Introduction to Memory  The process by which we retaininformation about events that have       happened in the past.
Models of Memorya representation of   how memory                 Developed by Cognitive Psychologists      works          ...
Multi-store Model of Memory (MSM)                                         Maintenance                                     ...
Multi-store Model of Memory (MSM)Key words/phrases!           Linear process                       Atkinson & Shiffrin  3 ...
Get to know your components:You need to know the characteristics of each  memory store in terms of:o Capacityo Encodingo D...
MSM –    get to know your componentsSensory Memory                                          Iconic Store –                ...
Sensory Memory                      Encoding  Capacity                                Duration                            ...
MSM –     get to know your componentsShort Term Memory                              Receives                              ...
Short Term Memory  Capacity           Encoding          Duration  5-9 items           Acoustic                            ...
MSM –    get to know your components                                              ReceivesLong Term Memory                ...
Long Term Memory   Capacity                     Encoding           Duration   Unlimited                      Semantic     ...
MSM – A02        Positive               Negative- Murdock (1962)        - KF- Squire et al (1992)- KF
MSM – A02 (Murdock)Position                      Position on on list                          list   1       floor        ...
MSM – A02 (Murdock)
MSM – A02 How do you think Murdock provides support for the          Multi-Store Model of memory?Supports the idea of the ...
MSM – A02                                              STM = Squire et al                                prefrontal       ...
MSM – A02                        STM =     KF                severely                      impairedDemonstrates that it is...
MSM – A02                       STM =     KF               partially                      damagedDemonstrates that it ispo...
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Msm

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Msm

  1. 1. Introduction to Memory The process by which we retaininformation about events that have happened in the past.
  2. 2. Models of Memorya representation of how memory Developed by Cognitive Psychologists works 2. Working Memory Model – Baddeley & Hitch 1. Multi-store Model – Atkinson & Shiffrin
  3. 3. Multi-store Model of Memory (MSM) Maintenance rehearsal (Elaborative) Rehearsal Sensory Short Term Long Term External Stimuli Memory Memory Memory (SM) (STM) (LTM) Attention Retrieval Information If STM capacity Information in enters information Information is small, memory the LTM is is attended information that is from the retrieved to then it is not rehearsed rehearsed isenvironment when needed passed is lost through passed onto and is and can last a onto the displacement the LTMregistered by lifetime STM or decay the SM
  4. 4. Multi-store Model of Memory (MSM)Key words/phrases! Linear process Atkinson & Shiffrin 3 distinct (1968)memory stores Retrieval Attention Constraints e.g. Rehearsal capacity, duration and encoding SM, STM & LTM
  5. 5. Get to know your components:You need to know the characteristics of each memory store in terms of:o Capacityo Encodingo Duration
  6. 6. MSM – get to know your componentsSensory Memory Iconic Store – Touch Visual input Receives Sight information from the Sound Echoic Store – environment Auditory input Taste Smell Haptic Store – Tactile input Milliseconds
  7. 7. Sensory Memory Encoding Capacity Duration Very brief Accepts duration Very limited information capacity through all 5(Sperling ,1960) senses Sperling ,1960 – visual info for Holds the Sperling, 1960 – milliseconds‘impressions’ of lab exp = iconicinformation and Baddeley, 1988 – Crowder, 2003 – then they’re Iconic allows us Auditory info for gone! to piece an image 2-3 seconds
  8. 8. MSM – get to know your componentsShort Term Memory Receives information Small amount of info from the SM Information not for a short time rehearsed is lost due to decay or Rehearsed displacement information is passed into LTM Decay – Displacement – Limited duration Limited capacity
  9. 9. Short Term Memory Capacity Encoding Duration 5-9 items Acoustic 0-18 seconds Jacobs (1887) Baddeley used used the digit acousticallyspan technique similar and Peterson & dissimilar words Peterson used nonsense trigrams
  10. 10. MSM – get to know your components ReceivesLong Term Memory information Link between from the STM amount of rehearsal and Via rehearsal strength of memory trace (engram) Infinite capacity Can last a lifetime
  11. 11. Long Term Memory Capacity Encoding Duration Unlimited Semantic Unlimited Merkle (1988) Baddeley usedlooked at number semantically of synapses in Bahrick found similar and brain, between that LTM is a dissimilar words 1000 to 1000000 stable memory GB store – school photos
  12. 12. MSM – A02 Positive Negative- Murdock (1962) - KF- Squire et al (1992)- KF
  13. 13. MSM – A02 (Murdock)Position Position on on list list 1 floor 16 voice 2 flower 17 front 3 America 18 degree 4 carpet 19 light 5 laugh 20 chief 6 animal 21 radio 7 point 22 paper 8 race 23 ring 9 hair 24 desk 10 boat 25 tree 11 frame 26 vase 12 mirror 27 smile 13 skin 28 Spain 14 circle 29 clock 15 printer 30 green
  14. 14. MSM – A02 (Murdock)
  15. 15. MSM – A02 How do you think Murdock provides support for the Multi-Store Model of memory?Supports the idea of the LTM and STM being separate stores Words at the beginning of theWords at the end of the list were list had been still in the STM rehearsed – therefore wereWords in the middle of the list had in the LTM been displaced
  16. 16. MSM – A02 STM = Squire et al prefrontal cortex Biological evidence – LTM =why is this a good thing? hippocampus This is a strength because it provides scientific (biological) evidence of 2 components of memory, identified by the MSM
  17. 17. MSM – A02 STM = KF severely impairedDemonstrates that it ispossible to damage just LTM = intact one storeThis is a strength because it provides evidence forSTM and LTM being unitary stores, as suggested by the MSM
  18. 18. MSM – A02 STM = KF partially damagedDemonstrates that it ispossible to damage part of one store This is a weakness because it goes against the MSMtheory that STM is a unitary store, according to MSM is part of the STM is damaged it all should be.

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