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PSYA1 June 2011

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PSYA1 June 2011

  1. 1. Centre Number Candidate Number For Examiner’s UseSurnameOther Names Examiner’s InitialsCandidate Signature Question Mark General Certificate of Education 1 Advanced Subsidiary Examination June 2011 2 3Psychology (Specification A) PSYA1 4Unit 1 Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology 5 and Research Methods 6Wednesday 25 May 2011 9.00 am to 10.30 am 7 8 You will need no other materials. 9Time allowed 1 hour 30 minutes TOTALInstructions Use black ink or black ball-point pen. Fill in the boxes at the top of this page. Answer all questions. You must answer the questions in the spaces provided. Do not write outside the box around each page or on blank pages. Do all rough work in this book. Cross through any work you do not want to be marked.Information The marks for questions are shown in brackets. The maximum mark for this paper is 72. Question 3 should be answered in continuous prose. You may use the space provided to plan your answer. In Question 3, you will be assessed on your ability to: – use good English – organise information clearly – use specialist vocabulary where appropriate.(JUn11psyA101) G/T66809 6/6/6/6/ PSYA1
  2. 2. 2 Do not write outside the box Section A Cognitive Psychology and Research Methods Answer all questions in the spaces provided. Total for this question: 8 marks1 (a) A, B and C relate to memory. Write the appropriate letter in the box below. The first one has been done for you. A 72 B Up to 30 seconds without rehearsal Write letter B in the appropriate box below. C Mainly acoustic Write letter C in the appropriate box below. Short-term Long-term memory memory Encoding Capacity A Duration (2 marks)1 (b) Outline the working memory model. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (4 marks) Extra space ........................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................(02) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1
  3. 3. 3 Do not write outside the box1 (c) Explain one limitation of the working memory model. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) ____ 8 Total for this question: 16 marks2 A psychologist carried out an experiment using an independent groups design. The psychologist wished to investigate the effectiveness of a strategy for memory improvement. In one condition, participants were taught a memory improvement strategy. In the other condition, participants were not taught this memory improvement strategy. All participants were asked to memorise 10 pictures of familiar objects. For example, the first was a doll, the second was an apple. All participants were then given 50 pictures each, and asked to select the original 10. The psychologist did a pilot study before carrying out the experiment. The results of the experiment are shown in Table 1 on page 5.2 (a) Write a directional hypothesis for this experiment. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks)2 (b) Explain what is meant by an independent groups design. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (1 mark) Question 2 continues on the next page Turn over (03) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1
  4. 4. 4 Do not write outside the box2 (c) Explain one strength and one limitation of using an independent groups design. Strength ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ Limitation .......................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks + 2 marks)2 (d) Explain why the psychologist did a pilot study. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks)(04) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1
  5. 5. 5 Do not write outside the box Table 1 The mean number of pictures correctly identified and standard deviations for participants with the memory improvement strategy and without the memory improvement strategy With memory Without memory improvement strategy improvement strategy Mean 8 7 Standard Deviation 2.80 0.292 (e) What do the standard deviations in Table 1 tell us about the performance of the two groups? ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks)2 (f) Outline one strategy for memory improvement which the psychologist could have taught the participants in this experiment. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (4 marks) Extra space ........................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ____ ............................................................................................................................................ 16 Turn over for the next question Turn over (05) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1
  6. 6. 6 Do not write outside the box Total for this question: 12 marks3 Outline and evaluate research into the effects of age of witnesses on accuracy of eyewitness testimony. You may use this space to plan your answer ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................(06) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1
  7. 7. 7 Do not write outside the box ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (12 marks) Turn over (07) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1
  8. 8. 8 Do not write outside the box Extra space for question 3 ................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ____ ............................................................................................................................................ 12(08) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1
  9. 9. 9 Do not write outside the box Section B Developmental Psychology and Research Methods Answer all questions in the spaces provided. Total for this question: 6 marks4 Anya has a 10-month-old son called Ben. Anya sometimes ignores Ben and does not respond when he cries. However, when Anya feels like playing with Ben, she wakes him up, even if he is soundly asleep.4 (a) What type of attachment is Ben likely to show? Explain your answer. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks)4 (b) Explain how a psychologist could investigate Ben’s attachment type using Ainsworth’s Strange Situation. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks) ____ 6 Turn over for the next question Turn over (09) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1
  10. 10. 10 Do not write outside the box Total for this question: 4 marks5 Outline what research has shown about cultural variations in attachment. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (4 marks) Extra space ........................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ____ ............................................................................................................................................ 4(10) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1
  11. 11. 11 Do not write outside the box Total for this question: 8 marks6 Psychologists sometimes use case studies to study children. One example was of a boy who was discovered at the age of six. He had been kept in a darkened room and had had almost no social contact with people.6 (a) How could a psychologist maintain confidentiality when reporting a case study? ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks)6 (b) Psychologists use a range of techniques to gather information in case studies. Outline one technique which the psychologist could use in this case study. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) Question 6 continues on the next page Turn over (11) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1
  12. 12. 12 Do not write outside the box6 (c) Apart from ethical issues, explain one or more limitations of using case studies. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (4 marks) Extra space ........................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ____ ............................................................................................................................................ 8(12) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1
  13. 13. 13 Do not write outside the box Total for this question: 6 marks7 Some research has suggested that there is a relationship between the time children spend in day care and their aggressive behaviour. Researchers selected a group of school children who had been in day care. They asked the children’s mothers to estimate how many hours a week their children had spent in day care. They measured the same children’s aggression. Relationship between average hours spent in day care and aggression 12 11 10 9 8 Average 7 hours spent 6 in day care per week 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Aggression7 (a) How many children are represented in this scattergram? ............................................................................................................................................ (1 mark)7 (b) Suggest one way in which the children’s aggression could be measured. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) Question 7 continues on the next page Turn over (13) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1
  14. 14. 14 Do not write outside the box7 (c) In the media, it was claimed that the results showed spending time in day care caused the children to become aggressive. Explain why this claim may be untrue. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks) ____ 6 Total for this question: 4 marks8 Describe one or more studies of the effects of day care on peer relations. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (4 marks) Extra space ........................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ____ ............................................................................................................................................ 4(14) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1
  15. 15. 15 Do not write outside the box Total for this question: 8 marks9 Outline and evaluate learning theory as an explanation of attachment. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (8 marks) Extra space ........................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ____ ............................................................................................................................................ 8 END OF QUESTIONS(15) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1
  16. 16. 16 Do not write outside the box There are no questions printed on this page DO NOT WRITE ON THIS PAGE ANSWER IN THE SPACES PROVIDED Copyright © 2011 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.(16) G/T66809/Jun11/PSYA1

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