China( Chinese : ; pinyin : Zhōngguó/Zhōnghuá ; see also Names of China ), officially the People's Republic of China ( PRC ), is the most populous state in the world, with over 1.339 billion citizens . Located in East Asia , the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles). It is the world's second-largest country by land area , 12 and the third- or fourth-largest in total area , depending on the definition of total area
The phonological structure of each syllable consists of a nucleus consisting of a vowel (which can be a monophthong, diphthong, or even a triphthong in certain varieties) with an optional onset or coda consonant as well as a tone. There are some instances where a vowel is not used as a nucleus. An example of this is in Cantonese, where the nasal sonorant consonants and can stand alone as their own syllable. Across all the spoken varieties, most syllables tend to be open syllables, meaning they have no coda, but syllables that do have codas are restricted to , , , , , , or . Some varieties allow most of these codas, whereas others, such as Mandarin, are limited to only two, namely and . Consonant clusters do not generally occur in either the onset or coda. The onset may be an affricate or a consonant followed by a semivowel, but these are not generally considered consonant clusters. The number of sounds in the different spoken dialects varies, but in general there has been a tendency to a reduction in sounds from Middle Chinese. The Mandarin dialects in particular have experienced a dramatic decrease in sounds and so have far more multisyllabic words than most other spoken varieties. The total number of syllables in some varieties is therefore only about a thousand, including tonal variation, which is only about an eighth as many as English.11 All varieties of spoken Chinese use tones. A few dialects of north China may have as few as three tones, while some dialects in south China have up to 6 or 10 tones, depending on how one counts. One exception from this is Shanghainese which has reduced the set of tones to a two-toned pitch accent system much like modern Japanese.
Modules 1 L.H Language Hou Haku
Objectives <ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Language in </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese spoken language </li></ul><ul><li>Say:“Hello”! </li></ul>
China Anthem: "March of the Volunteers" ( 《义勇军进行曲》 (Pinyin: "Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ"))
China Mount Everest in Tibet. The South China Sea coast at Hainan. A map showing the topography of China. Longsheng Rice Terrace in Guangxi. The Li River in Guangxi . Longsheng Rice Terrace in Guangxi. The Li River in Guangxi .
Chinese? <ul><li>Chinese , the Chinese languages , or the Sinitic languages (/ Hànyǔ ; / Huáyǔ ; Zhōngwén ) is a language family consisting of languages which are mostly mutually unintelligible to varying degrees. 3 Originally the indigenous languages spoken by the Han Chinese in China, it forms one of the branches of Sino-Tibetan family of languages. About one-fifth of the world’s population, or over one billion people, speaks some variety of Chinese as their native language. Internal divisions of Chinese are usually perceived by their native speakers as dialects of a single Chinese language, rather than separate languages, although this identification is considered inappropriate by some linguists and Sinologists. </li></ul>
Chinese- Language in <ul><li>People's Republic of China </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong </li></ul><ul><li>Macau </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore (official, but not national language) </li></ul>
Chinese- Standard Chinese <ul><li>Putonghua / Guoyu, often called "Mandarin", is the official standard language used by the People's Republic of China, Taiwan, and Singapore (where it is called "Huayu"). </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on the Beijing dialect, which is the dialect of Mandarin as spoken in Beijing. </li></ul><ul><li>The government intends for speakers of all Chinese speech varieties to use it as a common language of communication. Therefore it is used in government agencies, in the media, and as a language of instruction in schools. </li></ul>
Chinese- Chinese spoken language <ul><li>A very common example used to illustrate the use of tones in Chinese are four tones of Standard Chinese applied to the syllable "ma." The tones correspond to these five characters: </li></ul>
Say:“Hello”! <ul><li>Chinese English </li></ul><ul><li>你好！ Hello ！ </li></ul><ul><li>早上好！ Good morning ！ </li></ul><ul><li>我叫麦克。 My name is Michael 。 </li></ul><ul><li>很高兴认识你！ Nice to meet you ！ </li></ul>
References <ul><li>W ikipedia - Chinese language </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_language </li></ul><ul><li>W ikipedia- China </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China </li></ul>