Philosophy 2 англ

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Philosophy 2 англ

  1. 1. Ministry of education and science, youth and sports of UkraineRivne State Humanitarian UniversityPhilosophy.Pedagogics.SocietyCollection of scientific works of the RSHU2ndIssueEstablished in 2011Rivne – 2012
  2. 2.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 2UDC 1+37+316.3BBК 87+74+60F-561Reviewers: M. M. Zakovych – Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy),professor of the culture studies department of NationalTeacher Training University named after M. Drahomanov;S. V. Lisova – Doctor of Sciences (Pedagogics), professor,director of the Institute of Pedagogical Education ofInternational Economics and Humanitarian Universitynamed by academician Stepan Demyanchuk, actualmember of APSSS. S. Troyan – Doctor of Sciences (History), professor, thehead of the International Relations and country studiesdepartment of Rivne Institute of Slavonic Studies of KyivSlavic University.F-561 Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society: Collection of scientificworks of the Rivne state humanitarian university. – Rivne :publisher O. Zen‟, 2012. –347 s.ISBN 978-617-601-024-1Conception of the collection is based on scientific actualizationof methodological principles of humanitarian knowledge andillumination of inner-practical potential of sciences about a man andsociety. Created for the specialists of humanitarian and socio-politicalsciences.UDC 1+37+316.3BBК 87+74+60ISBN 978-617-601-024-1 © Rivne State Humanitarian University, 2012
  3. 3.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 3Editor in Chief:L. M. Shugaeva – Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), Professor, Head ofPhilosophy Department of Rivne State Humanitarian UniversityEditorial Board:I. I. Bulyha – Candidate of Philosophy, assistant professor ofphilosophy of Rivne State Humanitarian University (Executive Editor).V. V. Verbets’ – Doctor оf Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor, Head ofArts and Pedagogics Department of Rivne State HumanitarianUniversityM. M. Hon – Doctor of Sciences (Political Sciences), Professor, Headof of Political Sciences Department of Rivne State HumanitarianUniversity.V.I. Dokash – Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), Professor, Head ofSociology Department of Chernivtsi National University named afterYuriy Fed‟kovychT. D. Demjaniuk – Candidate of Pedagogy, Professor, Head of Theoryand methods of education Department of Rivne State HumanitarianUniversity, Honored Worker of Education of Ukraine.I. M. Dychkivs’ka – Candidate of Pedagogy, Associate Professor ofthe Department of Pedagogy and Psychology (preschool) of Rivne StateHumanitarian University, corresponding member of APSS (executiveeditor).S. I. Zhyliuk – Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor, Head of theDepartment of Religious Studies of National University "OstrogAcademy"S. A. Lytvynenko – Doctor оf Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor,Professor of Applied Psychology and Psychotherapy Department ofRivne State Humanitarian University.I. V. Malafiyik – Doctor оf Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor, Head ofDepartment of General an Social Pedagogy and acmeology of RivneState Humanitarian University, corresponding member of APSN.R. V. Pavelkiv – Doctor оf Sciences (Psychology), Professor,academician of the Academy of Sciences of Higher School of Ukraine,Director of the Institute of Psychology and Education, the head of theage and pedagogical psychology department of Rivne StateHumanitarian University, honored Educator of Ukraine.
  4. 4.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 4S. S. Pal’chevsky – Doctor оf Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor,Professor of general education and acmeology Department of RivneState Humanitarian University, honored teacher of Ukraine.O. B. Petrenko – Doctor оf Sciences (Pedagogy), Professor, Professorof age and educational psychology Department of Rivne StateHumanitarian University.T. I. Ponimans’ka – Candidate of Pedagogy, Professor, Vice-Rector,Head of Department of Pedagogy and Psychology (preschool) of RivneState Humanitarian University, corresponding member of APSS,excellent public educator of Ukraine.R. M. Postolovs’ky – Candidate of History, Professor, Rector, Head ofWorld History Department of Rivne State Humanitarian University,Honored Scientist of Ukraine, Corresponding member of InternationalSlavic Academy of Sciences, corresponding member of APSS.P. Y. Sauh – Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), professor, academicianof the Academy of Sciences of High School of Ukraine, HonoredAcademician of the International Academy of Personnel, Rector, Headof the Philosophy Department of Zhytomyr State Ivan FrankoUniversity named after I. Franko, honored educator of Ukraine.N. H. Stokolos – Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor, Head ofPhilosophy and Social Sciences Department of Rivne Institute ofSlavonic Studies of Kyiv Slavic University.G. M. Shvetsova-Vodka – Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor,Professor of library and bibliography sciences Department of RivneState Humanitarian University.P. L. Yarots’ky – Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), Professor, ChiefResearch Specialist of Religious Studies Department of the Institute ofPhilosophy named after H. Skovoroda of National Academy of Sciencesof Ukraine.Published under decision of the Academic Councilof Rivne State Humanitarian UniversityProtocol № 7 dated 27 January 2012.Editorial address:Department of Philosophy of Rivne State Humanitarian University,Ostafov Str., 29, Rivne, 33027
  5. 5.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 5CONTENTPhilosophyBabak I. V. 9 Phenomenology of national and ethnicidentity in the context of individualself-awareness developmentDokash V. I. 17 Predestinational EschatologyLishchuk N. D. 24 Believer‟s Existential Motives ofConfessional Membership Optionin the Content of Modern ReligiousLife TransformationMel‟nychuk M. S. 33 Philosophical and religious analysisof modernization trends in theProtestantism‟s artMel‟nychuk Y. I. 42 Orthodox sermon as a socio-culturalachievement of the Ukrainian nationMyshkov V. Y. 52 Old Believers polemical literature ofthe 18th century and its philosophicalmeaningKobernik N. I. 62 Social-cultural factors influencingthe worldview formation of cyril andmethodiusRudenko N. M. 71 Problem of non-violence inChristianitySugayeva L. M. 77 The main trends of religiousdevelopment in global worldShamsutdynova-Lebediuk T. N.86 Modern relations of men and womenin Islam
  6. 6.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 6Shevchuk K. S. 96 The main problems of Georgii Chelpanovcreative work in his Kyiv periodPedagogicsVerbets‟ V. V. 109 Phenomenological principlesof students‟ spiritual worldDziubyshyna N. B. 119 Reformation of education in thecontext of Czech national revival(the end of 18th– the first halfof 19thcentury)Domanyuk O. M. 128 Forms of work of preschooleducational establishment and familyon issue of social development ofpreschool children in the theory andpractice of preschool educationKokareva A. M. 135 On the Problem of the Peculiaritiesof Educational Process Organizationaccording to the Credit ModuleTraining TechnologyLytvynenko S. A.,Pavelkiv K. M.141 Formation of reflexive culture in theprofessional training of future teachersMysyk I. H. 149 The peculiarities of the Instituteof Continuing Education in UkraineMyshkariova S. V. 162 Organizational basis of the orthodoxsocieties in Western Ukraine in theinterwar period (1921-1939)Nechyporuk L. I. 169 Dialogue in the personalitycommunicative activities as a socialrequirement of the 21 century
  7. 7.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 7Pal‟chevsky S. S. 178 The problems of the educationalcontent in the light of it‟s modernphilosophyPetruk L. P. 185 Thinking-speech culture formationfor specialists‟ for humanities in thecourse of rhetoric studiesRudenko V. M. 192 Pedagogical reflection of cultureunder the educational globalizationSmolinchuk L. S. 201 Tests as a vital part of methodologicalsystem in evaluation of educationalstandardsSorochyns‟ka T. A. 207 Principles of moral culture formationof Soviet for teachers in Rivnepedagogical institutions (1939–1950):historical and pedagogical discourseTadeyeva I. M. 215 Qualities education in talented juniorschoolchildrenTymochko I. B. 225 Creating of public libraries andreading rooms as one of educationaland civic activities of the Volynbraternities (second half of the XIX –beginning of the XX centure)SocietyHon M. M. 234 Peculiarities of the Ukrainian historicalmemory formation during thedemocratic transitHrypych S. N. 246 Informatization of modern society:state, problems, prospects
  8. 8.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 8Desyatnychuk I. O. 256 Freedom of speech and influenceof public opinion in Czechoslovakiain the period of "Prague Spring"Lukoms‟ka O. I. 267 State regulation levers of bankinginvestment activity in UkrainePavelkiv R. V. 280 Understanding of individual moraldevelopment in line with psychologicalparadigmPerzhun V. V. 292 Social solidarity as a factorof consolidation of Ukrainian societyStupnyts‟ka N. I.,Stupnyts‟ky V. V.302 Philosophy of TV leisure as areflection of the Ukrainian economyPhylypovych L. O.,Havrilova N. S.311 Religious education in Ukraine: stateand prospectivesShkriblyak M. V. 321 Historiosophical analysis of archivalsources about the role and placeof „secular element‟ in social andreligious processes of Berestechko andpost-Berestechko periodYamnyts‟ky V. M. 337 Spirituality of a personality:psychological approach
  9. 9.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 9PHILOSOPHYUDC:37.013.44:159.923.2I. V. BabakPHENOMENOLOGY OF NATIONAL ANDETHNIC IDENTITY IN THE CONTEXT OF INDIVIDUALSELF-AWARENESS DEVELOPMENTІn this article, the interpretation issue of ethnical and nationalidentity as main factors of self-consciousness formation is beingexamined, for identification of national and ethnical identity takes placewhen the notion of nation is being interpreted as ethnical nation andwhen national and ethnical identity denote different notions when theidea of nation-state is considered.Key concepts: identity, nation, ethnos, national identity, ethnicalidentity.Determination of the problem. The late XX – early XXIcenturies saw the growing interest to the phenomenon of identity, theorigins of one‟s nation and ethnicity observed in Ukraine and othercountry with the general change of outlook.This is what makes such research up-to-date. Very often whenlooking into the issue of national and ethnic identity as the key factorsof conscious personality formation these notions are taken to be thesame or used interchangeably. Thus, the objective of the research is todiscern the idea of the category of "identity" and consider the categoriesof both ethnic and national identities.State of the scientific research of the problem. The categoriesof identity and identification are relatively new for psychology andsociology. Zigmund Freud was the first to point out the need of a childto identify oneself with a particular outward object in that allows it togrow cognizant of what it is itself. E. Ericsson was among the first whopioneered the theory of identification. The academic stressed that anindetity of an individual originates from personal association withceaseless existence in time and space dimensions and comes from theacceptance of such association by others. Studying the human life cycle
  10. 10.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 10he arrived at the conclusion that identity is "mechanisms of individualintegration into groups of different levels be it a family, work team,people and general public". This way, the focus was on the social aspectthat validates idea of individual identity. Psychologists Adler, Allport,Kettel, Rodgers and others look upon the category of identity as acertain interpretive system that enables cognizance of similarity anddifference of separate objects as well as awareness of homogeneity ofan individual personality. In other words what is emphasized here isindividual an social aspects of identity formation.With all the factors that condition the personal development itmakes sense to discern psycho-phisological, personal and socialidentities. The former one assumes cognizant acceptance of an ownorganism, unity of psychological and physiological processes that takeplace within.The second one finds its ground in the agreement of aims, motivesand value objectives. As the Ethnic reference book states the personalidentity takes in one‟s attitude to one‟s own past, present and future.At the same time this category is characterized by agreement ofcertain social norms, roles, statuses, and involves one‟s understandingof personal belonging to the certain social group or category. It finds itsexpression thru such main sorts of social identity as national and ethnicidentities.The notion of ethnos comes from Greek (a stranger, a pagan) andetymologically defines a herd, a group, a crowd of people, a people, atribe, a kin etc. The Dictionary of terms for intercultural communicationdefines the term as "a category of evelotionary chain of genesis andbuild-up of an ethnos in its broadest meaning". It entails the category ofethnic identity the definition of which Ethnic dictionary gives as "asense of belonging to a certain ethnic community, and ones‟ uniformitywith other members that comes from the shared historical memory,remembrances about the ancestors that binds one to their fatherland".There are several conceptual percpectives of how to regard thecategory of ethnic indentity. One of those considers the latter as"development of processes of genetic selection and accommodation toenvironment". Such ethnic identity is looked upon as a combination ofhistoric and cultural attributes, namely group self-title, common historicmemory, a sense of Fatherhood, etc.
  11. 11.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 11Depending on the levels of individual self-consciousness andhomogeneity one observes either relaxation or reinforcement of one ofthose components. Thus, some scholars like B. Andersen, F. Bart,D. Gorovets and others consider the ethnic identity as a variable thingthat has a situational character.The difference in this respect accounts for different typologies ofethnic identities. American scholars J. Mackey, and F. Lewins definefour types of it. The first type is the one of minimum identity that takesin accommodated indivudials with low ethnic self-awareness. Thesecond one is about the ones of relative ethnicity, these are those whoretain touch with the members of their ethnic group though their ownethnic identity is developed inconsiderably. The third type involves themarginal ethnicity that is attributed to so-called ethnic orphans whohave a clearly formed ethnic self-awareness yet have no touch with theirown ethnic group. The 4thtype of maximum ethnicity goes forindividuals with the high level of strong ethnic self-awareness whoactively contribute to the group activities and guard its interests.Canadian ethnosociologist R. Breton comes up with a slightlydifferent typology based on the factors that unify an ethnic group. Thescholar defines the first type as the one of the identity based on thespecific objects of symbolic meaning (food, clothes, artwork). Thesecond type takes in individuals whose identity relates to traditions andcultural life of the ethnic group. Identity that comes for the ethnicitynative tongue is the one of the third type while the fourth type derivatesfrom "friends" of own ethnos. The fifth type, according to R.Breton,relates to identity formation of which takes place on the grounds ofneeds and objectives of a certain ethnic group.The nature of thnic indentity makes it multilevel. This wayindividuals can be self-conscious of their belonging to ethnic groups ofdifferent planes, for instance, a Ukrainian comes as an ethnos, while agutzul and a Slav stand for subethnos and meta~ethnic unityrespectively. In our view it is reasonable to apply this sort of typologicalapproach in regard to the caterogy of national ethnicity as well.When evolving ethnic identification comes in few stages whichas the Jean Piazhe concept of a child development has it are correlatedwith the stages of a child psychological formation that build up the ideaof belonging to the certain ethnic group. A 6~or 7 – year old child gets
  12. 12.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 12only fragmentary and unsystematic of its ethnic belonging. In 2 yearstime a native tongue and home location makes a child be clearly awareof its ethnic origins. The age of 10–11 years forms understanding ofethnic identity that comes from one´s unique history of a people,specific cultural conventions that put one apart from other peoples orethnic groups. Consequently it leads to emotional and assessingawareness of one´s belonging to a certain ethnic group in the time ofadolescence. Though J. Piazhe makes the notions of ethnic and nationalidentities equal, in our view these two are different in some respects.The idea of national identity is derivative of an idea of the nationwhere the latter comes as social and political category that outlines therelations between a people and a state that takes in the citizens of thisvery state. Arrival of a nation is defined by longtime processes thatestablish interpersonal bonds within the group through a buildup ofsocial communication and mobility, and transformation of a politicalsystem. Ernest Renan who came forth with the psychological theory ofnations claimed that a nation is, above of all, a great group of peoplebonded with a spiritual principle, great solidarity and moral awareness.He found a proponent of the theory in the American academic WalkerConnor who presumed that one of the main attributes of a nation is theirintuitive perceptions of common kinship and uniqueness. Andindividual objectively at his birth comes to belong to a certain nation hetakes himself to be a part of the latter and identifies himself wit it.The primitive society saw belonging to your kin or a triberegarded as one´s ethnos as a critical attribute of self-identification.With a growth of the numbers of tribes initially and locally tied anotherfactor came to matter. It was culture that took in a native tongue andreligion. Once a national state emerged cultural attributes of self-identification gave way to social and political ones. Establishment ofnational states saw a simultaneous formation of national self-awarenessof an individual that consolidated people and made them more mobilesocially.The category of "national" implies cultural attributes of a people(language, religion, philosophy, genera outlook) while the category of"ethnic" evolved through kinship relations that defined a belonging ofan individual to a certain group. This is can be regarded as the mostobvious difference between these two categories.
  13. 13.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 13Thus, a national self-conscience forms in a particular period ofstate history as a consequence of political, economic and socialprocesses that drive a society at this very moment. L. Zaliznyakbelieves that Ukrainian ethnic nation formed throughout the period of16-17thc.c. as a result of social and cultural processes of the epoch.J. Piagei identifies the notion of ethnic and national identity,although, in our opinion, there existed a significant difference.Definitions of national identity stems from the concept of"nation", which refers to the socio-political category that indicatesrelationships with people of a certain country and combines the citizensof this state. Because of nations is the result of a long process ofdeveloping interpersonal relationships between group members throughthe development of social communication and mobility, transformationof the political system. Founder psychological theory of nations, ErnestRenan, noted that the nation – "is, above all, a large group of peopleunited by a spiritual principle, great solidarity and moralconsciousness" [1, p. 223]. Similar opinion has American scientistWalker Connor. He noted that one of the main features of the nation is‟intuitive sense of kinship and uniqueness" [1, p. 223]. Individualobjectively from birth belongs to a nation, he considers himself a part ofit, that identifies itself with it.So in primitive society was the main feature of identificationbelonging to a tribal group, means ethnicity. With an increasing numberof communities of the same type and their relatives from each locationto the forefront another unifying factor – the culture, the basis of whichat the time was the language, religion. With the emergence of thenation-state cultural factors identify changing socio-political.Simultaneously with the formation of national states to consolidatepopulation and its social mobility emerging national consciousness ofthe individual.Category indicates the national cultural characteristics of thepeople (language, religion, philosophy, and worldview). While the term"ethnic" arose from blood ties, that indicates the individual belonging toa particular ethnic group. This is what we think is the differencebetween national and ethnic categories.Thus, national identity is formed in a specific historical period ofdevelopment of the state as a result of political, economic and social
  14. 14.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 14processes that prevail in society. According to L. Zaliznjak [4]Ukrainian nation was formed during the XVI-XIX centuries. Influencedby social and cultural processes of the time. With XVII century andnineteenth centuries ethnic consciousness was transformed into anational liberation wars as a result, the common market, the formationof language, national culture, which led to the formation of nationalidentity. In turn, the basis of national identity is national identity. Itfollows the definition of national identity as "forms and processes inwhich there is self-identification of individuals with a certain nationalcommunity" (with M. Makhniy) [5, p. 60]. At the same time, a sense ofnational unity does not arise spontaneously, and, largely, is formed as aresult of purposeful activity of parents, caregivers, teachers, and publicpolicy.According to surveys conducted by the Kiev InternationalInstitute of Sociology, the determining factors of the nation 51.1% ofrespondents indicated the language [8, p. 8]. But there is acontradiction – in one state citizens can communicate with two or morelanguages. In Ukraine, for example, during the Soviet era Ukrainianlanguage was demeaning, optional for study. In the independent state ofthe Ukrainian language enshrined constitutionally, but in spite of this, asnoted above, a significant percentage of native Ukrainian considerRussian language as their native language. So, the question, "Whatlanguage do you think native?" 60.64% chose the Ukrainian language,36.63% consider Russian their native, and the remaining respondentschose another language [8, p. 6]. Also, the main feature of the nation‟s41.06% of the respondents called culture. And at different stages of itsdevelopment, as a consolidating factor, stopped, there was destructionof the achievements of the nation. Today the situation has improvedthough, but due to the difficult economic situation, not enough supportfor the rehabilitation and further development.Simultaneously a significant role in the formation of theUkrainian nation plays a religion. But in Soviet times, there were nonew religious formations, and the Orthodox Church was in decline.Lack of religious education, we believe contribute to the moraldegeneration of the nation. Therefore, at the present stage ofdevelopment of the state focuses on the restoration of religioustraditions as a source of renewal and memory consolidation.
  15. 15.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 15However, national identity includes and political identity that isformed in the process of formation of separate states, and as a result –the creation of political and social institutions, the main task – theconstitution of political community and distinguish among othercommunities. It follows that the concept of national identity synthesizeshow cultural factors and socio-political.In the book "National identity" Anthony D. Smith identifies fivekey elements of national identity:1) historic territory, or homeland;2) historical memory;3) a common mass culture;4) common legal rights and duties of all members of the nationalcommunity;5) a common economy with the ability to move within thenational territory [3].M. Ihnatyef identifies the following elements of national identity:- Community of equal citizens;- Patriotism, which is shared by all representatives of politicalpractices and beliefs [2].Ethnic identities as a scientist examines a set of language,religion, traditions, simultaneously, are integral elements of the nationalidentity [2].Thus, the phenomenon of national identity lies in recognizingindividual a part of the community and because of the existence in it.The formation of national identity is a series of stages in itsformation. For example, A. Volkogonov and I. Tatarenko identifiedthree main phases:1. Phase of ethnic differentiation. At this stage, the awareness oftheir own group, the differences between we and they.2. Phase of development of auto-and hetero-stereotypes. Formednational character, knowledge of psychological features not only theirethnic group, but also other ethnic groups. Ethnic stereotypes create asystem that collects standardized collective experience and is part of themass consciousness.3. Phase of formulating national ideal. This stage is a kind ofcombination of the previous two, because the idea of combining theirown ethnic group and its social and historical value orientation. At this
  16. 16.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 16stage, emerging model of the future, the foundation of which is thepartial or complete change in the established order of things [2].The organization of national identity mainly distinguishes twocomponents [2]: cognitive and affective components. Such asknowledge, understanding of the peculiarities of their own group and anawareness of it that have motivated ethnic differentiation signs, and asense of belonging to the community, assessment of its own position inthe union.Conclusions. Thus guided by research of Anthony D. Smith andO. Volkogonov, I. Tatarenko the national identity is seen as belongingto a particular individual national community based on certain spiritualand psychological characteristics of the individual, which are formed inthe process of socialization in a historic environment and manifestlifestyle of the individual. Meanwhile, as the ethnic identity of theindividual – is the awareness of being part of a particular ethniccommunity. Accordingly, awareness of their own national identity andperception of themselves as members of ethnic groups not only providesoptimum socialization of the individual, but also allows for personalfulfillment in the process of matching their own attitudes, beliefs,values, norms of one national community to which a person identifieshimself. Therefore, in our opinion, that the identification of the conceptsof "ethnic identity" and "national identity" is possible only when theconcept of nation is treated as an "ethnic nation", and have differentmeanings when talking about "nation-state."List of sources and literature1. Бацевич Ф. С. Словник термінів міжкультурної комунікації /Ф. С. Барцевич. – К. : Довіра, 2007. – 205 с.2. Волкогонова О., Татаренко И. Этническая идентификация илиискушение национализмом [Електронний ресурс]. – Режимдоступу:http://www.hse.Ru/journals/wrldross/vol01_2/volkogonova.htm.3. Эриксон Э. Идентичность: юность и кризис [Електроннийресурс]. – Режим доступу:http://www.zipsites.ru/psy/psylib/info.4. Залізняк Л. Від склавинів до української нації [Електроннийресурс]. – Режим доступу:
  17. 17.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 17http://militaryhistory.narod.ru/natiota4yn.html.5. Картунов О. В. Вступ до етнополітології: Науково-навчальнийпосібник / О. В. Картунов – К. : ІЕУГП, 1999. – 300 с.6. Рудницька Т. Етнічний довідник [Електронний ресурс]. –Режим доступу: http://etno.uaweb.org/glossary/i.html.7. Сміт Ентоні Д. «Національна ідентичність» / Д. Ентоні Сміт. –К. : Основи, 1994. – 224 с.8. Хмелько В. Лінгво-етнічна структура України: регіональніособливості та тенденції змін за роки незалежності /В. Хмелько // Наукові записки НаУКМА. – Соціологічнінауки. – Т. 32. – 2004. – С. 3–15.UDC: 9274.38-175(492) „15/16”V. I. DokashPREDESTINATIONAL ESCHATOLOGYThe article examines the predestinatsion eschatology of JacobArminius, it shows the position regarding the theory ofpredetermination of Calvinism. Displayed specific doctrine ofarminianism – the concept of universalism, which will be saved for all,not just selected ones.Keywords: predetermination, infrasupralapsarism,supralapsarism, salvation, grace, soteriology, universal redemption,free will.When it goes about Reformation in modern scientific literature, itis all about such personalities, as Luter, Calvin, Tsvinger, andsometimes Muntser. One forgets about the fact, that all of them used tohave opponents. That‟s why, it should be pointed out, that there is anopinion among the Protestant theologians, which originated from theXVI century, when two traditions came into being – Calvinism andArminianism: it seems impossible to imagine the Reformation period inthe history of Protestantism without John Calvin and Jacob Arminian.Both of them are considered to be the founders of Reformationmovement, since they created the fundamental principles ofProtestantism. Thus, in terms of our study we will deal with the analysis
  18. 18.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 18of the eschatological ideas of these theologians, in particular thedebatable problems, arising among them.It‟s should be pointed out that there were a lot of discussionsbetween these theologians primarily about the doctrine of predefinition,which they called predestination (the concept, created by J. Calvin toname the theory dealing with the human fate, destined before the worldcreation. He rejected the opportunity for the human to deserve salvationby himself or to change his fate; he promised salvation only for thechosen ones, absolutized the principle of inevitability of mercy(guarantees the salvation for the chosen ones). Calvin understands it asundoubted double choice of some people for salvation, others – forelimination. Protestant theologian A. Negrov considers that basically,the dispute concerned 5 points of the theory of predestination as aneschatological program of salvation: a) the human‟s Fall; b) the God‟swork to choose the human for salvation; c) the global salvation ofmankind through Christ‟s death; d) the nature of God‟s mercy; e) thepossibility to loe salvation [3, p. 67]. According to A. Negrov, neitherArminius nor Calvin had created 5 points of predestination, whichdefine the dogmas of Calvinism and Arminianism [3, p. 69].Taking into account the fact, that the problem of correlation ofpredestination theory and Calvin‟s doctrine of predestination lacksdetailed study, it seems logical to analyze these opposing definitionsand to conduct the comparative analysis of these approaches in terms ofsalvation problem.The aim of this article is to define the peculiarities of JacobArminius‟ predestination eschatology and its difference from Calvin‟stheory of predestination.The aim defines the following tasks:1. To analyze the doctrine about predestinational theology;2. To conduct a research on the theory of freedom of human‟swill in choice of salvation;3. To conduct a comparative analysis of basic principles ofpredestinational eschatology and Calvin‟s theory of predestination.The problem under investigation is not studied enough. Fewscientists and theologians have investigated it, among them: D. Korner,T. Lein, A. Negrov, S. Sannikov, S. Golovaschenko, B. Hegglund andothers.
  19. 19.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 19Determination of the problem. Theologians have differentpoints of view on the problem of predestination – the choice accordingto the realization of eschatological principles of salvation. It was mostlycriticized by Arminians, whose leader, the Danish theologian JacobHarmandzon (1560–1609), took the Latin name of Arminius. The basicfeature of Arminius‟ theory is the idea of predestination (predefinition),which, though, is understood in a different way than by Calvin, andwhich in this way gave birth to an alternative direction. According tothis, Arminianism can be considered a reaction to the Calvin‟s doctrineof predestination.In his work "Announcement of opinions" (1608) Arminiusrejected the idea of Augustine Calvin – the idea of undoubted choicethat God chooses people before salvation in spite of theirvirtues [2, p. 195]. However, Arminius agreed with the fact, that theability of doing something good depends on accepting God – mercy.Besides, Arminius gave a man freedom to accept or to refuse from thismercy or salvation correspondingly. Thus, God‟s choice(predestination) of people, according to Arminius, isn‟t founded onGod‟s separate choice, but on the preknowledge of human‟schoice [2, p. 86]. Rejecting ultra-predestinational ideas, Arminiussuggested new understanding of eschato-soteriological ideas of Calvin,emphasizing the incompatibility of Calvin‟s statements about the factthat God can be the initiator of sin and also about the fact that a humanis always manipulated by God‟s power [3, p. 69].It should be pointed out that only after a year on Arminius‟ death(1610) his followers formulated their theory of predestinationaltheology and explicably reflected their ideas in a number of works, firstof all in the document, called "Remonstrance" (Latin Remonstro –refuse), which was presented to the Danish government (Calvinism wasan official religion those days). That document looked like asystematized answers to the Calvin‟s dogmas [3, p. 69-70}. Thus, thereis an opinion, that Arminianism started with Remonstrance, in otherwords, with the application from the 14thof January 1610, whichrevealed 5 articles, representing disagreement with the predestinationdoctrine. Remonstrance was signed by 46 church preachers of the DutchReformational Church. The first part of Remonstrance included theprotest against supralapsarism (Calvin‟s theory about the fact, that
  20. 20.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 20predefinition on salvation existed before the Fall, and it was exactly it,which led to the Fall) and infrasupralapsarism (Calvin‟s theory whichconfirms the fault of a human in his Fall, and only after the Fall God‟spredestination revealed itself, choosing some people for elimination andothers for salvation) and also against the idea of limited expiation(Protestant theory about the fact that only predestined chosen humanshave the right to be saved, which is traditional for Calvinists) and thetheory of eternal safety of a Christian, the idea of which lies in the fact,that predestined and saved people would under no circumstances losesalvation. The second part of Remonstrance dealt with understandingthe doctrine of choosing:a) predestination is determined by faith, condemnation – byunfaith;b) Jesus Christ redeemed everybody through his death, but onlybelievers will receive forgiveness;c) faith doesn‟t come from human, but from God;d) mercy is beyond everything;e) it helps to stay in faith till the end and to saveoneself [2, p. 186].As you can see, everything in the five articles of Remonstranceclearly points to human free will and its part in the process of salvation.Arminius, similarly to Calvin, considered the man absolutely sinful, andhe didn‟t believe that people could choose the side of God of their ownfree will. However, when Calvin went much further and stated thatSalvation was inevitable (meaning that it didn‟t depend on the sinner‟spersonal desire to be saved), Arminius claimed that God‟s mercy couldmerely provide balance for the sinful elements in our souls, so that wecould decided on our own whether or not we wanted to be saved. Weought to note that unfortunately most of Calvinists consciously orwithout thinking accused Arminianism of pardoning the man for hisrighteous merits or good deeds [1, p. 54–55]. Accordingly, in return,Arminians often deliberately distorted the teachings of Calvinism,stating that its followers allowed people to live irresponsibly, since theywere already pardoned for every misdeed ever committed.It should be stressed that the dispute between Arminianism andCalvinism continued during the entire history of Christianity and hadreached its culmination in the XX century [4, p. 301–302]. Arminius
  21. 21.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 21distrusted the eschatological fate of the principle of predestination whenhe created the teaching of the all-embracing mercy (which was reservedonly for the chosen in Calvinism). On the ground of this beliefArminius also rejected the teaching of eternal damnation [1, p. 54–55]that was a characteristic part of Calvinism.Arminian positions in defense of human free will, as opposed tothe teaching of predestination, were listed in the following five articlesof Remonstrance:1. Predestination is not absolute but conditional (since the finalsalvation depends on human free will).2. The ultimate redemption (salvation is offered to everyone, butonly those who truly believe can receive it).3. The man has the right of free will, but only his faith can bringsalvation (as he cannot achieve it and be redeemed without God‟smercy in Christ through the Holy Spirit).4. Overcoming of salvation (God‟s mercy is all-embracing, butnot everyone is willing to accept it).5. Lack of confidence in the inevitability of salvation for thechosen (because the Gospels do not declare that salvation, onceachieved, cannot be lost again) [1, p. 499–500; 3, p. 70–71].`When we examine the eschatological functionality of the doctrineof predestination in the scope of these articles, we can clearly see theessential difference when comparing it with the Calvinistic approach.First of all, if Calvin brings out predestination of salvation and places itahead of the predefined will of God, Arminius talks about God‟ssovereignty. Secondly, Arminius, unlike Calvin, raises the question ofsalvation for everyone who is willing to accept Christ‟s mercy. Thirdly,even if he relates salvation to God‟s mercy, Arminius never stops takinginto consideration human free will, when Calvin rejects it completely.And fourthly, if Calvin declares the inevitability of predestination forthe chosen, Arminius assumes the possibility of the loss of salvation.Revisiting the five principles of predestination which disagreewith Calvinistic dogma, we can discover numerous interpretationaldifferences, provided by Arminius‟s followers. For instance, if they donot reject Calvin‟s idea of the sinful, Jacob Arminius considers the "sin"more like a "necessity" than a "loss". Yet he also finds human willextremely weak and not worthy of salvation without God‟s mercy.
  22. 22.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 22In common opinion, the followers of Calvin accused Arminius ofbeing biased when he correlated salvation and human deeds or humanfree will, since in his teachings the human couldn‟t accept God withouthis mercy, and yet people were able to resist God‟s intentions byvoluntarily committing evil acts. At that Arminians believed that not onlythe chosen ones, but all people were capable of answering the Gospelcalling (it was another cardinal disagreement with Calvinism). Arminiansclaimed that without God‟s mercy there could be no salvation. Thedegree of sinfulness or righteousness had little to no effect on humanability to choose "good" by turning to God, or "evil" by rejectingpresented salvation. According to their doctrine, God in his mercy,through the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, had opened to all men the possibilityto be saved from eternal damnation (Jhn. 3:16), but the ultimate decisionto accept salvation remained entirely in the hands of the human [3, p. 74–75].There is yet another contradictory matter of "unconditionalatonement" which Arminians did not discard, but reinterpreted in aradically new way: 1) Christ was predestined to be the savior onmankind; 2) those who believed in Christ were consequentlypredetermined to salvation, and the unbelievers were fated to go to hell;the acceptance or refusal of Christ had no connection to God‟s divineplans; 3)God ruled over people wisely and justly by offering them themeans of faith and repentance; 4) the enactment of salvation ordamnation of a particular person was based on God‟s predestination forthose who would accept his forgiveness and be saved, as well as forthose who refused it and consequently were doomed. Taking it all intoaccount, the general conclusion was such that the believers in Christwere fated to be saved, but the acceptance or refusal alone was notpredestined by God.Acknowledging God‟s sovereignty, without endowing it withabsolute power, Arminians believed that God‟s spirit or his divine willalways remained an inseparable part of his heavenly character, and thusit was equally righteous, loving and just when dealing with sinners aswell as with those who deserved to be saved.Appealing to the principle of justice, Arminians, unlikeCalvinists, supposed that all people – not only the chosen ones – werecapable of accepting the gift of salvation which was universally offered
  23. 23.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 23by Jesus Christ [3, p. 76–78].In the context of the discussion of Christ‟s redemptive sacrifice,there were several points of view on the subject of atonement for humansins; one of the was the so-called "unlimited universalism" (Christ‟ssacrifice allowed everyone to be saved, that idea was supported by theUniversal church and Arminius‟s followers); "inconsistentuniversalism" (the protestant doctrine, according to it, God hadpremeditated salvation, but not everyone was fated to be saved)accepted by a number of liberal theologians, Lutherans and certainArminians; and, finally, "restricted salvation" of Calvinists, whosupposed that God‟s will as a means of deliverance was directedtowards everyone, however, only those who accepted the Gospels, orthe good news of salvations, were predestined to be saved – that ideaalso became an integral part of the theory of "limiteduniversalism" [3, p. 79–81].The central point that unites the theological theories of Arminiusand Calvin is that salvation cannot be achieved without mercy, since theconsequences of the Fall make it impossible for the man to save himselfalone. However, Arminius denied the principle of inevitable salvation.According to his conviction, the human can accept or deny not only thegood news of salvation in faith, but the salvation itself (freedom ofhuman will makes it possible). Since this gift is offered as a free choice,it is considered "acceptable by all" in Arminianism (Calvinists considerit an act of human will, without the consequences of potentialacceptance or refusal) [3, p. 82–83].Calvinists and Arminians also disagree on their interpretations ofthe principles of the insistency (or firmness) of saints. If Calvinistsclaim that the chosen ones remain firm to the end, Arminians, withoutrejecting the possibility of the saints to keep firm in their convictionsand ultimately be saved, suppose that any believer in Christ is capableof loosing his faith which leads to damnation. They also accept thepossibility of consequential forgiveness and redemption which theyconsider "repeated conversion" or a renewal of the very first, originalrepentance [3, p. 84–85].Conclusions. Summing up our analytical studies, we can say thatthe eschatological views of Jacob Arminius are more realistic andpositive than those of John Calvin. Predestinational eschatology of
  24. 24.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 24Arminius has a strong propensity toward anthropocentrism, while theone of Calvinism is absolutely christocentric. If Calvin offers the manonly the faith in the potentiality of salvation, Arminius makeseverything depend entirely on human free will. Arminius, realisticallyconsidering the phenomena of faith, rejects the Calvinistic principle ofinevitable predestination and accepts not only the loss of faith, but alsothe possibility of the right to accept salvation once again throughrepentance. The predestinational eschatology of Jacob Arminius doesn‟tlimit the number of those people who can be saved; it anticipates thepossibility of salvation of everyone on the basis of consistent faith andGod‟s mercy.List of sources and literature1. Корнер, Дэниэл Д. Вечное спасение на условии веры / Корнер,Дэниэл Д. – Title Verlag, 2003. – 588 с.2. Лейн Тони. Христианские мыслители: Пер. с англ. / ТониЛейн. – СПб., 1997. – 352 с.3. Негров Александр. Кальвинизм и арминианизм. Сравнениедоктрин / А. Негров // Богомыслие. – Вып. № 6. –Одесса, 1997. – С. 677–88.4. Санников С. В. Двадцать веков христианства. Второетысячелетие / С. В. Санников. – Учебное пособие по историихристианства: В 2-х т. – Одесса, 2001. – Т. 2. – 700 с.UDC: 291.4N. D. LishchukBELIEVER’S EXISTENTIAL MOTIVES OFCONFESSIONAL MEMBERSHP OPTION IN THE CONTENTOF MODERN RELIGIOUS LIFE TRANSFORMATIONThe article deals with the modern person’s motivation of choiceof belief as the search of way out from the "unreal existence".Humanism based on the principles of Christianity causes the necessityof independent responsibility for the fullness of life. The perspective ofconstructive religious life transformations in Ukraine is connected with
  25. 25.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 25the growth of influence of the directions that accent belief as self-determination of a person.Key words: social interaction, an active activity, personal faith,salvation, freedom, responsibility, evangelical Protestantism.Determination of the problem. After political declaration of exitfrom totalitarian forms of social organization and the proclamation ofUkraine‟s European choice the biggest challenge of the present stage ofnational history is the formation of a new way of life with a newoutlook and behavior. Recreation of old forms of social interaction isimpossible because of the loss of their system background. Hence, it isappropriately to identify new incentive factors of effective socialcooperation. In a totalitarian country different means of individualactivity, constructive initiative and enterprise of its citizens are ofparticular importance. New social ideology requires support in suchforms of social consciousness, which have the most widespread impactand admittance. The combination of these elements are inherent inreligion. The Soviet regime artificially restrained deployment of selfreligious communities, thus overcoming ideological alternative andrecognizing its effectiveness veiledly. As since religion can become adriving force of positive social changes in Ukraine the impact on theorganization of individual and social life, which is carried out byassociations of evangelical Protestants should be examined. First, theseareas of modern Christianity do not have internal church statusdifferences resolved by Ukrainian Orthodoxy that prevent theunification of society. Secondly, the successful development ofEuropean countries of the modern epoch and the USA is associated withthe influence of Protestantism.General analyses of studies of the problem. Ukrainian scholarshave resorted to a comparative analysis of the Protestant communitiesabroad and Ukraine, and they apply the method of historical analogy,investigating a question of the social transformation and the emergenceof civil society in Ukraine. Various aspects of these issues are examinedby such authors as P. Yarotsky, V. Liubaschenko, M. Cherenkov,O. Spys and others. The articles and monographs reflect methodologicalprinciples of philosophical and religious studies of Protestantism and itsmain directions. The position of consideration of Protestantdenominations as a phenomenon of culture is perspective one.
  26. 26.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 26A universal side of culture comes forward as an alternative toideological monologism of the previous position of opposition to somehistorical forms of Christianity. These aspects, in particular, areexamined in the works of V. Litvinov and S. Shkil.A position of consideration of the modern protestantism as afactor of religious freedom has a constructive content. Ukrainianscholars - P. Yarotsky, V. Liubaschenko, V. Nichyk analyze the issue ofreligious freedom in the context of existential aspects of sacred life. Inthese works the authors draw a reasoned conclusion as for generaltrends of Ukrainian classical philosophy to examine religious ideas inconnection with existential questions.The a im of the article. In spite of the specific historical differencesof the content of life different epochs and generations the problem ofrealization of an individual of himself as a subject of being is still urgentbecause of the constant reproduction of its fundamental attributes. In thephilosophy of the twentieth century this problem was considered frompositions that are different from the methodological requirements of theparadigm of postmodernism of the XXI century, and it encourages theestablishment of dialogic communication and pluralism.In this approach, not a single ideological position can be the onlycorrect one, and the one that exhausts the true meaning of any of theissue. In this connection, it is expedient to analyze whether the directionof modern Christianity offer constructive guidance on the challenges offreedom, or offer "escape from freedom" through the entire externalregulation of lifestyle. In this subject any direction of modernProtestantism should be investigated, and especially Pentecostalismshould be investigated which is the most common in Ukraine.The main material. Pentecostalism as a direction of theevangelical Protestantism is based on the belief in personal salvationthrough personal faith. Emphasis on a personal content here is notdefined by anthropocentric self-sufficiency, as it has happened invarious historical forms of ideological paradigms. Stressing allocationof a person‟s position in formation of his life behavior, evangelicalProtestantism is based on Christian theology. Defining principles ofhuman existence are submitted beyond the human world here. Personalnature of faith relates to revealing to subjectivity of a believersbehavioral orientations. Since a believer is a conscious subject in the
  27. 27.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 27acts of faith, and not a passive object of ritual manipulations, themeasure of his freedom and responsibility is increasing.Protestant evangelical movement essence as representatives of aradical reformation is found in declaring their independence fromgovernment and politics. The evangelical community is not focused onisolation from public life, but distinguishable from the subordination ofsocial hierarchy. Not a single person, following a status or economicgrounds of ambitious claims to dispose lives of others, can not reach thelevel of capabilities of the Trinity. This basic idea of Christian teachingis an essential element of conservative evangelical faith content thatdefines the limits of human identification. An underlined difference ofGod and human nature characterizes the essence of theocentricaloutlook which Protestantism does not change. Man is not equal to Godin the possibilities, so man is not able to obtain salvation. Protestantismadvocates this study of Christian soteriology by teaching people not togo wrong by life choices. What combination of radical and conservativeelements of evangelical movement does contribute to their rapid spreadin different continents? Why is evangelical Christianity growing moredynamically than historical churches, if, in pertinent remark ofM. Cherenkov: "In today‟s world, people do not inherited religion, theychoose it?" [1, p.66].In the case of spiritual searching, selecting areas for developmentand communication modern man first shows interest to those forms ofcommunication that are different from the known and familiar ways ofsocial interaction. Having a choice in the search for faith, the individualis trying to compensate the absence or lack of severity of response to hisrequests known for him by social institutions. Institutionalized form oforganized interaction of programmed functions that minimizes theimportance of personal manifestations of the individual, is one of thedefinitions of "unreal being" in the philosophy of existentialism.If the experience a previous relationship is suffering due to lackof disinterested attention, sympathy from others, a person, keeping hopefor positive changes, looks for fundamentally different basis forcommunication. When a person‟s loneliness is associated with apermanent impression of undervaluing of his merits and possibilities, hefinds the need to go beyond the limits of previous ideologicalorientations, including religious.
  28. 28.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 28Exploring religious experience in its diversity, William Jamesopposes the church and evangelical faith as a social institution and asthe appointment and status of spiritual life. Identification ofevangelical Christians as members of the spiritual movementdetermines V. Haradzha determines in such way: "Not as a publicauthority, not as a church – organized force, but primarily as aspiritual and moral force, religion now has the opportunity to enterinto dialogue with the world, whose fate now depends on the moralcapacity of society, from the solution of global problems" [3, p. 215].After an initial refusal to focus on the materiality of the hierarchicaldivision of social and religious life, as well as qualitativeheterogeneity of the late Protestantism as a spiritual movement it isopen to representatives of any social strata. Dynamic spread of thismovement is associated with openness to finding new forms ofrelations between subjects of social structure.Membership in the Protestant community with its social andtheological position encourages the individual to activity. Activity as anormal everyday behavior is part of media rights as a subject ofindividual and social life. Subjective activity is not considered to be aprerogative of some famous people. Isolation of a human from massdoes not provide for its opposition to others. The essence of this changein the relationship that stop the practice of dissolving the individualnature of the mass. Understanding of being chosen becomes differentfrom previous corporate traditionalist norms of justification. In aprevious history of Christianity religious institutions allocated just forthemselves a closeness to God and brokering the appointment of its ownmission to determine the mass form of communication with the Creator.With the appearence of Protestantism faith had to awaken in mandifferent way of orientation of behavior, because there was a publicdemand of capitalism, which began to emerge at a greater measure ofautonomy of the individual. So "human dignity which was oftenneglected by historic churches through denial of human rights for directcommunication with God was restored" [6, p. 37]. Immediacyimplement human tasks in harmony with religion at this time and withsimilar demands turn to self-responsibility in all these spheres. As sincemodern civilization has not departed from this set orientation, and hasreasons to deepen it, should further consider the relationship of renewed
  29. 29.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 29Protestant religion with renewed dignity. Can this renewal be a basis forovercoming the alienation between people and leaving the "unreal life"?Human dignity in the context of its direct relationship with Godmeans to determine its capacity to a level of communication, and that itis worth it. God‟s perfection requires improvement from man himselfwho is a direct participant of communication. A removal initiateschanges intermediaries and former static image of man.Activity is a basis of the dynamic transformation of the individualand his relationship. A negative motivation of alienation changes – "Ido it for someone, but not for myself. "The level of freedom that opensto believers the later Protestantism is not only a present, but also it is atest. This is particularly evident when considering the history of theEvangelical Church during the totalitarian state. Freed from what it didbefore the church, the believer gets rid of guaranteed care, a choicemade by others. Responsibility of permanent search for solutions lies ona believer. Protestant author V. Karpunin observes: "Freedom couldgive people "a burden "because its implementation is often associatedwith overcoming of doubts and hesitations, with sustained resistance tosuffering, with worthy endurance to carry a cross, which God put oneach of us" [ 4, p. 30]. The difference between religious and secularunderstanding of freedom is explained by comparing of their results.Proclamation of complete independence of free personality, which isitself a support often leads to rampant acts of tyranny. Christian authorsexplain the importance of the principle of solidarity (subsidiarity) thatbalances self-determination of a person. H. Neuhaus justifies it thisway: "The principle of subsidiarity puts the human person at the centerof making any decisions, so that the community becomes closer to theman and his problems and thus proclaims priority of small livingenvironments to large anonymous community" [5, p. 51]. Restriction ofpersonality in teaching of modern evangelical Protestants is determinednot by control of other people, but by the objective correlation ofelements of a being that in religious interpretations is expressed as alack of comparability of God and man. Freedom of the life process as anindefinite flow reflects the irrationality of the human dimensions ofexistence. Manifestation of superhuman irrationality in expression offreedom the evangelical Protestantism examines through the idea ofbeing chosen. Exclusivity does not come from causation available to a
  30. 30.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 30human thinking and it does not subject to their unambiguous simplicity.Only God as the determining basis of the laws of existance is its source.Human freedom can not be absolute, because a person does not have thecharacteristics and capabilities of the absolute.Thus, the guide and support of human freedom is God. "Godspeaks to a personality, to the individual, and therefore you can not hidebehind the other, you can not dissolve in a meeting of people but youhave to bear personal responsibility before Him" [6, p. 33] – explains therepresentative of evangelical Protestantism I. Podberezkyi. Issues that gobeyond human capabilities of salvation and eternal life, go beyond humanfreedom. The Bible directly expresses these boundaries through Christ‟sanswer to the question of desciples "Who can be saved?": "It is notpossible for a man." History and purpose of God coming to the earth isconnected with the inability for the person to solve the question ofsalvation. The idea of a primary human sinfulness is defined by reallimitations of the human race. The humanity can‟t solve the problem ofsin, therefore, the humanity can not be guided by the principle of internalself-determination of tribal life. Thus stating the sinfulness of a man, hisconnectedness with the evil the Protestant doctrine does not permitfreedom of evil and sin in any case. Evil – is something that exists and isinherent in man, but it is not what it should be, as an acceptable norm.Since the determination of a human being is beyond the possibilities of ahuman race, and the norms of moral goodness in their biblical meaningreflect the ontological significance of constructively creative orientationof behavior. In moral prescriptions of the doctrine of evangelicalProtestantism our contemporary in search of a new faith, finds a supportof one‟s hope for the best, because one is convinced in the lack ofnecessary character of evil. At the same time the required content isproved by not only correlation of the world‟s existential definitions, butalso by the understanding of life as formation. On the human level, thiscreates a demand for fair labor, which stands out among the most visiblesigns of evangelical Christianity and stems from their content.Protestantism in general has changed the previous valueorientation of religious activities. In medieval times the religiosityexpressed through mystical contemplation; Protestantism hasestablished a norm of activities both in church and in everyday life. Ademand for active relation to reality, which is the only way to convert
  31. 31.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 31and save the world, connects other parts of evangelical faith of itseschatology. The definition of finitude of human existence orientatesthe problem of the sense of life on limitation of personal consumptionand waste, motivates charity and enterprise.Charity or stimulation of enterprise is not essential for understandingthe motivation of commitment to late Protestant directions. Thecombination of these behavioral requirements is important, because none ofthese elements in this system of belief is not the goal in itself. Activity ofabeliever in its directions foresees an achievement of well-being with asocial result, but not with individual or collective result.By focusing on the allocation of the individual as a subject offorming of his own views and behavior the same individual isaccostomed not to oppose his needs and desires of others, and to act onthe basis of solidarity. The emphasis on the necessity of solidarity inconjunction with the requirements of the general welfare attracts toevangelical Protestants those citizens for whom the outlook is asignificant issue of patriotism.The idea of necessity of achievement a welfare by the individualnot for everyone, but for himself – this idea meets the objectives of amarket economy. The combination of a market and private property, asthe real history shows,can make extremely dehumanizuyuchyy impacton the individual, on the one hand, or it can lead to situations of loss ofthe meaning of existence on the other. Both extremes are closely linkedwith the forms and manifestations of alienation of "unreal being."Therefore, the behavioral system of recommendations as for directionsof evangelical Protestantism continues to rely on a combination ofmoral and economic values which is mentioned M. Weber‟s work "TheProtestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism." A source of problemsfacing the man, are not the type of economic relationship itself. Thelater Protestant doctrine proposes the organization of life, based onentry of a human in the real world as it is. According to biblicalteaching, private ownership is the right for a person‟s trust ofmanagement of things that ultimately belong to the Creator. Throughthe work a man can not only be approved by the Executive functions,but also to create, to manifest himself.. Self-expression in creation asthe ability is considered a reflection of human Godlikeness. They arguethat the work expresses a human nature, so it is a vocation of a man, and
  32. 32.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 32an entreprise as a creative approach to labor is connected with the desireto make a profit that exceeds the required measure of family support.The growth of profit doesn‟t have a sel – consumer aim,it is not a signof higher values of some people over others. Human talents are God‟sgifts, they are presented possibilities of individual origin anddestination. Charity through internally motivated intentions must reflecta believer‟s assimilation of a moral duty, his grateful understanding ofGod‟s grace, the origin of life success from the Creator‟s suppor. In thisconnection we can emphasize on key element of Pentecostalism- thedoctrine of one of the most common denominations of evangelicalProtestantism. Here, more than in other directions, the stress is laid onarguments that human capabilities which are higher than naturalaverage level and are determined by the manifestation of grace throughreceiving spiritual gifts because of the baptism of the Holy Spirit.Conclusions. A modern globalized society despite of theconsiderable impact of scientific and technological achievements showa great interest in matters of religion. In particular, a confessionaldynamics is the element of social transformations in the world and inUkraine. The question of motivation of choice of a belief as a person‟sideologically – behavioral orientation is essential because of itspractical implications. A content of modern correlation of individualand general social factors of social changes finds its expression in termsand ideas of existential philosophy of "real" and "unreal" life, libertyand responsibility. A change of social communications goes fromorientation that is necessary to ensure their liability to the motivation ofa subjective expression as a condition of constructive cooperation in allspheres of life. To such needs are close social and religious movementsthat in their structure and orientation express these current positions.The most dynamic prospects are the denominations that provide aconstant dialogue with their followers and promote their creative self-expression actualization. Freedom of self-expression provided by thebelievers in evangelical directions of Protestantism, creats one of theessential basis of the large spread of these directions in the world andUkraine. As a caution on conversion of human freedom on the elementof arbitrary nihilism in the content of the Protestant belief is a numberof requirements on the orientation of lifestyle adherence to moralobligations. A system of life behavior has to accustom a believer to
  33. 33.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 33combine the principle of individual activity with a norm not to contrasthimselfnot contrasting with another God‟s creation.Studies of contemporary evangelical Protestantism in the futureshould be more related to aspects of philosophical anthropology,sociology and because of Religious interpretation of this phenomenonin the Soviet literature presented extensively.List of sources and literature1. Черенков М. М. Європейська реформація та українськийєвангельський протестантизм : Генетико–типологічнаспорідненість і національно–ідентифікаційні вимірисучасності: Монографія / М. М. Черенков – Одеса :Християнська просвіта, 2008. – 566 с.2. Яроцький П. Л. Протестантизм як предмет релігієзнавчогодослідження / П. Л. Яроцький // Академічне релігієзнавствоУкраїни. Історія і сьогодення. – К., 2006. – С. 171–186.3. Гараджа В. И. Социология религии: Учеб. пособие длястудентов и аспирантов гуманитарных спеціальностей /Гараджа В. И. – М. : Аспект – Пресс, 1996. – 239 с.4. Карпунин В. А. Христианство и философия /В. А. Карпунин. – СПб. : Библия для всех, 2002. – С. 30–31.5. Нойхауз Н. Ценности христианской демократии /Н. Нойхауз – М. : Республика, 2005. –192 с.6. Подберезский И. В. Христианская личность // ПутьБогопознания / И. В. Подберезский. – 2000.– Вып.6. – С.33-44.UDC 291.1М.S. Мel’nychukPHILOSOPHICAL AND RELIGIOUS ANALYSISOF MODERNIZATION TRENDS IN THEPROTESTANTISM’S ARTThe article describes features of the modernization of the artsystem in modern Protestantism.Key words: protestantism, art, modernization, suggestiveness.
  34. 34.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 34Problem statement. Protestantism, which originated and wasformed during the Reformation radically redefined institutions, ideasand practices of the Western Christian church. General analyses ofstudies of the problem. This phenomenon, and the value of art in itdevoted his work as a Soviet researchers (L. Uspensky, A. Chanyshev,E. Yakovlev), and modern Ukrainian scientists (I. Bohachevsky,V. Bodak, V. Lyubaschenko etc.).Even before the XVI century became clear that the Protestantchurch requires fundamental reforms. "It seems that the blood ceased toflow through the vessels of the Church. Their legal system requiredchanges, and incapacity and corruption of the church bureaucracy wasgenerally known. Moral clergy often been disbanded, causingembarrassment flock. Clergy (even at the highest levels) was oftenabsent in the parishes and dioceses. Appointment to the highestecclesiastical position was questionable means, attention is mainly paidto political or financial position of the candidates, not their spiritualqualities. " So the overall picture depicted the decline of contemporaryCatholicism prominent Protestant theologian A. Mahrat [2, p. 12–13].Thus the purpose of our study is to analyze the modernization trends inthe art of modern ProtestantismSpeaking of harsh criticism all the basic principles ofCatholicism, Protestantism proposed variant of "cheap" Christianchurch, which has to abandon many external attributes and focus on"organizations" direct "communication with God". Thus, the firstProtestant churches modest architecture, which differed simplearrangement without icons, crucifixes and lamps and professionalpriests. The main element of worship here was the sermon, which wasto help believers to comprehend the truth of Scripture and charged withthe responsibility for instilling and deepening the believers cornerstonedoctrine – salvation by faith. So from the very beginning inProtestantism diverted most important place "ministry of the word" orthe art of words.Exploring the history of this type of service, Protestanttheologians emphasize that in the first centuries of Christianity havebegun to recognize the need for careful attention to the sermon andimprove this type of service to the Church. This was the desire topreserve the best of sermons. Therefore, the first books on homiletics
  35. 35.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 35(the study of preaching) were collected best sermons. Concern forquality content and form of the Protestant sermon ever got bigger.Leading centers of Protestant churches and denominations issuedannually for elders and preachers of all its communities advice and tipsfor worship every day of the year. In the journals that publishedreligious centers continuously printed instructional materials to helpthose who preach in the community. Thus, in Lutsk for this purpose forEvangelical Christians-Baptists of all Ukraine is printed and publishedbimonthly magazine "Messenger of Truth" – a body of UkrainianEvangelical Baptist Fellowship (centered in the U.S.). Since the mid 90-ies of the last century, in the regions of Ukraine are printed edition oftheir local communities, experience their evangelistic work("Candlestick. Journal for the Church and the Church", published in theRivne).Subjects sermons in each community will be at least one month.In cities topics posted near the houses of prayer, while, besides ageneral overview, bet on those believers who for some reason can notattend all the prayer meetings, but reading through this plan, everyonewill do good to come and listen to those sermons considers particularlyuseful. When planning than the calendar of religious holidays or biblicalevents included specific moral or spiritual needs of the community, theresponse to social events and responses to them co-religionists, etc. –that is, the sermon being targeted, theme and content of their definedlife-spiritual relevance.According to Protestant theologians, the main advantage ispreaching and action that it has on the audience. One interpretation ofthe sermon is finished speech that pronounced on religious gatheringsand aims to call sinners to repentance and faith, teachings orstrengthening believers in the virtues and explaining the teachings ofChrist. The success of the sermon are important personality preacher,and his attitude toward ministry sermon content, form and methods ofexpression.All of this requires not only a preacher stresses spiritual effort,but preaching talent. Sometimes, not every priest can match the skill ofhis preaching of Protestant preachers. In addition, Protestantism is notnecessary to practice the complexity of presentation topics to avoidcharacter "phenomenon lectures" in sermons. For disclosure of religious
  36. 36.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 36truths, where possible, advise, except the Holy Scriptures, to examplesof life. Prized living example of the power of imagery and words. Anexample of this would be one of the preachers sermon: "In early spring,I had to go in a birch grove. I went to a beautiful curly birch trees, nearwhich was unknown and a meter from the ground drilled a hole in thetrunk. To my remark that bindweed from this dries , the strangerreplied: "I do not regret that birch wither and perish – I like being withher flowing juice." his work and answer moved me in a domesticsituation of believers. How many cases of flesh here is similar to"work" my interlocutor! How many cases family life is only forpleasures of the flesh. This is - debauch passions that unsettles healthand prematurely old and wears out the body... " [7, p. 145]. Thus, thetouching image of a young birch preacher used for establishing the ideathat a person should not be healthy for his earthly happiness, and toserve God.In Protestantism believe the undisputed fact that the preachermust first be very sure of the truth of what preaching because itprimarily ensures perception believing that convey to their hearts andminds. It is important not to say, and how to say it. That sermon shouldcome from the depths of the soul, with well matched tone and even, ifnecessary, with enthusiasm, that in general the success of the sermon.Preacher, usually, not always build the propaganda of religious ideas onrational basis and logical arguments. "A fervent speech speaker –teaches ... – causing listeners emotional exaltation which inductivelyhampers and present experiences, and results of past experience.Gradually abolishes man (gast) their previous assessment of events andphenomena ceases to be critical of the words of the speaker, takes itassessment of his views. A inhibition own activity leads to stimulationmechanisms imitative behavior, willingness to follow the speaker.should be emphasized that this is a suggestibility (suggestion), that theimposition of reasoning without logical proof of their truth. Instill – notto prove by arguments addressed mental. suggestion in most cases justaimed at overcoming logical arguments, it appeals to the human senses,not her mind "[4, p. 66-67].Preaching in Protestantism is always based on the interpretationof Scripture. An experienced preacher on this occasion said: "The themeis contained in the text (Scripture) as the core of nut. Our task – not to
  37. 37.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 37remain on the periphery and to penetrate into the core ... Only in thisway can we get in the intimate meaning of the text. Topic should not besuperficial, little substance, many times chutoyu. "Topic Title must beborrowed from the Bible, for example: "Go forth and sin no more!"(John 8, 11), "Repent and believe in the Gospel" (Mk 1, 15), "You - thelight of the world" (Mt 5, 14), etc. Theologians are not recommended todefine the topic in a word, such as "Love", "Freedom", "good" and soon. This theme hides a danger to spread preacher in the sermon on thedifferent opinions and things unrelated to deprive sermon substantivefocus and clarity [3, p. 42].Preachers, especially late currents of Protestantism, not counting along time his sermons. According to our observations, in the communitiesof Rivne region sermon on average lasts about 10 minutes. The fact thatthe prayer meeting provided two common prayer – the initial and finalmay be common prayer, for any occasion (for example, recovery ofpatients): execution chants – choral, general, and where possible – solosongs and declamations , melodeclamations. All these kinds of serviceinterspersed with sermons that happens, depending on the circumstances,from three to seven or eight. Typically, the prayer meeting does not lastmore than two hours. Incidentally, the liturgical practice of Protestantsand acts as a kind of prayer ministry said. Zh. Kalvin in his "teaching theChristian faith" (Institution) emphasized that prayer as defining exerciseof faith, "...because we receive daily gifts of God" [1, p. 126].As follows from the above, Protestants use in their prayermeetings not only the art of speech, but singing – both accompanied bymusical instruments, so without them. Overall prayer meetingProtestants significantly different from worship in Catholicism andOrthodoxy. In both of these churches liturgical ministry ruled approvedby literally scenarios – ranks. Since they are provided to all serviceliturgical year, the faithful have become accustomed to them, they knowthat now sing the priest and the deacon, and the chorus or klyrosis. Thisone tradition extinguishes attention to the content of the spoken or sung,for the faithful know in advance their contents, expect this and notsomething else. Listening and introduction to singing, blending inharmony temple ceremonies Catholics or Orthodox feel of this aestheticpleasure that distracts, putting chants and deliver content, because theyworship the work of familiar – "nothing new" and they did not expect.
  38. 38.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 38In Protestant churches is only stable schemes prayer meetings,but every time the course of gathering updated with new psalmsongs,sermons and prayers. This collection has more on the minds ofbelievers, teach them first of all strengthen their religious beliefs.Although aesthetic pleasure not removed, it is much inferior to theinfluence on the minds of dogmatic, theological dominance worship. Inaddition, each prayer meeting in the communities of Protestants issubject to certain, predetermined topic. So when should happen breakbread, prayers, sermons and hymns on the topic of Golgotha Christ.Clearly and unequivocally held meetings on the occasion of the eventsin the life of the Son of God on earth or acts of the apostles (egPentecost). The various currents of Protestantism has its special holidayas a harvest festival or celebration of unity in Baptist, dates associatedwith the history and functioning of various Protestant denominations.In Protestantism there is a whole repertoire psalmsongs forworship. In this area there were many religious poets and composers.They created and multiplied for their co-religionists songs, occasionallybetrayed their collections that organize the principle of certain needsand opportunities of church life. Numbering works and categorizationby content-themed destination providing usability Works on gatheringsof believers. In print, many believers in using manuscript collectionswhich rewrote the believers.In Protestantism, however, there is no sustainable repertoire ofsacred songs, he filled them neoplasms – text and melodic. Incommunities where there are choirs, their repertoire is almost constantlyupdated, and what was done before, copied now as common heritage ofsinging. That is a constant updating of malignancies.Protestants also, in many cases accompanied by singing playingmusical instruments. Until recently, the villages often used for thisaccordion, and even the once very popular accordion – "helihonka".However, not all communities have at least a simple musicalinstrument. In cities were popular piano, harmonium, lately becomefashionable synths.For icons in Protestantism, in its prayer houses and churches,even in rooms believers, no place. Against the worship of icons andtheir veneration strongly and categorically opposed JohnCalvin [1, p. 145]. With reference to the Saints Scripture, he proves that
  39. 39.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 39lie "offend God‟s honor if ascribe to him some pictures. Law of Godsays:" Do not make for yourself any graven image, or anylikeness" (I, 11.1). Immediately recalls the Bible: "You heard the voice,and did not see any figures" (5 M. 4, 2). And if someday God appearedto man, it was a warning of future revelation in Christ. Recalls Calvinand patrystiv. Yes Augustine clearly expressed, not allowed, not only todeal with a prayer to the icon, but even to think of it themselves, as ifthe image of God, for because of this decrease is subtracted and the fearof God (I, 11). They do not worship the cross, because he was theinstrument of suffering and death of Christ.Instead of icons on the walls of Protestant houses of worship andhomes of believers – only artistically written statements from Scripture:"God is love" (1 Jn. 4, 8), "One Lord, one faith, one baptism" (Eph.4.6), "We preach Christ crucified" (1 Cor., 1.23) and so on.Transfer Protestantism attention believer of worship and ritualsfor preaching and personal faith led to some changes in his religious andartistic integrity. Instead Organ music, monumental murals andpaintings, lush decor clothes priests and Catholic churches came interiorart expressive black-and-white prints (this was confirmed in the earlyProtestant churches – Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Anglicanism),sincere preaching, singing with accompaniment and humble Clothingpastor, elder and preacher [5, p. 236]. Simplification of religion inProtestantism manifested not only in lifting a large number of religiousfestivals and special services to honor saints and the Virgin, but inabolishing major iconic event, which in Catholicism and Orthodoxy arecalled sacraments. Of these seven sacraments – baptism, anointing,confession, communion, priesthood, marriage and Sick – there weretwo: baptism and communion (break bread). But their action was deniedspecial magical power, because it directly depending on personal faith.Incidentally, all of the above applies to the ideal of Protestantism,which in reality is not. Because Protestantism – a large number ofrelatives while slightly different from each other churches,denominations, sometimes – and sects. Reform requirements andprinciples and are available in various Protestant denominations indifferent ways, with varying degrees of completeness, and sometimeswith a fairly substantial cult and even dogmatic differences(Pentecostals, Jehovah‟s Witnesses, Mormons and others.). As late
  40. 40.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 40Protestant congregations in Ukraine, then they remain in positions ofconservatism and rejection of any innovations in worship. Believers donot use artificial jewelry, considering them unacceptable, sinful. Forexample, women do not use any makeup or jewelry. Men do not wearbadges, some state symbols, icons. Most people avoid family evenwearing rings on his hand. That is, a complete ban that can affordOrthodox or Catholic, without risking a cause for condemnationCoreligionists.But some religious innovations, modernization elements ofProtestant worship still occur and are usually associated with foreigncenters of Protestant ministries for viewers Ukraine. A sample of aSunday program "Life in the Word", which preaches and sings JohnMayer. In it there is a lot of unusual things that do not fit into thetraditional Protestant cult that exists in communities throughoutUkraine. It‟s more like the Christian entertainment talk show. On stage,young girls, dressed in white, each with a microphone in hand, singingspiritual songs. Soloist clearly stands out from among them, a littleolder than their colleagues with clips in the ears, with expressivemakeup on her face. Speaker is indulging openly and clearly to thecalculation methods of artistry. She sings beautifully, but obviously anartistic manner – walking across the stage, raises his hands. Girls onstage to join in their song structure, but also transcend from foot to foot,clap their hands over their heads. Meanwhile, in the audience all stoodwobbling in time to sing and also drive their hands. This can beobserved in the transmission of "Good News with Rick Renner". He isin his sermons clearly unable to acute phrases: supposedly preachesextemporaneously, and it allows him to occasionally suspendedsearching for a word or phrase for which there react hilarious revival,and even laughter. Acknowledge your joke and preacher – he did notsmile restrains ... This transfer can see every citizen of Ukraine, whowatches TV.However, all of these things – natural. Life is richer and morecomplex than any dogma. Various forms of Protestantism – is adaptingabstract schemes to the needs of a changing life. For all its diversityProtestant denominations have two common features: first, they follow(albeit with different sequence) of the basic principles of Protestantism,and secondly, have their historical roots in the Reformation, being
  41. 41.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 41directly or indirectly its products [6, p. 15]. Finally, the process of"cloning" all the advanced Protestant denomination is not over yet.Under the pressure of life can occur following varieties ofProtestantism, which ultimately may go in the opposite direction – tothe Catholic or Orthodox orthodoxy. Moreover, in the practical life ofbelievers and Protestant communities in Ukraine in generalsusceptibility to most innovations embodied in the program of theirsocial service. It is, firstly, update Luther‟s doctrine of "good works".Second, believing it is considered as evidence of meaningfulness of hisearthly existence, search the most effective means of practicalrealization of Christian precepts. Thereby Protestants Ukraine catchingup still not implemented its social and ethical potential. Since beggingin early Protestantism, especially in reformation and genetically relatedto him later as a result of trends prohibited laziness, unwillingness toobey the commandments of God, in the program of social servicereferred mainly moral support. However, Protestants and avoid materialphilanthropy, such as donating invalids, pensioners, the poor, those whohave suffered from natural disasters. "Let it be prosaic work, but realizethat it is for the good of man and the people, turning them intosomething sacred" [3, p. 158].Conclusions. So with regard to modernization of worship, then itis in Protestantism is taking its first steps. Especially fixed serviceimprovements word as traditional brief sermon on the topic of biblicalquotations are outliving itself. To enhance the role of suggestive wordsin Protestantism stock piled unused potentials that are generated bytechnical progress in the field of audio and visual media. However,provide any specific scale and pace of innovation rise in the practice ofProtestant worship no reason. As for painting, sculpture – theyProtestantism still remain beyond the need to worship.List of sources and literature1. Кальвін Ж. Інституція, або Навчання християнської віри / ЖанКальвін. – Репр. вид. – Атланта ; Торонто : [б. в.], 1986. – 239 с.2. Любащенко В. І. Історія протестантизму в Україні /В. І. Любащенко. – Львів : Просвіта, 1995. – 350 с.3. Настольная книга пресвитера. – М. : Всесоюз. совет еванг.христиан-баптистов, 1987. – Вып. 2. – 239, [1] с.
  42. 42.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 424. Симонов П. В. Метод К. С. Станиславского и физиологияэмоций / П. В. Симонов. – М. : Изд-во Акад. наук. СССР,1962. – 139 с.5. Успенский Л. О материалах в церковном искусстве / Л.Успенский, Л. Успенская // Журнал Московской Патриархии. –1988. – № 11. – С. 20–21.6. Чанышев А. Н. Протестантизм / А. Н. Чанышев. – М. : Наука,1962. – 216 с.7. Яковлев Е. Г. Эстетическое сознание, искусство и религия /Евгений Георгиевич Яковлев. – М. : Искусство, 1969. – 175 с.UDC: 281.9:264-74:159.923.2(=161.2)Y.I. Mel’nychukORTHODOX SERMON AS A SOCIO-CULTURALACHIEVEMENT OF UKRAINIAN NATIONIn the article the analysed features of the Ukrainian orthodoxsermon as the specific communicative phenomenon which depends onsocial realities and is the certificate of kul’turnogo-dukhovnikhtraditions of Ukrainian society.Key words: sermon, communicative system (communication),social conditionality, sociokul’turne phenomenon.Problem. Orthodox sermon as centuries of social and culturalheritage of the Ukrainian people, originated and evolved within theEastern Christian tradition, attracted attention because of its scientificand theoretical understanding. Aspects of the study of this problem isinvariant, multifaceted and determined by various factors.Level of development problems. The problem of language relatedto the issue of linguistic relativity, which consider Edward Sapir and W.von Humboldt, the question of language liturgy – T. Gorbachenko,N. Mechkovska, I. James. Investigation of internal inflection seen in thewritings O. Potebni, as well as modern scientific achievements of localresearchers, including Slad mention I. Bohachevsku, M. Holyanycha,T. Horbachenka, L. Drotyanka, T. Kyyaka, N. Myhyrina, B. Plotnikova,
  43. 43.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 43V. Rusanivskoho et al. Figuring features preaching the word asoratorical genre became an object of scientific interest M. Bahtina,F. Batsevycha, A. Vezhbytskoyi. Analysis of the linguistic-pragmaticfeatures sermons carried N. Arutyunova, Yu. Lotman, Ch. Morris andCh. Pirs. Finding a new structure in sermons, as works which displays anumber vzayemopov‟yazuyutsya communicative subjective wreathmade T. Van Dyke, L. Ivanov, V. Maslovym, Z. Turayevoyu in thiscontext it is worth mentioning and intelligence representativesteolinhvistyky (O. Hadomskyy, H. Hrinenko, N. Mechkovska). Thus, inmodern philosophical, cultural and others. studies vidshukovuyemoconsiderable interest from the sermon as a special type of speech that isendowed with certain symbolic meanings-load, the problems of textualinterpretation sermons and preaching activities in the context of thehistorical realities of society, it updates the specific study of thephenomenon in terms of both theoretical and practical grounds.We aim to characterize features of preaching in the context of theUkrainian Orthodox apostolic tradition, forming a task of this work: toanalyze the features of the role of speech and outline the nature, purposeof preaching, preaching separation as a specific communicativephenomenon and its dependence on social realities, preaching ascultural heritage.The main material. Before turning to direct our coverage statedthemes appropriate to describe (in general terms) the specificity of theUkrainian Orthodox sermon as a religious phenomenon. It reflects theessence of the teachings of a religious nature, which is inextricablylinked to that observed semamy sacred content. As a guide to preachingand vyholoshuyetsya oral or recorded in writing, it is a communicativephenomenon which is characterized by the transfer of information as areligious content and its relationship to life followers, ie semanticallysermons linking spiritual and earthly life. We can say that in the processof formation and development of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (fromthe introduction of Christianity in the Ukrainian lands to the present)preaching constantly evolving, and therefore, in essence, this is adynamic phenomenon that has meaning and performs various functionsin the religious and social life of the Ukrainian nation. Yes, I. Ogienko[12, p. 87] proves the presence of preaching distinct nationalcharacteristics, resulting from the isolation of the Ukrainian Orthodox
  44. 44.  Philosophy. Pedagogics. Society. №2’2012 44Church in the tenets elections clergy, worship, chynopokladannyah, weshould misyatseslovi, holidays ikonomalyarstvi and temple architecture.Indisputable is the fact that the Ukrainian Orthodox sermon typicalsocial significance, as expressed in the relationship of religious canonsand social realities that appear in an emotionally filled text throughwhich affects the preacher, feelings and outlook of believers.Topreacher could achieve the desired communicative effect, it usesimplikatory communicative, emotional and sponukalnist, imagery,belief. Another characteristic feature of preaching the word – thepresence of a supernatural, on this T. Gavrilyuk [4, p. 278], analyzingthe notion, suggested that it is a product of social and human creativityand a subjective objective. Speaking consequences of religious andphilosophical reflection on the meaning of life, supernatural means thethose aspects of human life that are not verifiable by scientific methodsand express a reality that stands on the foundation of natural primary,epistemological embodiment of gods, spirits, souls, etc., and sacredconnection „connections and properties of real objects and phenomena.It is in the category of the supernatural, says researcher expressedimportance not only religious images and ideas, but also the overallcertainty existential human condition that is characterized by itsspontaneous ontological relation, we notice the following constants inthe studied phenomenon.Analyzing Printed text sermon can trace certain trends semanticload, which reflects the moral and ethical issues from the Bible, lives ofthe saints, but each time it is some new vision of the eternal problemswhich should be tangent soul worshiper. The believer is filled withconfidence to a spiritual leader, a deep faith in God and strive toimprove their own souls and dobrochestya [10, p. 54]. According to D.Brala, striving for perfection makes the preacher changed his attitudetowards communicative audience, and the subject of his mission is not"herd management, and people management" [2, p. 15]. In theologicalstudies, we find the statement that "the Christian church guideline aimsto clarify the audience doctrine of Christ" as a lively, sensual statementbecomes essential characteristic of her: "The word priest more thananyone‟s attracting people‟s attention. According possible to defineinner world: directing her thoughts, state of mind and feelings. Wordsanger testifies to the passion of pride, condemnation, rage, rude words

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