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New diamond composite ultrahard material for drilling of hard rocks (Sobolev)

Bakul Institute for Superhard Materials (National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine) and Prokhorov Institute of General Physics (Russian Academy of Sciences) developed hybrid ultrahard polycrystalline composite material (UHM) with a polycrystalline diamond grown by CVD method (CVD diamond).

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New diamond composite ultrahard material for drilling of hard rocks (Sobolev)

  1. 1. New$diamond$composite$ultrahard$ material$for$drilling$of$hard$rocks$ Sergei&Sobolev& Russian&State&University&of&Oil&and&Gas& Supervisor:&E.E.&Ashkinazi& Prokhorov&InsAtute&of&General&Physics&& &
  2. 2. Shortly$about$the$department$ There%are%7%research%laboratories%in%the%department:% •&Laboratory&of&metallographics& •&Laboratory&of&corrosion& •&Laboratory&of&tribology& •&Laboratory&of&microFarc&oxidaAon& •&Laboratory&of&soldering&and&restoraAon&of&diamond&tools& •&Laboratory&of&ion&vacuum&coaAngs& 2& www.gubkin.ru&&
  3. 3. Application$ Currently,&diamond&tools&are&mainly&used&for&drilling& hardest&rocks.&Materials&with&improved&wear&resistance& need&to&be&used&for&drilling&on&oilfields&(for&example&sea& shelf,&oil&and&gas&fields&in&Eastern&Siberia,&etc.).& 3&
  4. 4. Core$drill$bits$with$diamond$inserts$ 4& One&type&of&rock&destrucAon&tool&is&a&diamond&core&drill&bits.&The& main&element&of&a&core&drill&bit&is&a&diamond&cuSer.& diamond&cuSer/inserts&
  5. 5. Disadvantages+of+currently+used+core+drill+bits++ 5% •  Insufficient&removal&of&the&sludge&(debris)&from&the&acAve&zone& •  Uneven&wear&of&sectors&of&core&drill&bits& •  Fast&wear&of&diamond&inserts& •  Insufficient&cooling& •  Insufficient&fixing&of&insert&with&a&matrix&& •  Not&opAmized&size&of&diamond&grains&in&the&matrix& •  Not&opAmized&locaAon&of&diamond&inserts&in&the&cuSer& We&have&analyzed&the&patents&from&different&countries&over&the&last&fiZy& years.&Currently,&there&are&disadvantages&of&diamond&core&drill&bits&as& following:&
  6. 6. Analysis+of+patents.+Results+ 6& As%a%result:% F&Low&drilling&speed& F&High&wear&of&the&core&drill&bits& F&Low&energy&efficiency& NB!%Presently,%the&wear&mechanisms&during&drilling&of&hardest&rocks& by&a&core&drill&bit&are&the&polishing/grinding&(because&hardness&of& cuSers&is&only&approximately&50&GPa).& Examples&of&the&polishing/grinding/cu_ng&wear& mechanisms&will&be&shown&in&the&next&slides.& It%is%very%important%to%stress%difference%in%abrasive%mechanisms%% (polishing/grinding/cu_ng).&
  7. 7. Difference$in$abrasive$mechanisms$$ 7& Polishing/Grinding%% homogeneous&sludge&(debris)&& size%of%50*80%micron% Grinding/CuCng% nonhomogeneous&sludge&(debris)&& sizes%of%50*80%and%100*200%micron%
  8. 8. Analysis+of+patents.+Decisions+ 8& The%properDes%of%the%diamond%core%drill%bit%must%be% improved:% •  To&provide&the&combinaAon&of&two&processes,&the& grinding&and&cuCng.&This&is&possible&if&there&is&an& element&of&hardness&of&100&GPa&or&more.& •  To&use&materials&with&different&hardness&in&the& structure&of&matrixFcompositeFdiamond&(25/50/100+& GPa).% & But%hardness%of%100%GPa%is%the%hardness%of%the%natural% diamond,%which%means:% (а)&high&cost&(b)&not&opAmal&shape&of&cuSer&(octahedron)& & &
  9. 9. Hybrid+Ultrahard+Material$ Therefore&the&Bakul&InsAtute&for&Superhard& Materials&(NaAonal&Academy&of&Sciences&of& Ukraine)&and&Prokhorov&InsAtute&of&General&Physics& (Russian&Academy&of&Sciences)&developed&hybrid& ultrahard&polycrystalline&composite&material&(UHM)& with&a&polycrystalline&diamond&grown&by&CVD& method&(CVD&diamond).& 9& The%problem%can%be%solved%by%using%CVDLdiamond%(hardness%140%GPa)%
  10. 10. Hybrid+Ultrahard+Material$ 10& •  Hardness&of&CVDFdiamond&is&140&GPa&(40&GPa&higher&than&natural&diamond).& •  The&shape&of&CVDFdiamond&insert&is&a&plate&(thickness&of&the&insert&does&not& change&during&drilling).& CVD&diamond&size:&4,0×1,0×0,5&mm&(length&x&width&x&thickness)& DCTM%& The&ultrahard&hybrid&material&(UHM)&includes&CVDFdiamond&insert& and&diamond&composite&thermostable&materials&(DCTM)&matriх& (around&CVDFdiamond&insert&)& The%UHM%has%the%following%properDes:%
  11. 11. Vickers$hardness$of$CVD>diamond$insert$ 11& The&hardness&value&was&found&by&the&following&formula&& HV#=#1.8544#*P/d2,&& & where&P%is&the&indentaAon&load,&d%is&the&arithmeAcal&mean&of&two&diagonals&of&the&indent.&& & The&indent&diagonals&were&measured&using&a&Neophot&opAcal&microscope&at& a&magnificaAon&of&х800.& The&UHM&hardness& was&measured&on&a& PMT&microtester&with& a&Vickers&diamond& pyramid&as&an& indenter&at& indentaAon&loads&of& 4.9%and%9.8%N.%%
  12. 12. Patents+(Russia+and+Ukraine)$ 12& «Diamond%polycrystalline%composite%with%the% reinforcing%diamond%component»% Authors:%E.E.&Ashkinazi,&V.G.&Ral’chenko,&V.I.&Konov,&A.P.& Bolshakov,&S.&G.Ryzhkov,&S.S.&Sobolev& Categories:%C04B35/528,&B24D3/04& Date%of%applicaDon:%2013F07F19& Date%of%the%publicaDon:%2015F10F01& This&UHM&material&is&protected&by&patents&in&Russia&and&Ukraine.&
  13. 13. The$hardness$gradient$ 13& Applying%of%an%ultrahard%component%(CVDLdiamond)%allows:% (a)&prefracture&of&rocks&by&cu_ng&as&a&wear&mechanism& (b)&progressive&rock&shredding& (c)&removing&drilling&sludge&(debris)&from&the&contact&area& (d)&increase&in&the&service&lifeAme&of&diamond&inserts& (d)&increasing&energy&efficiency&and&durability&core&drill&bit& CVDLdiamond%(140%GPa)%% DCTM%(~50%GPa)% Diamond%matrix,%% body%of%the%drill%bit%(~25%GPa)% Another&property&of&material&is&the&hardness&gradient.&
  14. 14. Structure$of$Ultrahard$Hybrid$Material$(UHM)$ UHM&is&a&diamond&polycrystalline&composite&with&CVDF diamond&insert.&Composite&includes&the&dispersible& strengthening&addiAve&and&powders&of&diamond&and&metals.&& 14& Structure,%Mas.%%% Diamond&powder&and&CVD&diamond&insert&& 85F90& Nickel&& 7F9& Cobalt&& 2F4& Nanopowder&of&tungsten&carbide&& 0,1F3,0& The&UHM&was&sintered&in&a&high&︎pressure&process&in&two&stages:&& 1.  At&the&first&stage&the&material&was&subjected&to&heat&treatment&at&a& pressure&of&8&GPa&and&temperature&of&1170&K&for&50&s.&& 2.  Then&the&temperature&was&increased&to&the&silicon&melAng&point& temperature&(1570&K)&at&the&given&pressure&and&held&for&90&s.&
  15. 15. Chemical&Vapor&DeposiAon&(CVD)&of&diamond& CVD&diamond&was&deposited&in&Methane&(CH4)/Hydrogen& (H2)&plasma&in&the&microwave&oven&on&Si&substrate&on&the& UPSAF100&unit& •  power&F&5&kW,&& •  frequency&F&&2,45&GHz,& •  gas&pressure&in&the&camera&F&95F100&Torr,&& •  concentraAon&of&CH4&F&10%,&& •  temperature&of&a&substrate&F&850F870&°C,&& •  deposiAon&rate&~&5,0&microns/h.&& & AZer&deposiAon&the&diamond&plate&was&detached&from&Si& substrate&by&solving&of&substrate&in&acid&(HF).&Plate&was& cuSed&into&smaller&pieces&by&means&of&a&laserFbeam& technique.& 15&
  16. 16. Research$ Hybrid&Ultrahard&Material& 16&
  17. 17. Turning$of$Korostyshev$granite$ The%main%task&was&to&study&wear&mechanisms&of&DCTM&with/without&CVDF diamond&insert.&Two&samples&were&used:& 17& &DCTM&without&CVD&diamond&& DCTM&with&CVD&diamond&& DCTM%–%diamond%composite%thermostable%material% The&wear&resistance&of&a&rock&destrucAon&tool&equipped&with&UHM&was&esAmated& in&a&turning&test&against&Korostyshev&granite&(drillability&index&–&XI,&high&hardness,& high&abrasive&resistance).&Test&was&done&on&the&DIPF200&screwFcu_ng&lathe.&
  18. 18. Properties$of$granite$ Granite%is%used%as%a%hard%rock%material.%Its%properDes:% • MediumFgrained&(the&size&of&grains&is&from&2&to&5&mm)& • Average&density&is&2600F2800&kg/m3& • Weak&porosity&(to&1,5%)& • Slight&water&absorpAon&(0,5%)& • Good&resistance&to&an&abrasion& • Compressing&strength&90&…&280+&MPa& СomposiDon%of%granite:% • Feldspars&(about&40.&60%),& • Quartz&(20.&40%)& • IronFmagnesium&silicates&(to&10%)& • Micas&and&etc.& 18&
  19. 19. Wear$tracks$on$a$cylindrical$ Korostyshev$granite$sample$$ 19&
  20. 20. Wear$mechanism+ 20& DCTM% % Polishing/Grinding%% homogeneous&sludge&(debris)&& size%of%50*80%micron% DCTM%with%CVD% % Grinding/CuCng% nonhomogeneous&sludge&(debris)&& sizes%50*80%and%100*200%micron%
  21. 21. Wear&intensity&(mg/m)$ Wear&intensity&on&DCTM+CVDFdiamond&insert&is&several& Ames&smaller&(5,5&Ames&for&black&CVD&and&10,4&Ames&for& white&CVD)&than&wear&intensity&on&DCTM&sample&without& CVDFdiamond& 21& Wear&intensity,&10F3&mg/m&& Wear%intensity%%=%∆m%/%L% ∆m&&F&weight&loss,&mg& &L&F&path&length,&m& &
  22. 22. Effect$of$«Self>sharpening»$ 22& It&should&be&noted&that&there&is&an&interesAng&effect&of&«selfF sharpening».&It&is&the&emergence&of&a&cone&with&sharp&edges&on& the&surface&of&DCTM&with&CVDFdiamond&insert.&This&effect& improves&the&abrasive&ability&of&the&cuSer.&
  23. 23. Tests$on$abrasive$wheels$ 23& Equipment%was%designed%for%the%study%of%tribological%properFes%of% diamond%drilling%cuGer.%
  24. 24. Equipment$layout$ 24&KinemaFc%scheme%
  25. 25. Sample$loading$setup$ 25& Abrasive%wheel% •  Electrocorundum& •  Ceramic&matrix& •  Size&of&the&main&fracAon&of&600F700&microns& •  K6V2&brand&25&and&60&with&a&graininess&60& Samples% •  DCTM& •  DCTM&with&CVDFdiamond& Load& 6F80&N&
  26. 26. Experimental$conditions$ 26& •  Load&F&6F80&N& •  Time&of&tests&–&12&s&F&30&min& •  RotaAon&frequency&F&31F69&rpm.& DCTM&and&DCTM+CVDFdiamond&samples&were&weighed& with&an&accuracy&of&±0,0001&g&(ViBRA&HD).& & The&trajectory&of&the& sample&is&a&spiral& («step»&F&5&and&10&mm).&&
  27. 27. Results$ 27& DCTM+CVD& DCTM& Weight&loss,&mg& Distance,&m& For&the&same&weight&loss&the&distance&in&the&case&of&DCTM&samples&was&about& 10&Ames&smaller&than&in&the&case&of&DCTM+CVDFdiamond&samples.&& & In&other&words,&the&lifeAme&of&DCTM+CVDFdiamond&samples&is&about&10& Ames&longer&than&for&DCTM&samples.&
  28. 28. Friction$tests$against$silicon&carbide$(SiC)$ (Tribometer$T>10)$ The%main%task:% •  Measurement&of&fricAon& coefficient.& •  Measurement&of&the&wear& intensity&(mg/h)%on&silicon& carbide&against&DCTM&and& DCTM&with&CVDFdiamond&& samples.& 28&
  29. 29. The$results$of$friction$test$on$DCTM$sample$ •  Load&Q=20F50N,&& •  RotaAon&frequency&N=50&rpm& •  Sliding&speed&Vck=0,1&m/s,&& •  Diameter&of&the&sample&d=4&mm.& •  Total&Ame&of&the&experiment:&57,9&h& •  Total&weight&loss:&∆m&=&5&mg& •  Wear&intensity&(mg/h):&VDCTM=0,086&mg/h& 29& FricDon%coefficient:%0,1F0,15&%%
  30. 30. The$results$of$friction$test$on$DCTM$with$CVD> diamond$insert$sample$ •  Load&Q=20F50N,&& •  RotaAon&frequency&N=50&rpm& •  Sliding&speed&Vck=0,1&m/s,&& •  Diameter&of&the&sample&d=4&mm.& •  Total&Ame&of&the&experiment:&2,0&h& •  Total&weight&loss:&∆m&=&41&mg& •  Wear&intensity&(mg/h):&VDCTM+CVD=20,5&mg/h& 30& FricDon%coefficient:%0,11F0,48&%
  31. 31. Comparison$of$the$results$ •  Wear&intensity&on&silicon&carbide&sample&(speed&of&weight& loss,&mg/h)&against&DCTM&with&CVDFdiamond&insert&in&dry& sliding&fricAon&is&about&240&Ames&higher&than&wear&intensity& against&DCTM&without&CVDFdiamond.& •  FricAon&coefficient&in&dry&sliding&fricAon&for&silicon&carbide& against&DCTM&sample&is&smaller&than&against&DCTM+CVDF diamond&(fDCTM=0,1F0,15,&fDCTM+CVD=0,11F0,48).& 31&
  32. 32. Surface$structure$of$DCTM$(20x20$mkm)$ 32&
  33. 33. Surface$structure$of$CVD>diamond$(20x20$mkm)$ 33&
  34. 34. Surface$structure$of$sample$(closeup)$ 34& 500x350mkm& From&previous&two&slides&we&can&conclude&that&the& porosity&and&roughness&of&CVDFdiamond&is&smaller& than&that&of&DCTM&matrix.& DCTM&matrix& CVDFdiamond&&
  35. 35. Main$conclusions$ 1.  DCTM+CVDFdiamond&insert&samples&showed& beSer&performance&than&DCTM&samples.& 2.  The&results&of&the&present&study&may&have&a& substanAal&importance&for&the&development&of& drilling&tools&(core&drill&bits).& 35&
  36. 36. Thanks+for+your+ attention!$ 36& Сергей Соболев sobolev.ceo@gmail.com

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Bakul Institute for Superhard Materials (National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine) and Prokhorov Institute of General Physics (Russian Academy of Sciences) developed hybrid ultrahard polycrystalline composite material (UHM) with a polycrystalline diamond grown by CVD method (CVD diamond).

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