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Sugarcane diseases

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Sugarcane diseases

  1. 1. Sugar Crop diseases Syed Zahid Hasan
  2. 2. Red rot of sugarcane CO: Colletotrichum falcatum  Red rot is one of the oldest known diseases of sugarcane  It occurs in most cane-growing countries  Complete loss to cane production in case of severe epidemic condition  It continues to be a threat in certain subtropical countries
  3. 3. Symptoms A) Symptoms on the leaves  First symptoms are seen after the rainy season when plant growth stops and sucrose formation begins  Loss of color and drooping of the 3rd or 4th leaves are the earliest symptoms  Red patches with ash colored centre develop on the mid-rib of leaf  The entire top become wither
  4. 4. Loss of color and drooping of the 3rd or 4th leaves Red patches with ash colored centre develop on the mid-rib Entire top become wither 3rd 4th
  5. 5. B) Symptoms on the canes  The infected cane become shriveled and such canes lighter in weight and easily broken  When the diseased canes are splitted open longitudinally, characteristic red tissues are seen which are intermingled with white tissues in the pith and vascular region  The cavities filled with grayish or white mycelium are found in the pith and minute, velvety, dark dots (acervuli of the fungus) are formed near the nodes of the diseased canes and also in shrunken areas
  6. 6. Red tissues which are intermingled with white tissues in the pith and vascular region Cavities filled with grayish or white mycelium in the pith and minute, velvety, dark dots near the nodes
  7. 7. Favorable conditions  Rain and irrigation water (carrying out fungus or infectious material from one plant to another or one field to the other)  Presence of Wind and insects (Stalk borer, moth borer, sugarcane weevil)  Injury to sugarcane setts
  8. 8. Disease cycle
  9. 9. Control measures  Diseasefreecane should be used as setts  Diseasedplantsshould be dug out & burnt  Low lying areas avoided forcultivation  A2-3 years rotationshouldbe followed  Ratooningshouldbe avoided  Use of resistantvarieties,eg. Iswardi2/54,Iswardi-16,iswardi-17,etc  SettstreatmentwithBavistin DF orKnowin50WPorAimcozim50WPor Agben 50WPorForastin50WPor Genuine50WPor Cindazim50WP orAgridazim50WPor Nayan 50WPor Evazim 50WPor Haydazim 50WP or Gilzim50WPorOrgazim50WP@ 1glitof water  Application of the above mention fungicides @ 2ml/lit of water at 12-15 days interval for2-3 timesin the field
  10. 10. Smut of sugarcane CO: Ustilago scitaminea  It causes 10-25% yield loss in severe infections  Ratoon crop may suffer more
  11. 11. Symptoms  The most recognizable diagnostic feature is the emergence of a “smut whip”  Spindle leaves are erect before the whip emerges  Affected plant may produce tiller profusely with the shoots being more spindly and erect with small narrow leaves (i.e., the cane appears “grass-like”)
  12. 12. Emergence of a “smut whip” Spindle leaves are erect before the whip emerges Affected plant produce tiller profusely & grass-like appearance
  13. 13. Favorable conditions  Infected setts (Primary spread of the disease)  Wind (secondary spread by teliospore)
  14. 14. Control measures  Smuttedwhipsfromthe fieldshould be removed very carefullyandburnt  Avoid of practiceof ratooning use resistantcultivars  The smuttedcanes should not be usedas settsforplanting  Settstreatedwith0.25%AgallolorAretanor inBM(4:4:50) for 5 min  Settsalsobe treatedwith0.1%Hgcl2 or1% formalinsolutionfor5 minutes and followedby covering undermoist cloth for2 hours  Soaking of cane settsin solutionof triadimefonfungicide@ 2ml/litofwater
  15. 15. Wilt of sugarcane CO: Fusarium sacchari  It causes 10-15% yield loss in epidemic areas
  16. 16. Symptoms  The earliest symptom of the disease is the stunting & unthrifty appearance of a few isolated plants or small groups of plants at half grown stage of the plants  The most striking symptom is the yellowing and or withering of the top when the crop is getting ready for harvesting. The canes become light and hollow  The splitted cane shows brick red color with individual vascular strands. There are no white transverse bands as seen in the red rot disease
  17. 17. Stunting & unthrifty appearance of affected cane Splitted cane shows brick red color with individual vascular strands Yellowing and or withering of the top
  18. 18. Favorable conditions  Infected setts  injuries to setts  Biotic stresses like nematode, root borer, termite, scales, mealy bugs etc  Abiotic stresses like drought and water logging condition  Moisture stress coupled with high temperature and low humidity reduces plant resistance to wilt
  19. 19. Control measures  Crop debris should be destroyed  Healthysettsshould used forplantation  Proper maintenanceof soilmoistureand fertilitycanreduce the disease incidence  Settsshould be takenfromborer infestationfreecanes  Ratooning shouldbe avoided  A2-3 years croprotationshould follow  Applicationof boron and manganese canreduce thewiltincidence  SettstreatmentwithBavistin DF orKnowin50WPorAimcozim 50WPor Forastin50WPorGenuine50WPorCindazim50WP@ 1glit ofwater  Applicationof the above mentionfungicides@ 500g/hain the field
  20. 20. Pineapple disease of sugarcane CO: Ceratocystis paradoxa
  21. 21. Symptoms  Typical disease symptoms are detected in setts after 2-3 weeks of planting  Destroy the central soft portion i.e. paren- chymatous tissues of the internodes by rotting and then damages the buds before germination  The rotten portion become red and emits a characteristic smell of pineapple (production of ethyl acetate by the fungus)  If germinates, the shoot may die after reaching a height of one feet
  22. 22. Destroy the central soft portion by rotting and become red
  23. 23. Favorable conditions  Infected setts  injuries to setts  Stalk damaged by borers, rat damage or any such injuries  Drought accelerates the damage
  24. 24.  Plantinghealthysetts  The cutends of the settsshould paintedwithfungicidal solutionorby coulter  Settsshould be treatedin hotwaterat52°C for 30 minutes  Setts treatment with Bavistin DF or Knowin 50WP or Aimcozim 50WP orForastin 50WPor Genuine 50WPorCindazim50WP@1glitof water  Applicationof the above mentionfungicides@ 500g/hain the field Control measures
  25. 25. Ratoon stunting of sugarcane CO: Clavibacter xyli or Leifsonia xyli subsp. Xyli  It causes yield reduction upto 40%
  26. 26. Symptoms  The diseased cane usually show stunted growth, reduced tillering, thin canes with shortened internodes & yellowish leaves  The typical symptoms of ratoon stunting disease are found only after splitting the cane longitudinally like two types of discoloration are seen in the pith  In mature canes, orange red discoloration of vascular bundles seen at the nodes In young canes, pink color can be seen at the nodes
  27. 27. Affected cane show stunted growth, reduced tillering, thin canes with shortened internodes yellowish leaves Orange red discoloration of vascular bundles at the nodes in mature cane Pink color at the nodes in young cane
  28. 28. Favorable conditions  Infected setts  Harvesting implements (if contaminated with the juice of diseased canes)
  29. 29.  Using the disease free setts. Raising of disease free setts in nursery by the following measures-  Proper drainage and optimum dosages of fertilizers & irrigation should be provided  Timely hoeing and weeding  Weak plants should be uprooted & burnt  Rouging of stools showing symptoms of wilt, red rot and smut should also be done  Any sett that fails to germinate within a reasonable period should dug out and removed  Setts should be treated in hot water at 52°C for 30 minutes  Use disease resistant varieties for cultivation Control measures
  30. 30. Red stripe/ top rot of sugarcane CO: Xanthomonas rubrilineans
  31. 31. Symptoms  Initially water-soaked yellowish stripes occur on leaves, later become dark red  In severe infection, lateral buds show reddening, terminal buds and spindle leaves may die and causing top rot  The vascular bundles exude foul smelling yellowish gum on cut
  32. 32. Initially water soaked yellowish stripes Dark red stripes
  33. 33. Favorable conditions  Infected setts  Wet seasons  water stress due to drought & water logging  low temperatures
  34. 34. Control measures  Systematic cutting down and burning of the affected shoots (reduces the spread of the disease)  Disease resistant varieties should be used
  35. 35. Mosaic of sugarcane Cause: Sugarcane mosaic virus Vector: Different species of aphids  In mosaic susceptible varieties the yield loss could be upto 10%
  36. 36. Symptoms  The most important symptom is the appearance of pale green patches or blotches in the green surface of the leaf  These patches are not uniform in size and shape  Usually the patches are oval to elongated and parallel to the midrib  The youngest unfolded leaves show the mottling very clearly while the symptoms are not very clear in the older leaves
  37. 37. Appearance of pale green patches or blotches in the green surface of the leaf
  38. 38. Control measures  Healthy setts should be used for planting  Disease free nursery can be raised by treating the setts with hot water  Systematic rouging should be followed if the incidence is not very high  Alternate hosts should be destroyed  Disease resistant or tolerant varieties should be used
  39. 39. White leaf of sugarcane CA: Mycoplasma like organism (MLO) Vector: Leafhoppers and psyllids
  40. 40. Symptom  Initially, a single white or cream line parallel to the midrib occurs, which can be seen from either side of the blade  Later, several straight white to light green to yellow stripes develops parallel to the midrib extending along the entire leaf length  A mottled pattern of normal or light green dot, spot, streak or patch may develop on a white background, varying in size and shape  The typical symptoms of sugarcane white leaf (SWL) disease are total chlorosis of the leaf and proliferation of tillers
  41. 41. White leaf symptom Chlorosis of the leaf and proliferation of tillers White leaf symptom in field
  42. 42. Control measures  Healthy setts should be used for cultivation  Malathion should be sprayed @ 0.16% during early stage of crop growth to control insect vectors  Sett should be treated with hot water at 54°C for one and half hours
  43. 43. Grassy shoot CA: Mycoplasma like organism (MLO) Vector: Aphids  In severe cases, yield loss could be up to 40%  Its severity will be more in ratoon crops
  44. 44. Symptoms  Profuse tillering and bunchy or grassy appearance of the stools are the main symptom  Shoots growing from diseased shoots remains dwarfed or stunted  The leaves appear yellowish and in some cases may entirely devoid of any pigment (white leaf)  Leaves exhibit straight, narrow, long, white or light green or yellowish streaks
  45. 45. Profuse tillering and bunchy or grassy appearance of the stools Leaves exhibit straight, narrow, long, white or light green or yellowish streaks Devoid of any pigment (white leaf)
  46. 46. Favorable conditions  Disease infected setts
  47. 47. Control measures  Healthy setts should be used for cultivation  Malathion should be sprayed @ 0.16% during early stage of crop growth  Sett should be treated with hot water at 54°C for one and half hours
  48. 48. Thanks To All

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