SlideShare a Scribd company logo

CHAPTER 5.pptx

Gy

1 of 43
Download to read offline
CHAPTER 5
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Qassim A. Farah MPH,HN&D
COMMONLY USED TERMS
• Infection: Means successful entry,
development and/or multiplication of the
organisms (pathogenic) in the body of a
living being (human or animal).
• Infectious disease: Disease resulting from
an infection.
• Subclinical infection: Infection in a dose not
sufficient to result in a disease. An
individual with a subclinical infection may
or may not transmit the disease to others. It
is also called ‘inapparent infection.’
• Identification of such an individual is not
possible unless laboratory investigations are
done.
• Opportunistic infection: An infection
caused by those organisms which take the
opportunity provided by the host due to
breakdown of the immune mechanism,
resulting in a disease. It is common in AIDS.
The opportunistic organisms are
Mycobacterium tuberculosis etc.
• Nosocomial infection: An infection acquired
by a patient during the stay in the hospital,
either from the hospital staff, or from other
patients or from hospital procedures. For
example, urinary infection following
catheterization. Hepatitis B following
injection or blood transfusion.
• Droplet infection: Infection acquired
through the inhalation of droplets or
aerosols of saliva or sputum containing the
pathogens, expelled during sneezing,
coughing, laughing or talking by someone,
harboring the pathogen.

Recommended

Methods of infection transmission
Methods of infection transmissionMethods of infection transmission
Methods of infection transmissionYoussef2000
 
Epidemiology and cycle of microbial diseases
Epidemiology and cycle of microbial diseasesEpidemiology and cycle of microbial diseases
Epidemiology and cycle of microbial diseasesChhaya Sawant
 
Source and transmission of infection
Source and transmission of infectionSource and transmission of infection
Source and transmission of infectionAman Ullah
 
Chapter two cdc course
Chapter two cdc courseChapter two cdc course
Chapter two cdc courseAhmed Batun
 
Epidemiology power point_ajb
Epidemiology power point_ajbEpidemiology power point_ajb
Epidemiology power point_ajbOkoth Morgan
 
Epidemiology of infectious diseases dr.ihsan alsaimary
Epidemiology of infectious diseases dr.ihsan alsaimaryEpidemiology of infectious diseases dr.ihsan alsaimary
Epidemiology of infectious diseases dr.ihsan alsaimarydr.Ihsan alsaimary
 

More Related Content

Similar to CHAPTER 5.pptx

Epidemiology of infectious diseases dr.ihsan alsaimary
Epidemiology of infectious diseases dr.ihsan alsaimaryEpidemiology of infectious diseases dr.ihsan alsaimary
Epidemiology of infectious diseases dr.ihsan alsaimarydr.Ihsan alsaimary
 
infection control in the health care setting
infection control in the  health care settinginfection control in the  health care setting
infection control in the health care settingNisha Mane
 
Quarintable infection.pptx
Quarintable infection.pptxQuarintable infection.pptx
Quarintable infection.pptxshiv847105
 
Epidemiological principles
Epidemiological principlesEpidemiological principles
Epidemiological principlesNavin Adhikari
 
Introduction of Communicable and Tropical Diseases
 Introduction of Communicable and Tropical Diseases Introduction of Communicable and Tropical Diseases
Introduction of Communicable and Tropical DiseasesChanda Jabeen
 
Dynamics of disease transmission
Dynamics of disease transmissionDynamics of disease transmission
Dynamics of disease transmissionpramod kumar
 
Disease and its types in microbiology
Disease and its types in microbiologyDisease and its types in microbiology
Disease and its types in microbiologyTaufica Nusrat
 
Selected Definition in Infectious Disease Epidemiology & Uses.pptx
Selected Definition in Infectious Disease Epidemiology & Uses.pptxSelected Definition in Infectious Disease Epidemiology & Uses.pptx
Selected Definition in Infectious Disease Epidemiology & Uses.pptxDr. Anuj Singh
 
1- Principles of the Infectious Diseases(1) (3).pptx
1- Principles of the Infectious Diseases(1) (3).pptx1- Principles of the Infectious Diseases(1) (3).pptx
1- Principles of the Infectious Diseases(1) (3).pptxDrSafwan1
 
INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICABLE DISEASE.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICABLE DISEASE.pptxINTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICABLE DISEASE.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICABLE DISEASE.pptxSadikHassan4
 
tyshenkio-chainofinfectionNov4_15.pdf
tyshenkio-chainofinfectionNov4_15.pdftyshenkio-chainofinfectionNov4_15.pdf
tyshenkio-chainofinfectionNov4_15.pdfLoyZi
 
Dynamic of disease transmission
Dynamic of disease transmissionDynamic of disease transmission
Dynamic of disease transmissionsamuel HENDRICKS
 
Communicable Disease.ppt
Communicable Disease.pptCommunicable Disease.ppt
Communicable Disease.pptDelechosJayson
 
Host pathogen interactions
Host pathogen interactionsHost pathogen interactions
Host pathogen interactionsthuphan95
 
Epidemiology of communicable disease
Epidemiology of communicable diseaseEpidemiology of communicable disease
Epidemiology of communicable diseaseMr. Kailash Nagar
 
Nosocomial Infections by Mohammad Mufarreh
Nosocomial Infections by Mohammad MufarrehNosocomial Infections by Mohammad Mufarreh
Nosocomial Infections by Mohammad MufarrehMMufarreh
 

Similar to CHAPTER 5.pptx (20)

Epidemiology of infectious diseases dr.ihsan alsaimary
Epidemiology of infectious diseases dr.ihsan alsaimaryEpidemiology of infectious diseases dr.ihsan alsaimary
Epidemiology of infectious diseases dr.ihsan alsaimary
 
infection control in the health care setting
infection control in the  health care settinginfection control in the  health care setting
infection control in the health care setting
 
Quarintable infection.pptx
Quarintable infection.pptxQuarintable infection.pptx
Quarintable infection.pptx
 
iceberg phenomenon.pptx
iceberg phenomenon.pptxiceberg phenomenon.pptx
iceberg phenomenon.pptx
 
Epidemiological principles
Epidemiological principlesEpidemiological principles
Epidemiological principles
 
Introduction of Communicable and Tropical Diseases
 Introduction of Communicable and Tropical Diseases Introduction of Communicable and Tropical Diseases
Introduction of Communicable and Tropical Diseases
 
Dynamics of disease transmission
Dynamics of disease transmissionDynamics of disease transmission
Dynamics of disease transmission
 
Disease and its types in microbiology
Disease and its types in microbiologyDisease and its types in microbiology
Disease and its types in microbiology
 
Selected Definition in Infectious Disease Epidemiology & Uses.pptx
Selected Definition in Infectious Disease Epidemiology & Uses.pptxSelected Definition in Infectious Disease Epidemiology & Uses.pptx
Selected Definition in Infectious Disease Epidemiology & Uses.pptx
 
1- Principles of the Infectious Diseases(1) (3).pptx
1- Principles of the Infectious Diseases(1) (3).pptx1- Principles of the Infectious Diseases(1) (3).pptx
1- Principles of the Infectious Diseases(1) (3).pptx
 
INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICABLE DISEASE.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICABLE DISEASE.pptxINTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICABLE DISEASE.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICABLE DISEASE.pptx
 
tyshenkio-chainofinfectionNov4_15.pdf
tyshenkio-chainofinfectionNov4_15.pdftyshenkio-chainofinfectionNov4_15.pdf
tyshenkio-chainofinfectionNov4_15.pdf
 
Dynamic of disease transmission
Dynamic of disease transmissionDynamic of disease transmission
Dynamic of disease transmission
 
LRM - Infection.pptx
LRM - Infection.pptxLRM - Infection.pptx
LRM - Infection.pptx
 
Communicable Disease.ppt
Communicable Disease.pptCommunicable Disease.ppt
Communicable Disease.ppt
 
Host pathogen interactions
Host pathogen interactionsHost pathogen interactions
Host pathogen interactions
 
Epidemiology of communicable disease
Epidemiology of communicable diseaseEpidemiology of communicable disease
Epidemiology of communicable disease
 
EPIDEMIOLOGY
EPIDEMIOLOGYEPIDEMIOLOGY
EPIDEMIOLOGY
 
Nosocomial Infections by Mohammad Mufarreh
Nosocomial Infections by Mohammad MufarrehNosocomial Infections by Mohammad Mufarreh
Nosocomial Infections by Mohammad Mufarreh
 
Envr133 lecture3
Envr133 lecture3Envr133 lecture3
Envr133 lecture3
 

More from ssuser31c469

Chapter 01 -Fundamental of IT and OS.pptx
Chapter 01 -Fundamental of IT and OS.pptxChapter 01 -Fundamental of IT and OS.pptx
Chapter 01 -Fundamental of IT and OS.pptxssuser31c469
 
paradigms-190305093939 (1).pdf
paradigms-190305093939 (1).pdfparadigms-190305093939 (1).pdf
paradigms-190305093939 (1).pdfssuser31c469
 
03-Development of face.pptx
03-Development of face.pptx03-Development of face.pptx
03-Development of face.pptxssuser31c469
 
Introduction to Psychology.pptx
Introduction to Psychology.pptxIntroduction to Psychology.pptx
Introduction to Psychology.pptxssuser31c469
 
Preventive Dental Materisl.pptx
Preventive Dental Materisl.pptxPreventive Dental Materisl.pptx
Preventive Dental Materisl.pptxssuser31c469
 
pitandfissuresealant-dharmendraandaditigupta-160112155722.pdf
pitandfissuresealant-dharmendraandaditigupta-160112155722.pdfpitandfissuresealant-dharmendraandaditigupta-160112155722.pdf
pitandfissuresealant-dharmendraandaditigupta-160112155722.pdfssuser31c469
 
Chapter 3 Cell Transport.pptx
Chapter 3 Cell Transport.pptxChapter 3 Cell Transport.pptx
Chapter 3 Cell Transport.pptxssuser31c469
 
Chapter 2.1 Reaction of alkenes.ppt
Chapter 2.1 Reaction of alkenes.pptChapter 2.1 Reaction of alkenes.ppt
Chapter 2.1 Reaction of alkenes.pptssuser31c469
 
Chapter 5 Modes of Inheritance.pptx
Chapter 5 Modes of Inheritance.pptxChapter 5 Modes of Inheritance.pptx
Chapter 5 Modes of Inheritance.pptxssuser31c469
 
chapter five impression compound.pptx
chapter five impression compound.pptxchapter five impression compound.pptx
chapter five impression compound.pptxssuser31c469
 
Chapter 7 The cell cycle.ppt
Chapter 7 The cell cycle.pptChapter 7 The cell cycle.ppt
Chapter 7 The cell cycle.pptssuser31c469
 
L9 muscles of upper limb [Autosaved].pptx
L9 muscles of upper limb [Autosaved].pptxL9 muscles of upper limb [Autosaved].pptx
L9 muscles of upper limb [Autosaved].pptxssuser31c469
 
L12__Respiratory_system_anatomy[1].pptx
L12__Respiratory_system_anatomy[1].pptxL12__Respiratory_system_anatomy[1].pptx
L12__Respiratory_system_anatomy[1].pptxssuser31c469
 
Chapter 2 Membrane proteins and movement accross the cell membrane Lesson 2.pptx
Chapter 2 Membrane proteins and movement accross the cell membrane Lesson 2.pptxChapter 2 Membrane proteins and movement accross the cell membrane Lesson 2.pptx
Chapter 2 Membrane proteins and movement accross the cell membrane Lesson 2.pptxssuser31c469
 
c h a p t e r 4 third week of development.pptx
c h a p t e r  4 third week of development.pptxc h a p t e r  4 third week of development.pptx
c h a p t e r 4 third week of development.pptxssuser31c469
 

More from ssuser31c469 (20)

Chapter 01 -Fundamental of IT and OS.pptx
Chapter 01 -Fundamental of IT and OS.pptxChapter 01 -Fundamental of IT and OS.pptx
Chapter 01 -Fundamental of IT and OS.pptx
 
paradigms-190305093939 (1).pdf
paradigms-190305093939 (1).pdfparadigms-190305093939 (1).pdf
paradigms-190305093939 (1).pdf
 
03-Development of face.pptx
03-Development of face.pptx03-Development of face.pptx
03-Development of face.pptx
 
Introduction to Psychology.pptx
Introduction to Psychology.pptxIntroduction to Psychology.pptx
Introduction to Psychology.pptx
 
History of cell
History of cell History of cell
History of cell
 
ALCOHOL.pptx
ALCOHOL.pptxALCOHOL.pptx
ALCOHOL.pptx
 
Preventive Dental Materisl.pptx
Preventive Dental Materisl.pptxPreventive Dental Materisl.pptx
Preventive Dental Materisl.pptx
 
DNA 111.pptx
DNA 111.pptxDNA 111.pptx
DNA 111.pptx
 
lower limb.pptx
lower limb.pptxlower limb.pptx
lower limb.pptx
 
pitandfissuresealant-dharmendraandaditigupta-160112155722.pdf
pitandfissuresealant-dharmendraandaditigupta-160112155722.pdfpitandfissuresealant-dharmendraandaditigupta-160112155722.pdf
pitandfissuresealant-dharmendraandaditigupta-160112155722.pdf
 
CHAPTER 4.pptx
CHAPTER 4.pptxCHAPTER 4.pptx
CHAPTER 4.pptx
 
Chapter 3 Cell Transport.pptx
Chapter 3 Cell Transport.pptxChapter 3 Cell Transport.pptx
Chapter 3 Cell Transport.pptx
 
Chapter 2.1 Reaction of alkenes.ppt
Chapter 2.1 Reaction of alkenes.pptChapter 2.1 Reaction of alkenes.ppt
Chapter 2.1 Reaction of alkenes.ppt
 
Chapter 5 Modes of Inheritance.pptx
Chapter 5 Modes of Inheritance.pptxChapter 5 Modes of Inheritance.pptx
Chapter 5 Modes of Inheritance.pptx
 
chapter five impression compound.pptx
chapter five impression compound.pptxchapter five impression compound.pptx
chapter five impression compound.pptx
 
Chapter 7 The cell cycle.ppt
Chapter 7 The cell cycle.pptChapter 7 The cell cycle.ppt
Chapter 7 The cell cycle.ppt
 
L9 muscles of upper limb [Autosaved].pptx
L9 muscles of upper limb [Autosaved].pptxL9 muscles of upper limb [Autosaved].pptx
L9 muscles of upper limb [Autosaved].pptx
 
L12__Respiratory_system_anatomy[1].pptx
L12__Respiratory_system_anatomy[1].pptxL12__Respiratory_system_anatomy[1].pptx
L12__Respiratory_system_anatomy[1].pptx
 
Chapter 2 Membrane proteins and movement accross the cell membrane Lesson 2.pptx
Chapter 2 Membrane proteins and movement accross the cell membrane Lesson 2.pptxChapter 2 Membrane proteins and movement accross the cell membrane Lesson 2.pptx
Chapter 2 Membrane proteins and movement accross the cell membrane Lesson 2.pptx
 
c h a p t e r 4 third week of development.pptx
c h a p t e r  4 third week of development.pptxc h a p t e r  4 third week of development.pptx
c h a p t e r 4 third week of development.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

Cell :Structure & Functions for Medical and Health allied Students
Cell :Structure & Functions for Medical and Health allied StudentsCell :Structure & Functions for Medical and Health allied Students
Cell :Structure & Functions for Medical and Health allied StudentsRajendra Dev Bhatt
 
PTERYGIUM ,clinical picture and its management.pptx
PTERYGIUM ,clinical picture and its management.pptxPTERYGIUM ,clinical picture and its management.pptx
PTERYGIUM ,clinical picture and its management.pptxvideosfildr
 
EUTHANASIA: WORLD AND INDIAN PERSPECTIVEpptx
EUTHANASIA: WORLD AND INDIAN PERSPECTIVEpptxEUTHANASIA: WORLD AND INDIAN PERSPECTIVEpptx
EUTHANASIA: WORLD AND INDIAN PERSPECTIVEpptxDr. Sumit KUMAR
 
Influenza.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Influenza.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajInfluenza.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Influenza.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajSurabhi Srivastava
 
Staphylococcus.ppt.........ali.rasool.badr
Staphylococcus.ppt.........ali.rasool.badrStaphylococcus.ppt.........ali.rasool.badr
Staphylococcus.ppt.........ali.rasool.badrssuser06f49d
 
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajPoliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajSurabhi Srivastava
 
Hydrocele and tumors of testis Introduction.pptx
Hydrocele and tumors of testis Introduction.pptxHydrocele and tumors of testis Introduction.pptx
Hydrocele and tumors of testis Introduction.pptxSizan Thapa
 
Dasha vidha Pareeksha.pptx Dr Akshay Shetty
Dasha vidha Pareeksha.pptx Dr Akshay ShettyDasha vidha Pareeksha.pptx Dr Akshay Shetty
Dasha vidha Pareeksha.pptx Dr Akshay ShettyAkshay Shetty
 
CHRONIC IMMUNE-MEDIATED Demyelinating Neuropathies
CHRONIC IMMUNE-MEDIATED Demyelinating NeuropathiesCHRONIC IMMUNE-MEDIATED Demyelinating Neuropathies
CHRONIC IMMUNE-MEDIATED Demyelinating NeuropathiesMohamed AbdElhady
 
Namburi phased spot test - NPST To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...
Namburi phased spot test - NPST  To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...Namburi phased spot test - NPST  To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...
Namburi phased spot test - NPST To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...Dr. Madduru Muni Haritha
 
Ascariasis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Ascariasis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajAscariasis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Ascariasis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajSurabhi Srivastava
 
RASASHALA IN ACCORDANCE WITH GMP....pptx
RASASHALA IN ACCORDANCE WITH GMP....pptxRASASHALA IN ACCORDANCE WITH GMP....pptx
RASASHALA IN ACCORDANCE WITH GMP....pptxDr. Anusha Baseganni
 
Typhoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Typhoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajTyphoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Typhoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajSurabhi Srivastava
 
GROSS ANATOMY OF CAECUM & APPENDIX DR VKVS.ppt
GROSS ANATOMY OF CAECUM & APPENDIX DR VKVS.pptGROSS ANATOMY OF CAECUM & APPENDIX DR VKVS.ppt
GROSS ANATOMY OF CAECUM & APPENDIX DR VKVS.pptDr Vinay KV Shetty
 
Finger Clubbing by Dr. Samuel2 Alawode.pptx
Finger Clubbing by Dr. Samuel2 Alawode.pptxFinger Clubbing by Dr. Samuel2 Alawode.pptx
Finger Clubbing by Dr. Samuel2 Alawode.pptxAlawode Samuel2
 
Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...
Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...
Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...Subrata Roy
 
Vertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptx
Vertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptxVertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptx
Vertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptxYasser Alzainy
 
Health powerpoint for catch -up fridays.
Health powerpoint for catch -up fridays.Health powerpoint for catch -up fridays.
Health powerpoint for catch -up fridays.JohnMarckySeoTeriomp
 
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated CarePsychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated CareBrian Peacock
 
Fetal and Neonatal Physiology - Dr Faiza.pdf
Fetal and Neonatal Physiology - Dr Faiza.pdfFetal and Neonatal Physiology - Dr Faiza.pdf
Fetal and Neonatal Physiology - Dr Faiza.pdfMedicoseAcademics
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Cell :Structure & Functions for Medical and Health allied Students
Cell :Structure & Functions for Medical and Health allied StudentsCell :Structure & Functions for Medical and Health allied Students
Cell :Structure & Functions for Medical and Health allied Students
 
PTERYGIUM ,clinical picture and its management.pptx
PTERYGIUM ,clinical picture and its management.pptxPTERYGIUM ,clinical picture and its management.pptx
PTERYGIUM ,clinical picture and its management.pptx
 
EUTHANASIA: WORLD AND INDIAN PERSPECTIVEpptx
EUTHANASIA: WORLD AND INDIAN PERSPECTIVEpptxEUTHANASIA: WORLD AND INDIAN PERSPECTIVEpptx
EUTHANASIA: WORLD AND INDIAN PERSPECTIVEpptx
 
Influenza.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Influenza.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajInfluenza.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Influenza.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
 
Staphylococcus.ppt.........ali.rasool.badr
Staphylococcus.ppt.........ali.rasool.badrStaphylococcus.ppt.........ali.rasool.badr
Staphylococcus.ppt.........ali.rasool.badr
 
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajPoliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
 
Hydrocele and tumors of testis Introduction.pptx
Hydrocele and tumors of testis Introduction.pptxHydrocele and tumors of testis Introduction.pptx
Hydrocele and tumors of testis Introduction.pptx
 
Dasha vidha Pareeksha.pptx Dr Akshay Shetty
Dasha vidha Pareeksha.pptx Dr Akshay ShettyDasha vidha Pareeksha.pptx Dr Akshay Shetty
Dasha vidha Pareeksha.pptx Dr Akshay Shetty
 
CHRONIC IMMUNE-MEDIATED Demyelinating Neuropathies
CHRONIC IMMUNE-MEDIATED Demyelinating NeuropathiesCHRONIC IMMUNE-MEDIATED Demyelinating Neuropathies
CHRONIC IMMUNE-MEDIATED Demyelinating Neuropathies
 
Namburi phased spot test - NPST To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...
Namburi phased spot test - NPST  To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...Namburi phased spot test - NPST  To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...
Namburi phased spot test - NPST To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...
 
Ascariasis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Ascariasis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajAscariasis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Ascariasis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
 
RASASHALA IN ACCORDANCE WITH GMP....pptx
RASASHALA IN ACCORDANCE WITH GMP....pptxRASASHALA IN ACCORDANCE WITH GMP....pptx
RASASHALA IN ACCORDANCE WITH GMP....pptx
 
Typhoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Typhoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajTyphoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Typhoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
 
GROSS ANATOMY OF CAECUM & APPENDIX DR VKVS.ppt
GROSS ANATOMY OF CAECUM & APPENDIX DR VKVS.pptGROSS ANATOMY OF CAECUM & APPENDIX DR VKVS.ppt
GROSS ANATOMY OF CAECUM & APPENDIX DR VKVS.ppt
 
Finger Clubbing by Dr. Samuel2 Alawode.pptx
Finger Clubbing by Dr. Samuel2 Alawode.pptxFinger Clubbing by Dr. Samuel2 Alawode.pptx
Finger Clubbing by Dr. Samuel2 Alawode.pptx
 
Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...
Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...
Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...
 
Vertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptx
Vertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptxVertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptx
Vertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptx
 
Health powerpoint for catch -up fridays.
Health powerpoint for catch -up fridays.Health powerpoint for catch -up fridays.
Health powerpoint for catch -up fridays.
 
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated CarePsychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
 
Fetal and Neonatal Physiology - Dr Faiza.pdf
Fetal and Neonatal Physiology - Dr Faiza.pdfFetal and Neonatal Physiology - Dr Faiza.pdf
Fetal and Neonatal Physiology - Dr Faiza.pdf
 

CHAPTER 5.pptx

  • 1. CHAPTER 5 EPIDEMIOLOGY OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Qassim A. Farah MPH,HN&D
  • 2. COMMONLY USED TERMS • Infection: Means successful entry, development and/or multiplication of the organisms (pathogenic) in the body of a living being (human or animal). • Infectious disease: Disease resulting from an infection.
  • 3. • Subclinical infection: Infection in a dose not sufficient to result in a disease. An individual with a subclinical infection may or may not transmit the disease to others. It is also called ‘inapparent infection.’ • Identification of such an individual is not possible unless laboratory investigations are done.
  • 4. • Opportunistic infection: An infection caused by those organisms which take the opportunity provided by the host due to breakdown of the immune mechanism, resulting in a disease. It is common in AIDS. The opportunistic organisms are Mycobacterium tuberculosis etc.
  • 5. • Nosocomial infection: An infection acquired by a patient during the stay in the hospital, either from the hospital staff, or from other patients or from hospital procedures. For example, urinary infection following catheterization. Hepatitis B following injection or blood transfusion.
  • 6. • Droplet infection: Infection acquired through the inhalation of droplets or aerosols of saliva or sputum containing the pathogens, expelled during sneezing, coughing, laughing or talking by someone, harboring the pathogen.
  • 7. • Endogenous infection: The normal nonpathogenic flora of the body, when assume the pathogenic character and result in a disease. • Primary infection: Infection occurring in an individual, who is not having any other infection.
  • 8. • Secondary infection: Infection occurring in an individual who is already having an infection of another nature • Mixed infection: Infection caused by more than one type of pathogens.
  • 9. • Contamination: Presence of infectious organism on the surface of the inanimate objects like clothes, utensils, furnitures, instruments, vehicles of transmission (like water, milk, food, blood, etc.) and makes it impure. • Pollution: Presence of offensive matter in the environment For example, air pollution.
  • 10. • Contagious Disease: A disease transmitted from person to person, when they are in close physical (skin to skin) contact, For example, scabies and STDs. • Communicable Disease: It is being communicated or transmitted, directly or indirectly, from man to man, animal to animal, man to animal, animal to man, or from environment (through air, soil, food, water, etc.) to man or animal.
  • 11. • Non Communicable Disease: It is not being transmitted from person to person. For example, malnutrition, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, mental illness , etc. • Vector: It is an arthopod, which spreads the disease from person to person. For example, housefly and mosquito, etc.
  • 12. SURVEILLANCE • It is a process of collection of reliable information about the status (or occurrence and spread) of a specific disease in the given population and the factors related thereto, for monitoring and reporting on trends in specific health problems for prevention and control of that health problem/ disease.
  • 13. Population under surveillance may be a city or region or nation, the components of this process are: • Collection of data • Analysis of data • Interpretation of the data • Reporting of this information • Action or intervention • Feedback.
  • 14. OBJECTIVES OF SURVEILLANCE • The primary objective of surveillance is : • To monitor the incidence or prevalence of specific health problem. • To document their effect in defined populations and to characterize affected people and those at greatest risk.
  • 15. Uses of Surveillance • To highlight the magnitude of the problem in terms of morbidity and mortality rates. • To plan for the program intervention • To monitor the quality of the services. • To identify the high risk areas for additional action. • To identify the outbreaks early for preventive measures. • To estimate the needs for drugs. • To achieve the goals of elimination or eradication. • To document the impact of services.
  • 17. DISEAS TRANSMISSION • Basically there are three pre-requisites for the transmission of a disease in the community, namely the reservoir, the susceptible person and the different routes of transmission from the reservoir to the susceptible persons.
  • 19. RESERVOIR • It is the one in whom the causative organism lives, multiplies and depends primarily for its survival (i.e. the natural habitat of the organism). Such a reservoir may be human being, animal or soil. • Its The place where the microorganism resides, thrives, and reproduces, i.e., food, water, toilet seat, elevator buttons, human feces, respiratory secretions.
  • 20. Route of Exit • The place where the organism leaves the reservoir, such as the respiratory tract (nose, mouth), intestinal tract (rectum), urinary tract, or blood and other body fluids.
  • 21. Routes of Transmission • A communicable disease is transmitted from the reservoir/source to a susceptible person either directly or indirectly, depending upon whether they are in close proximity or not.
  • 22. PORTAL OF ENTRY • PORTAL OF ENTRY The opening where an infectious disease enters the host’s body such as mucus membranes, open wounds, or tubes inserted in body cavities like urinary catheters or feeding tubes.
  • 23. Direct Modes of Transmission • There are five direct modes: • 1. Direct contact: When the reservoir and the susceptible person are in close, physical, skin to skin contact. Example, scabies, STDs and AIDS, (these are also called as contagious diseases).
  • 24. • 2. Droplet Infection: When the susceptible person inhales the infected droplets, coming out of the mouth or nose from the reservoir during the act of coughing, sneezing, talking and laughing. For example, pulmonary tuberculosis, measles, etc.
  • 25. • 3. Contact With The Contaminated Soil: For example, all soil borne diseases, e.g. tetanus. • 4. Contact with the animal: Classical example is rabies transmitted from a rabid animal by bite and inoculating the virus into the skin or mucous membrane. • 5. Trans placental (vertical) transmission: Means transmission of the disease from the mother to the fetus through the placenta.
  • 26. Indirect Modes of Transmission • There are five indirect modes: • 1. Vehicle Route: The vehicles which are capable of transmitting the diseases are water, food, milk, ice-cream, vegetables, biological products like blood, tissues or organs (as in organ transplantation).
  • 27. • 2. Vector route: Vector is an arthropod, capable of transmitting the disease. For example, mosquitoes, flies, lice, ticks, etc. The vectors transmit the diseases in the following ways:
  • 28. • Biting the pathogens percu-taneously. For example, mosquitoes, ticks, etc. • Defecation: Scratching in of the infected feces, into the abrasions of the skin. For example, epidemic typhus, trench fever transmitted through the feces of infected louse.
  • 29. Air-borne Route of Transmission • Droplets • Air Pollution
  • 30. A Susceptible Host • A susceptible person is the one who is likely/prone to develop the disease. For a disease to occur in an individual, there must be a portal of entry, a site of election and poor defence mechanism. • Portal of entry may be respiratory route, alimentary route, per cutaneous route or genital route. There may be even more than one route of entry. For example, AIDS, Hepatitis B, etc.
  • 31. INCUBATION PERIOD • Definition: It is defined as a ‘period between the successful entry of a pathogen and the appearance of the first clinical sign or symptom of the disease’, in an individual. It is also called ‘intrinsic incubation period.
  • 32. Factors influencing the incubation period: These are virulence • Factors influencing the incubation period: These are virulence of the pathogens, infective dose and the susceptibility of the individual. In short, the incubation period depends upon the host-parasite relationship.
  • 33. • Latent period: It is similar to incubation period but with reference to non communicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, cancer, etc. It is a period between the initiation of the disease and the detection of the disease.
  • 34. • Window period: It is the period between the entry of the pathogen and the production of the antibodies. It is 2 to 8 weeks in HIV/AIDS. ELISA test is negative during this period. But infected person is infectious to others during this period.
  • 35. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF AN EPIDEMIC DISEASE • The basic concept of control of an outbreak of the disease is to break the weakest link in the chain of transmission of the disease. These are three major steps: • 1. Elimination of reservoir • 2. Breaking the channel of transmission • 3. Protection of susceptible.
  • 36. ELIMINATION OF RESERVOIR • Elimination of environmental reservoir, such as air, water. • Elimination of animal reservoir means keeping the animals away from the human habitation. • Early diagnosis • Epidemiologic investigations • Isolation
  • 37. Direct Modes of Transmission • Direct modes of transmission can be broken as follows: • Contact: Transmission can be broken by avoiding physical, skin to skin contact with infectious, (contagious) cases • Droplet infection • Soil borne transmission can be prevented by using shoes while walking.
  • 38. Indirect Modes of Transmission • Vector route of transmission broken by control of vectors. • Air-borne transmission can be prevented by controlling air pollution, control of infected dust in the hospital wards and other measures such as adequate ventilation, etc.
  • 39. PROTECTION OF SUSCEPTIBLE • Immunization Programs • General measures such as improvement in the quality of life such as • good living • better nutrition • clean sanitation.
  • 40. • Immunization refers to administration of vaccines to increase the resistance of the susceptible host against specific vaccine- preventable infections. For example, measles vaccination helps to protect the child from measles infection, and BCG vaccination gives some protection from tuberculosis.
  • 41. • Chemoprophylaxis refers to the drugs given to exposed and susceptible hosts to prevent them from developing an infection. For example, individuals from non-malarial areas who are going to a malaria endemic area can take a prophylactic drug to prevent them from developing the disease if they become infected with malaria parasites from a mosquito bite.
  • 42. • Maintaining a healthy lifestyle Proper nutrition and exercise improves a person’s health status, supports the effective functioning of their immune system, and increases resistance to infection.