meters and covered with hard spiny, curved spines. The flowers are pink or white. Fruits are bright red. It blooms from May to July and the fruits ripen in autumn. Distribution: It grows in scrub and rare woods, along rivers, in grassy slopes and headlands in the plains and mountains up to 2000 m altitude. Usable part: Hips. Action: Improving oxidation processes in cells, sealed capillaries acting diuretic.
  22. 22.  Herbalism is as old as humanity itself. The experience gained in the use of herbs has been passed and enriched by thousands of healers. Bulgarian people have old traditions in the use of medicinal plants. Many plants used in folk medicine are actively applied in the official one. Lots of medicinal remedies are produced of herbal raw materials in our country.  Example: Nivalin - Obtained from summer snowflake and use to heal polio.  In Bulgaria 650 plant species are used as herbs. Despite the small size of our country, we have immeasurable variety of herbs. Furthermore, they contain large amounts of active substances. This is due to the specific climatic conditions of our country. Some of the widely used herbs are: blackberry, hazelnut, walnut, field horsetail, birch, tarragon, marjoram, chamomile, locust tree, hawthorn, yarrow, wild poppy, primrose, nettle, lily, shepherd's purse, etc.. Bulgaria is the largest exporter of herbs in Europe, according to the Association of herbs and mushroom in the country.