Commas

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Commas

  1. 1. The Wonderful World of using COMMAS correctly Welcome to…
  2. 2. There are 15 rules for using commas Number your notes 1 to 15
  3. 3. #1 <ul><li>Use commas after parts of an address </li></ul><ul><li>example: He lives at 422 Meadow Road, Jackson, MS. </li></ul>#2 <ul><li>Use Commas after parts of a date. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>example: Saturday, October 1, 1894. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use a comma or commas to set off a noun in direct address. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example: “Hey, John, where are you going?” </li></ul></ul></ul>#3
  4. 4. #4 <ul><li>Use a comma or commas to set off appositives. </li></ul><ul><li>example: Dr. Smith, the author, is our neighbor. </li></ul>#5 <ul><li>Use a comma to separate three or more items in a series. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(although both are correct, we use a comma before the “and”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: You can choose among pizza, hamburgers, and hot dogs. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. #6 <ul><li>Use a comma after an introductory word like yes, no, well, or oh. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example: Well, I’ll think about it. </li></ul></ul></ul>#7 <ul><li>Use a comma or commas to separate a quotation from the rest of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example: “I’ll go,” said Jack, “if you want me to.” </li></ul></ul></ul>#8 <ul><li>Use a comma to separate two or more adjectives preceding a noun. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example: That was a long, tough, challenging test. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. #9 <ul><li>Use a comma to separate two independent clauses joined by and, but, or, nor, for, or yet. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example: We went swimming in the lake, and we had a hamburger cookout. </li></ul></ul></ul>#10 <ul><li>Use a comma to set off nonessential clauses and nonessential participial phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>example: My neighbor, who loves animals, has three cats and three dogs. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>versus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The boy who sits in the last seat is nice. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. #11 <ul><li>Use a comma after a) an introductory participial phrase, b) a series of introductory prepositional phrases, c) or an introductory adverb clause. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>examples: a) Awakened by the noise, the baby began to cry. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b) Near the tree at the end of the yard, the children built a playhouse. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c) After Bill had presented his piano recital, the audience applauded. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. #12 <ul><li>Use a comma after the salutation of a friendly letter and after the closing of any letter. </li></ul>#13 <ul><li>Use a comma after a name followed by Jr., or M.D. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example: John Jones, M.D. </li></ul></ul></ul>#14 <ul><li>Parenthetical expressions are set off by commas. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: He did, of course, pass the test. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. #15 <ul><li>Avoid using any unnecessary commas!! </li></ul><ul><li>When in doubt, </li></ul><ul><li>leave it out. </li></ul>

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