Periodic Trends and Properties

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Sinanian Unit 5 CDP

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Periodic Trends and Properties

  1. 1. 1 Courtesy of http://picasaweb.google.comj/ccalpe; Licensed through Creative Commons: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/f Elements and Our Earth
  2. 2. 2 Courtesy of http://picasaweb.google.comj/ccalpe; Licensed through Creative Commons: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/f ..And Our Universe
  3. 3. Chapter 6 3© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Periodic Trends • The arrangement of the periodic table means that the physical properties of the elements follow a regular pattern. • We can look at the general trends for the size of atoms, also known as atomic radius, and their metallic character: 1. Decrease up a group (or increase down a group). 2. Decrease left to right across a period (or increase right to left across the period).
  4. 4. Chapter 6 4© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Atomic Radius • Figure 6.4 shows the atomic radii of the main group elements. • The general trend in atomic radius applies to the main group elements, not the transition elements.
  5. 5. Chapter 6 5© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Atomic Radius and Metallic Character •Metallic character is the degree of metal character of an element and is similar to the trend for atomic radius. •Metallic character decreases left to right across a period and from bottom to top in a group.
  6. 6. Chapter 6 6© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical Properties of Elements • Since the properties of the elements follow regular patterns, we can predict unknown properties of elements based on those around it. • For example, Table 6.2 lists several properties of the alkali metals except francium, Fr. • We can predict the properties of francium based on the other alkali metals.
  7. 7. Chapter 6 7© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Predicting Physical Properties • We can predict that the atomic radius of Fr is greater than 0.266 nm, that its density is greater than 1.87 g/mL, and that its melting point is less than 28.4 °C.
  8. 8. Chapter 6 8© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Predicting Chemical Properties • Members of a family also have similar chemical properties. • All of the alkali metals (Group 1A) have oxides of the general formula M2O: – Li2O, Na2O, K2O, Rb2O, Cs2O, and Fr2O. • Given the formula for the chloride of calcium is CaCl2, what is the formula for the chloride of barium?
  9. 9. Chapter 6 9© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Predicting Chemical Properties Since the general formula is MCl2, the formula for barium chloride must be BaCl2.
  10. 10. Chapter 6 9© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Predicting Chemical Properties Since the general formula is MCl2, the formula for barium chloride must be BaCl2.

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