FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE
IMBALANCE
Distribution of body fluids
 Intra cellular
 Extra cellular O
 out of total body water two third (40% of bodyweight)

i...
contd….
 Interstitial fluid
 Transcellular fluid
 Intra vascular fluid
Movements of body fluids
 Osmosis
 Diffusion
 Filtration
 Active transport
osmosis
 Diffusion of fluid through a semi permeable

membrane from a solution with a low solute
concentration to a solut...
diffusion
 The process by which solutes move from an area of

higher concentration to one of the lower
concentration, wit...
Active transport
 The physiologic pump that moves fluid from an area of

lower concentration to one of higher concentrati...
filtration
 : Passage through a filter or through a material that

prevents passage of certain molecules, e.g. capillary
...
REGULATION OF ELECTROLYTES
Regulation of body fluids
Fluid intake
Hormonal regulation
Lymphatic system
 It plays an important role in returning excess fluid and

protein from the interstitial spaces to the b...
Nervous system
 When ecf increases mechanoreceptors in the wall of

the left atrium respond to atria distension by
increa...
Fluid imbalances
 Extra cellular fluid volume deficit

Decrease in the interstitial and extra cellular fluid.
Risk factor...
Contd….
 Extra cellular fluid volume excess
 Increased fluid retention,
 Risk factors
 Clinical manifestation

 Manag...
 extra cellular fluid volume shift
 Basically a change in the location of extra cellular fluid

between intra vascular a...
 Intra cellular fluid volume excess
 Water intoxication hypo osmolar disorders result from

either water excess or solut...
Electrolyte imbalances
Clinical manifestation
 Decreased skin burger.

 Dry mucous membrane.



Dry cracked lips or tongue.
 Eye balls sunken...
DIARRHOEA
Laboratory findings
:
 Increased Osmolality.
 Increased or normal serum sodium level.
 BUN (> 25 mg/d1)

 Hyperglycae...
Medical Management:
Pharmacologic Management
:
 An intravenous solution of 5% Dextrose in water (D5W)

or 5% Dextrose in...
Nursing management
NURSING MANAGEMENT
Fluid and electrolyte imbalance
Fluid and electrolyte imbalance
Fluid and electrolyte imbalance
Fluid and electrolyte imbalance
Fluid and electrolyte imbalance
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Fluid and electrolyte imbalance

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Fluid and electrolyte imbalance

  1. 1. FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE
  2. 2. Distribution of body fluids  Intra cellular  Extra cellular O  out of total body water two third (40% of bodyweight) is intracellular fluid & one third (20% of weight) is intracellular fluid & one third (20% of body weight) is extracellular fluid.
  3. 3. contd….  Interstitial fluid  Transcellular fluid  Intra vascular fluid
  4. 4. Movements of body fluids  Osmosis  Diffusion  Filtration  Active transport
  5. 5. osmosis  Diffusion of fluid through a semi permeable membrane from a solution with a low solute concentration to a solution with a higher solute concentration until there is an equal concentration of fluid on both sides of the membrane
  6. 6. diffusion  The process by which solutes move from an area of higher concentration to one of the lower concentration, without any expending extra energy
  7. 7. Active transport  The physiologic pump that moves fluid from an area of lower concentration to one of higher concentration; active transport requires ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for energy
  8. 8. filtration  : Passage through a filter or through a material that prevents passage of certain molecules, e.g. capillary wall, blood–brain barrier, radiographic grid.
  9. 9. REGULATION OF ELECTROLYTES
  10. 10. Regulation of body fluids
  11. 11. Fluid intake
  12. 12. Hormonal regulation
  13. 13. Lymphatic system  It plays an important role in returning excess fluid and protein from the interstitial spaces to the blood Kidneys  Maintain fluid volume and the concentration of urine by filtering the ecf
  14. 14. Nervous system  When ecf increases mechanoreceptors in the wall of the left atrium respond to atria distension by increasing cardiac stroke volume and triggering a sympathetic responses to kidney
  15. 15. Fluid imbalances  Extra cellular fluid volume deficit Decrease in the interstitial and extra cellular fluid. Risk factors Clinical manifestation management
  16. 16. Contd….  Extra cellular fluid volume excess  Increased fluid retention,  Risk factors  Clinical manifestation  Management
  17. 17.  extra cellular fluid volume shift  Basically a change in the location of extra cellular fluid between intra vascular and interstitial fluid
  18. 18.  Intra cellular fluid volume excess  Water intoxication hypo osmolar disorders result from either water excess or solute deficit and are mainly due to sodium loss
  19. 19. Electrolyte imbalances
  20. 20. Clinical manifestation  Decreased skin burger.  Dry mucous membrane.  Dry cracked lips or tongue.  Eye balls sunken & soft.  Restlessness, Coma in severe deficit.  Elevated temperature.  Tachycardia.  Postural, systolic blood pressure > 15 mm Hg Diastolic fall < 10 mm Hg.  Weight loss.  Oliguria (< 30 ml/hr)
  21. 21. DIARRHOEA
  22. 22. Laboratory findings :  Increased Osmolality.  Increased or normal serum sodium level.  BUN (> 25 mg/d1)  Hyperglycaemia (> 120 mg / dl)  Elevated hematocrit (>55%), Increased Specific gravity. 
  23. 23. Medical Management: Pharmacologic Management :  An intravenous solution of 5% Dextrose in water (D5W) or 5% Dextrose in 0.2% saline (D5/0.2% Nacl) may be prescribed.  If haemorrhage is the cause of ECFVD blood replacement may be necessary if blood losses greater than 1L.  In situation in which the blood losses are less than 1L, normal saline & lactated Ringers solution may be used to restore fluid volume.
  24. 24. Nursing management
  25. 25. NURSING MANAGEMENT

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