Definition• “Communication,” which is etymologically related to both “communion” and “community,” comes from the Latin communicare, which means “to make common” or “to share.”• DeVito (1986) expanded on this, writing that communication is “the process or act of transmitting a message from a sender to a receiver, through a channel and with the interference of noise”
Definition of CommunicationThe process of creating and exchanging meaning through symbolic interaction. ◦ As a process communication constantly moves and changes. It does not stand still. ◦ Meaning involves thoughts, ideas, and understandings shared by communicators. ◦ Symbolic means that we rely on words and nonverbal behaviors to communicate meaning and feelings.
Definition of CommunicationCommunication is the process ofsharing our ideas, thoughts,feelings and values with otherpeople and having those ideas,thoughts, feelings and valuesunderstood by the people we arecommunicating with in the samesense.
Features of CommunicationTwo way communicationInformation sharing and understandingVerbal and non-verbalCircular flowGoal orientedContinuous process
Features of CommunicationPervasive activityTransactionalComplexUnavoidableLearned
DIRECTION/FLOW OF COMMUNICATION Downward communication represents flow of information from top level to lower levels of the organisation. Modes of Downward Communication Handbooks & Pamphlets Posters & Bulletins House Journal, Direct mail, Annual Reports, Special Meetings
MERITS OF DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION Mission and Goals Plans and Policies Duty and Authority Job satisfaction
DEMERITS OF DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION Distortion Incomplete information. Time consuming Filtration of Information
UPWARDCOMMUNICATIONIt signifies the flow of communication from the lower level to upper level.Media of upward communication are ◦ suggestion system, ◦ Grievance procedure, ◦ Open-door policy, ◦ Questionnaires, ◦ Ombudsperson.
MERITS OF UPWARD COMMUNICATION Feedback Creative ideas Better relations Overcomes resistance to change Increased motivation
DEMERITS OF UPWARD COMMUNICATION Fears and Apprehensions. Filtration Time consuming Inattention by superiors Low Morale
HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION It refers to transmission of information among persons of the same level and status. Objectives ◦ To coordinate ◦ Solve problems ◦ Resolve conflicts ◦ Exchange information ◦ Promote social relations
DIAGONAL COMMUNICATION Diagonal communication cuts across different functions and levels in an organisation.LATERAL COMMUNICATION
FeedbackWhat: Comments in the form of opinions about or reactions to something Feedback can be a desire action, an oral or written message, or simply a silence. It is the most important part of communication process.Why: To initiate and improve communication To evaluate or modify a process or product To enable improvements to be made To provide useful information for future decisions and development
PURPOSE OF FEEDBACKTo provide the information about the work to be done.To facilitate understandingTo tell subordinates about their performanceTo give specific directionsTo give information about organizational procedure and practices
IMPORTANCE OF FEEDBACKConfirmation of TransmissionSeeking Solution to ProblemIdentification of Change RequiredBetter UnderstandingBetter PlanningOverall CoordinationPsychological SatisfactionHigher ProductivityDevelopment of Employees
Nature of FeedbackPersonal ElementObservationDetailed and SpecificToneApproach
Means of Communication Media of CommunicationVerbal Nonverbal CommunicationCommunication Oral Written
Means of Communication Media of CommunicationVerbalCommunication Nonverbal Communication Body Language/ Sign Language Object movements Language Audio Sign Pictures Visual Sign Clothes
Means of Communication Means of CommunicationNon-Verbal Communication Body Language/ movements Kinesics ( facial expressions, postures & gestures) Oculesics (Role of eye contact) Haptics (Study of touching) Proxemics (Study of measurable distance between people as they interact) Chronemics (Study of use of time) Paralinguistics (Study of variations in pitch, speed, volume, and pauses to convey meaning) Physical Appearance Your physical appearance always contributestowards how people perceive you. Neatly combed hair, ironedclothes and a lively smile will always carry more weight than words.
Point of Difference Written Business communication Oral Business communicationFeedback Immediate feedbacks is not required In case of oral communication we need immediate feedback.Evidence Written message are kept as record, As no record is maintained for oral thus they can be used as evidence. communication it cannot be used as evidence.Easy acceptance In compression to oral communication On the other hand oral message are has lack of directness. easily acceptable.Directness or direct In most of the cases written It takes place in a face to face or directapproach communication has lack of directness. situation.Barriers Written communication need to It faces less barriers than written overcome more barriers than oral communication. communication.Audience size The audience size of written Audience size is comparatively small. communication is large and geographically scattered.cost It is more costly than oral It is less costly than written communication. communication.Knowledge level In case of written communication Even illiterate people can participate in minimum level of knowledge and oral communication. literacy is required.
Few Questions:What is communication? Discuss its elements in detail.Give a detailed account of FEEDBACK in Communication.What are the advantages and disadvantages of different channels of communication?Discuss the various means of communication.
BibliographyBusiness Communication by K.K.SinhaBusiness Communication Concepts and Skills by T.N.ChhabraEssentialsof Business Communication by Rajendra Pal and J.S.Korlahalli