Cross cultural variations in attachment type


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Cross cultural variations in attachment type

  1. 1. Glossary •Strange Situation •Secure •Insecure-Avoidant •Insecure-Resistant •Situation 6 •Main & Solomon •Stranger anxiety •Separation anxiety •Reunion behaviour •Willingness to explore •Sensitivity hypothesis•Temperament hypothesis
  2. 2. Cross-Cultural Variations in attachment type
  3. 3. DefinitionThe ways members of a society/culture vary in terms of their social practisesAs we already know – these variations can effect infant behaviour/development and attachment type
  4. 4. Some examples...Japan – It’s rare to leave an infant alone and their mothers rarely leave them in the care of others.What attachment type do you think is most common in Japan?Insecure-Resistant
  5. 5. Some examples...Germany – Parents value independence. Parenting focuses on making the child as independent as possible(behaviours exhibited by securely attached children would be considered ‘clingy’)What attachment type do you think is most common in Germany?Insecure-Avoidant
  6. 6. Some examples...Israeli Kibbutz– Kibbutz life is very ‘family centred’ and so children are raised at home by their parentsWhat attachment type do you think is most common in Israeli Kibbutz?Insecure-Resistant
  7. 7. Key research: Van Ijzendoorn & KroonenbergAim: To investigate cross-cultural differences in attachment type through meta-analysis of research, comparing findings of the Strange Situation research conducted in other culturesResearch Method: Laboratory using observationsProcedure: They used Ainsworth’s Strange situation
  8. 8. Strange SituationWhat 4 behaviours did the strange situation observations focus on?1. Separation anxiety2. Stranger anxiety3. Reunion behaviour4. Willingness to explore
  9. 9. Procedure continued…Compared the findings of 32 studiesacross 8 different countries that usedthe strange situation to measureattachment type. Specifically comparingWestern (e.g. Britain and Germany) andnon-western cultures (e.g. Japan, China)
  10. 10. Findings: Country Secure Insecure- Insecure- Avoidant Resistant Germany 57 35 8 Britain 75 22 3 Israel 64 7 29 Japan 68 5 27 China 50 25 25 USA 65 21 141.5 times greater variation within cultures than between
  11. 11. Conclusions There are cross-cultural differences in attachment types.This could be due to cultural practices,cultural expectations of parentsreturning to work, cultural expectationsof child independence.However, there are greater differences within cultures than between cultures.
  12. 12. A02 - Evaluation1. Strange Situation is easy to replicate2. Ethnocentric3. Low ecological Validity4. Not all children fit into one attachment type
  13. 13. Positive – A02The strange situation has been replicated all over the world – not just in Western cultures
  14. 14. Negative – A02Ethnocentric means: based only on one cultureThe strange situation suggests that the behaviour of all children in all cultures can be interpreted from the same viewpointe.g. Using the same 3 classifications
  15. 15. Negative – A02Low Ecological ValidityArtificial SettingCan’t generalise findings beyond the research setting