Hiv infection !!


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Hiv infection !!

  1. 1. HIV infection ! By: Dalal Alanazi
  2. 2. Introduction A pregnant woman visits the gynecologist. She is afraid that she might be HIV-infected. She is a refugee from zimbabwe. Her husband is HIV-positive. She is worried that if she turns out to be HIV-positive , probably her baby would be infected as well . She does not know if her health insurance will covar all her costs. she is also afraid to talk to her husband about her worries and she wants to know that if he needs to know that she is being tested for HIV .
  3. 3. Objective ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ Definition of viruses. Classification and types of viruses. Pathogenesis of virus. Definition of HIV. Difference between HIV-1 & HIV-2. Difference between HIV & AIDS. Pathogenesis. Stages of HIV and their symptoms. Diagnosis. Does the refugee centre provide insurance for HIV. Treatment. Prevention. Epidemiology of the world and Zimbabwe.
  4. 4. Viral
  5. 5. What is the virus ₪ Virus are the smallest infectious, and typically contain either DNA or RNA But not both. ₪ A virus can replicate only inside the living cells of an organism. ₪ Viruses can infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants.
  6. 6. The classification of viruses based on ₪ Type of nucleic acid DNA or RNA and the number of strand of it single or double. Except the Mimivirus contain both DNA and RNA ₪ The shape of nucleic acid: segmented Linear circular
  7. 7. “The classification of viruses based on” Cont .. ₪ Polarity of viral genome :  positive stranded RNA virus ( +ve ) Or sense strand: Viral genome can be used directly as mRNA, (coded information about how to build proteins).  Negative strand RNA virus ( -ve ) Or anti-sense strand: Transcripts have first to be made, (which does not encode mRNA ). ₪ The envelope: It would be presence or absence. ₪ The symmetry and Asymmetry of the nucleocapsid “Type of the virus”.
  8. 8. Type of the virus ₪ Helical (spiral ) symmety ₪ Icosahedral (Cubical symmetry) Symmetry
  9. 9. Cont .. “Type of the virus” ₪ Enveloped ₪ Combined Asymmetry (Complex)
  10. 10. Viral pathogenesis is the process by which viruses produce disease in the host. Viral pathogenesis can be divided into several stages, including: ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ Entry into the body. Initiation of infection at a primary site. Activation of innate protections. An incubation period, when the virus is amplified and may spread to a secondary site. Replication in the target tissue, which causes the characteristic disease signs. Host responses that limit and contribute “immunopathogenesis” to the disease. Virus production in a tissue that releases the virus to other people for contagion. Resolution or persistent infection/chronic disease.
  11. 11. HIV infection
  12. 12. Definition of HIV ₪ HIV infection is a condition caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). ₪ This condition gradually destroys the immune system, which makes it hard for the body to fight infections. ₪ It causes acquired immunodeficiency virus (ADIS).
  13. 13. Difference between HIV-1 & HIV-2: ₪ HIV-2 is lower transmissibility. ₪ HIV-2 develops more slowly. ₪ MTCT )Mother to child transmission) is relatively rare with HIV-2. ₪ HIV-2 is found primarily in West Africa. ₪ HIV-1 is more common worldwide.
  14. 14. The most methods of transmission of HIV are: ₪ Sharing needles with infected person. ₪ Having sex with infected person. ₪ A pregnant women can transmit the virus to her fetus through their shared blood circulation, or a nursing mother can pass it to her baby in her breast milk. HIV/AIDS can’t be transmitted through: ₪ Toilet. ₪ Sharing Utensils. ₪ Mosquito.
  15. 15. Risk factor of HIV ₪ Have unprotected sex (do not use condoms). ₪ Are a man who has sex with other men. ₪ Have or have recently had a sexually transmitted disease such as hepatitis B&C. ₪ People who inject drugs or steroids, especially if they share needles. ₪ Babies who are born to mothers who are infected with HIV.
  16. 16. Pathogenesis of HIV
  17. 17. Stage 1: Primary HIV Infection ₪ The first stage is called acute infection. ₪ It is often accompanied by a short flu-like illness ₪ It typically happens within 2 to 6 weeks after exposure or becoming infected. ₪ During this stage there is a large amount of HIV in the peripheral blood and the immune system begins to respond to the virus by producing HIV antibodies. This process is known as (seroconversion).
  18. 18. The symptoms of HIV infection for stage 1 Headache Fatigue Fever vomiting Sore throat Diarrhea that lasts for more than a week
  19. 19. Stage 2: Clinically Asymptomatic Stage ₪ This stage lasts for an average of ten years ₪ During this period without symptoms, HIV is slowly killing the CD4 T-cells and destroying the immune system. ₪ Blood tests during this time can reveal the number of these CD4 T-cells. For an HIV-infected person, the number of CD4 T-cells steadily drops. No clear symptoms appear *
  20. 20. Stage 3: Symptomatic HIV Infection ₪ AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is the advanced stage of HIV infection. When the CD4 T-cell number drops below 200, people are diagnosed with AIDS.
  21. 21. The symptoms of stage 3 ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ Being tired all of the time. Swollen lymph nodes in the neck . Fever lasting for more than 10 days. Night sweats. Unexplained weight loss. Purplish spots on the skin that don't go away. Shortness of breath. Severe, long-lasting diarrhea.
  22. 22. Diagnosis
  23. 23. The HIV Test: ₪ Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This test is usually the first one used to detect infection with HIV. If antibodies to HIV are present (positive), the test is usually repeated to confirm the diagnosis.
  24. 24. Cont .. ₪ Western blot. This test is more difficult than the ELISA to perform. ₪ Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This test finds either the RNA of the HIV virus or the HIV DNA in white blood cells infected with the virus.
  25. 25. If you receive a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, several types of tests can help your doctor determine what stage of the disease you have. These tests include: ₪ CD4 count. - CD4 cells are a type of white blood cell that's specifically targeted and destroyed by HIV. - CD4 count vary from 500 to more than 1,000= healthy person . - CD4 count becomes less than 200 =HIV infection progresses to AIDS. ₪ Viral load: - This test measures the amount of virus in your blood.
  26. 26. Baby’s investigation of HIV after birth ₪ Most HIV tests look for antibodies to HIV, not the virus itself. But these tests aren’t very useful for babies born to HIV-positive mothers. WHY ? ₪ That’s because the mother’s HIV antibodies get into the baby’s blood during pregnancy. If the mother is HIVpositive, the regular HIV test will show that the baby is HIV-positive, even when that isn’t true.
  27. 27. Treatment
  28. 28. Treatment ₪ Anti-retroviral medicines work by stopping the HIV from making copies of itself . To strengthen the immune system. The amount of virus in your body (viral load) is decreased. Allows your body to make more CD4 T cells. ₪ Commonly three different types of medicines are taken together. This is called combination therapy. And that helps to prevent the virus from becoming resistant to the medicines. These medicines are usually taken for life.
  29. 29. The classes of anti-HIV drugs include: ₪ Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). It disables a protein needed by HIV to make copies of itself. ₪ Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). They are faulty versions of building blocks that HIV needs to make copies of itself. ₪ Protease inhibitors (PIs). It disables protease, another protein that HIV needs to make copies of itself. ₪ Entry or fusion inhibitors. These drugs block HIV's entry into CD4 cells. ₪ Integrase inhibitors. Raltegravir (Isentress) works by disabling integrase, a protein that HIV uses to insert its genetic material into CD4 cells.
  30. 30. ₪ HIV is a disease that requires a lot of management including doctor visits and treatments. - Fortunately, most major health insurance will cover HIV treatment under normal circumstances. Unfortunately, there are some exceptions that can occur and some concerns of which you should make yourself aware. ₪ Because HIV is a relatively new disease, a lot of treatments and medications for it are still experimental. For the most part, insurance companies are not required to cover experimental medications and treatments for HIV.
  31. 31. Prevention
  32. 32. How to protect your baby from getting HIV : ₪ Mother-to-child transmission of HIV can be prevented by using antiretroviral drugs, which reduce the chances of a child becoming infected with HIV from 20% to less than 5%.
  33. 33. How to prevent women from getting HIV ₪ Don't have sex. ₪ Don't use drugs or alcohol with sex. ₪ Use a condom.
  34. 34. Epidemiology
  35. 35. Epidemiology ₪ Zimbabwe is one of the five countries hardest hit by HIV and AIDS globally. One in five Zimbabwean adults were living with HIV and AIDS in 2009 while approximately 66,073 people died of AIDS related causes. ₪ It is estimated that 343,460 adults are in need of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART).
  36. 36. Summary ₪ Viral ₪ HIV infection - Pathogenesis - Stages of HIV Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Epidemiology
  37. 37. Any Question
  38. 38. Reference ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ ₪ df/PatientBrochure.pdf