Old english power point

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Old english power point

  1. 1. Old English (450-1150 A.D.) and the Anglo-Saxon Period (449-1066 A.D.) The Language and the Literature
  2. 2. Three Periods of English Language Development <ul><li>Old English – 450-1150 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Middle English – 1150-1500 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern English – 1500-present </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Language <ul><li>English as a language first appeared about 1,500 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>The land was inhabited between 50,000-250,000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Who was there? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Stone Age <ul><li>Lasted in England until about 2,000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Weapons of stone </li></ul><ul><li>Other implements of stone </li></ul><ul><li>Paleolithic (Old Stone) and Neolithic (New Stone) </li></ul><ul><li>Gave way to the Bronze Age </li></ul><ul><li>Iron Age was next (500 or 600 B.C.) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Paleolithic <ul><li>No English Channel </li></ul><ul><li>People short (5 feet), long-armed, short-legged, low foreheads, poorly developed chins </li></ul><ul><li>Caves, under rock shelters </li></ul>
  6. 6. Neolithic <ul><li>About 5,000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Superior stone weapons and implements </li></ul><ul><li>Higher culture </li></ul><ul><li>Dark race of slightly larger stature </li></ul><ul><li>Crude pottery, weaving </li></ul><ul><li>Crannogs </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Celts <ul><li>Came to England during the Bronze Age </li></ul><ul><li>Spoke Gaelic (Ireland) and Brythonic (Britain) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trivia: In Million Dollar Baby , Clint Eastwood’s character was reading a book about a language. He used a term he learned to refer to Hilary Swank. What was the language? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Druids were priests who memorized and recited long heroic poems – oral tradition </li></ul>
  8. 8. Romans in England <ul><li>55 B.C. – Julius Caesar invaded England -- twice </li></ul><ul><li>Succeeded in gaining minimal control of the southeast </li></ul><ul><li>Claudius gained control of most of the island in 43 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>300 years of Roman rule </li></ul>
  9. 9. Roman influence <ul><li>Established highways and roadways </li></ul><ul><li>Roman houses and baths, temples, theaters </li></ul><ul><li>Water and heating </li></ul><ul><li>Mosaic floors, stucco walls </li></ul><ul><li>Dress, ornaments, utensils, pottery, glassware </li></ul><ul><li>Latin – official language (upper class) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Germanic Conquest <ul><li>Invasions began around 449 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Came from Denmark and Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Bede -- Ecclesiastical History of the English People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jutes (Jutland on north Danish peninsula) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angles (Schleswig-Holstein on south Danish peninsula) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saxons (between the Elbe and Ems rivers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frisians (along the coast from Weser to Rhine rivers) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Celtic Shut Out <ul><li>Britons “softened” by Roman rule </li></ul><ul><li>Romans withdrew in 410 </li></ul><ul><li>Made a deal with the Jutes, who took over </li></ul><ul><li>Saxons came in 477 (Sussex) and 495 (Wessex); also Essex and Middlesex </li></ul><ul><li>Angles came and settled the east coast; established Anglian kingdom in 547 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Anglo-Saxon Civilization <ul><li>Some settlements peaceful with Celts </li></ul><ul><li>Some settlements fighting occurred </li></ul><ul><li>Roman towns burnt and abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>Eorls (aristocracy) </li></ul><ul><li>Ceorls (simple freemen) </li></ul><ul><li>Wergild (justice) </li></ul><ul><li>Witan (council of elders) </li></ul><ul><li>Northumbria (7 th century) </li></ul><ul><li>Mercia (8 th century) </li></ul><ul><li>East Anglia </li></ul><ul><li>Kent </li></ul><ul><li>Essex </li></ul><ul><li>Sussex </li></ul><ul><li>Wessex (9 th century) </li></ul>
  13. 13. “ England” and “English” <ul><li>Celts called all Germanic invaders “Saxons” </li></ul><ul><li>Early Latin writers referred to the people as “Saxones” and the land as “Saxonia” </li></ul><ul><li>Anglia began to appear with Saxone in reference to all West Germanic tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Ethelbert, king of Kent, -- rex Anglorum </li></ul><ul><li>Writers referred to the vernacular as Englisc </li></ul><ul><li>Angelcynn became the term for the land and people </li></ul><ul><li>About 1,000, Englaland (land of the Angles) appeared </li></ul>
  14. 14. Old English Dialects <ul><li>Northumbrian – north of the Thames River </li></ul><ul><li>Mercian – north of the Thames River </li></ul><ul><li>West Saxon – West Saxon kingdom in the southwest (Almost all Old English literature is preserved in manuscripts transcribed in this region) </li></ul><ul><li>Kentish – southeast (Jutes) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Old English example <ul><li>SEE HANDOUT PAGES 60-62 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Flexibility and Derivation mod “ heart, mind, spirit, courage” modig “ spirited, arrogant” modiglic “ magnanimous” gemodod “ disposed, minded”
  17. 17. Modern English lacks the flexibility of Old English. The tendency is to borrow/assimilate rather than adapt our own words.
  18. 18. The Literature <ul><li>Some brought by the Germanic conquerors </li></ul><ul><li>Oral tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Pagan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grim view of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several gods – Woden, Fria, Tiu, Thor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wednesday, Friday, Tuesday, Thursday </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fate (wyrd) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reintroduction of Christianity – 6 th century </li></ul>
  19. 19. Literary Performance <ul><li>Scops and gleemen </li></ul><ul><li>Ceremonial occasions </li></ul><ul><li>Caesura , alliteration, and kennings </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly accompanied by a harp </li></ul><ul><li>Castles or halls </li></ul>
  20. 20. Christianity <ul><li>King Ethelbert of Kent – converted by Saint Augustine </li></ul><ul><li>Set up monastery in Canterbury </li></ul><ul><li>Mission: Convert the kings </li></ul><ul><li>650 – Success </li></ul><ul><li>Brought education and literature </li></ul><ul><li>Bede (673-735) </li></ul>
  21. 21. “ From the fury of the Northmen, O Lord, deliver us.” <ul><li>The Norse and the Danes (Vikings) took to the seas – rising population, limited farmland </li></ul><ul><li>Plundered monasteries, destroyed manuscripts, stole sacred religious objects </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed communities </li></ul><ul><li>Killed villagers </li></ul><ul><li>Only Wessex was able to fight back effectively </li></ul>
  22. 22. Alfred the Great <ul><li>Wessex throne in 871 </li></ul><ul><li>Resisted the Danes </li></ul><ul><li>Truce: Saxons rule the south; Danes rule the east and north ( Danelaw ) </li></ul><ul><li>Peace -- Danish words became part of English vocabulary (i.e. law) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Norman Conquest <ul><li>Danes began a second invasion in 10 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Edward the Confessor -- a Christian, part Norman, friend of King William of Normandy </li></ul><ul><li>1066 – Edward died; Norman Conquest </li></ul>
  24. 24. Beowulf <ul><li>Considered the greatest single work of Old English literature </li></ul><ul><li>3,000-line folk epic </li></ul><ul><li>Hero </li></ul><ul><li>Social conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Germanic motives/ideals </li></ul>
  25. 25. Beowulf as a record <ul><li>Physical endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Unflinching courage </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of duty </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Honor </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sorrow not . . . Better is it for every man that he avenge his friend than that he mourn greatly. Each of us must abide the end of this world’s life; let him who may, work mighty deeds ere he die, for afterwards, when he lies lifeless, that is best for the warrior.” </li></ul>
  26. 26. Other Old English Literature <ul><li>War and exile </li></ul><ul><li>Sea and its hardships/fascination </li></ul><ul><li>Ruined cities </li></ul><ul><li>Minstrel life </li></ul><ul><li>Christian subjects </li></ul><ul><li>“ Widsith” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Deor” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Wanderer” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Seafarer” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Ruin” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Battle of Brunanburh” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Battle of Maldon” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Juliana” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Elene” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Christ” </li></ul>
  27. 27. Verse Vs. Prose <ul><li>Verse is more easily remembered – oral tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred the Great (871-899) encouraged education </li></ul><ul><li>Had books translated from Latin to English </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoral Care </li></ul><ul><li>Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People </li></ul><ul><li>The Consolation of Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Sermon to the English </li></ul>
  28. 28. Let’s get started!!!

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