This highly malignant tumor has a distinctive cell type. The epithelial cells are relatively small, with scant cytoplasm, ill-defined cell borders, finely granular nuclear chromatin (salt and pepper pattern), and absent or inconspicuous nucleoli (see Fig. 15-43C ). The cells are round, oval, or spindle-shaped, and nuclear molding is prominent. There is no absolute size for the tumor cells, but in general they are smaller than three small resting lymphocytes. The mitotic count is high.
Stages of LC
STAGES OF LUNG CANCER
HAMAD EMAD H. DHUHAYR
• definition of LC CECIL
• Histology of ROBBINS AND NETTER PATHOLOGY
• steges of LC MU AND EMEDICEN WEBSITE
• Lung cancer (e.G., Bronchogenic carcinoma) arises from the
• Lung cancer is divided into two major histologic groups: non–small
• Cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC).
• NSCLC Accounts for approximately 85% of all lung cancer.
• Other less common pulmonary Neoplasms include adenosquamous
carcinoma, carcinoid tumors, Bronchial gland tumors, soft tissue tumors
(e.G., Sarcomas), pulmonary blastomas, And lymphoma.
Accounts for the remaining 15 percent of lung cancers in the united
SCLC results from smoking even more so than NSCLC, and grows
more rapidly and spreads to other parts of the body earlier than
It is also more responsive to chemotherapy.
This is the microscopic pattern of a small cell anaplastic (oat cell)
carcinoma in which small dark blue cells with minimal cytoplasm are
packed together in sheets.
• About 85 percent of lung cancers. Among them are these types of tumors:
1. Adenocarcinoma is the most common form of lung cancer in the united states among both men
2. Squamous cell carcinoma (which is also called epidermoid carcinoma) forms in the lining of the
3. Large cell carcinomas refer to non-small cell lung cancers that are neither adenocarcinomas nor
• Microscopically, the adenocarcinoma-in-situ (formerly bronchioloalveolar carcinoma) is composed of
columnar cells that proliferate along the framework of alveolar septae, a so-caled "lepidic" growth
pattern. The neoplastic cells are well-differentiated. These neoplasms, a form of adenocarcinoma, in
general have a better prognosis than most other primary lung cancers, but they may not be detected at
a low stage.
Squamous cell carcinoma
• This is the microscopic appearance of squamous cell carcinoma with nests of polygonal cells with
pink cytoplasm and distinct cell borders. The nuclei are hyperchromatic and angular.
Large cell carcinomas
• The cells typically have large nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and a moderate amount of
SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER STAGING
• Limited stage:
cancer is in one lung, sometimes including nearby lymph nodes.
• Extensive stage:
cancer has spread to the other lung, the fluid around the lung (the
pleura) or to other organs in the body.
NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER STAGING
• Stage I: the cancer is located only in the lungs and has not spread to any lymph nodes.
• Stage ii: the cancer is in the lung and nearby lymph nodes.
• Stage iii: cancer is found in the lung and in the lymph nodes in the middle of the chest, also described
as locally advanced disease. Stage III has two subtypes:
a) If the cancer has spread only to lymph nodes on the same side of the chest where the cancer
started, it is called stage IIIA.
b) If the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes on the opposite side of the chest, or above the collar
bone, it is called stage iiib.
• Stage iv: this is the most advanced stage of lung cancer, and is also described as advanced disease.
This is when the cancer has spread to both lungs, to fluid in the area around the lungs, or to another
part of the body, such as the liver or other organs.
• Non-small cell lung cancer staging uses the TNM system:
• Tumor(t) describes the size of the original tumor.
• Lymph node (n) indicates whether the cancer is present in the lymph nodes.
• Metastasis (m) refers to whether cancer has spread to other parts of the body, usually the liver,
bones or brain.
• A number (0-4) or the letter x is assigned to each factor. A higher number indicates increasing
severity. For instance, a T1 score indicates a smaller tumor than a T2 score. The letter X means the
information could not be assessed.