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Behavioural Approach
AssumptionsAll behaviours (normal and abnormal) are learned Learned responses from environmental stimuli          Study ob...
Causes    1.Classical Conditioning    Learning by association    2. Operant Conditioning   Learning by reinforcement      ...
Classical Conditioning- Learning by association- Creating a new response to     a stimulus- Classical conditioningschedule...
Operant ConditioningLearning by reinforcement    Reward = encourages certain behaviours  (increases chances of them being ...
Social Learning TheoryOperant Conditioning from a distance...        Behaviours can be   encouraged/discouraged by      wa...
How would the behavioural approach      investigate abnormality?Animal StudiesThe same basic laws of learningapply to huma...
Scientific For example, the behavioural approach   focuses on what is observable and             measureable    This is po...
DeterministicFor example, the approach suggests that if we are rewarded for losingweight that we will develop an eating   ...
Reductionist For example, it suggests that mental      illnesses are the result ofreward/punishment (e.g. Rewarded foraggr...
ExtrapolationFor example, rats have been widely used    by behaviourists to demonstrate  conditioning (so the research tes...
Key terms / Buzz words Deterministic B.F. Skinner      Classical    Learning         Social Learning          Punishment  ...
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Behavioural approach

  1. 1. Behavioural Approach
  2. 2. AssumptionsAll behaviours (normal and abnormal) are learned Learned responses from environmental stimuli Study observable behaviour
  3. 3. Causes 1.Classical Conditioning Learning by association 2. Operant Conditioning Learning by reinforcement 3. Social LearningLearning by watching others being rewarded
  4. 4. Classical Conditioning- Learning by association- Creating a new response to a stimulus- Classical conditioningschedule UCS = UCR UCS + NS = UCR CS = CR
  5. 5. Operant ConditioningLearning by reinforcement Reward = encourages certain behaviours (increases chances of them being repeated)Punishment = discourages certain behaviours(decreases chances of them being repeated)
  6. 6. Social Learning TheoryOperant Conditioning from a distance... Behaviours can be encouraged/discouraged by watching others being rewarded/punished for them – this is known as vicarious learning
  7. 7. How would the behavioural approach investigate abnormality?Animal StudiesThe same basic laws of learningapply to human and non-human animalsWhat do you think the problem would be in using non-human animals? Extrapolation – it’s difficult to apply the findings from non-human animal research to humans
  8. 8. Scientific For example, the behavioural approach focuses on what is observable and measureable This is positive because it allowsconcepts such as classical conditioning tobe demonstrated scientifically – allowing for empirical support for the theory
  9. 9. DeterministicFor example, the approach suggests that if we are rewarded for losingweight that we will develop an eating disorderThis is a weakness because it ignores the concept of free will and the idea that someone might exercise conscious control over their behaviour
  10. 10. Reductionist For example, it suggests that mental illnesses are the result ofreward/punishment (e.g. Rewarded foraggression results in more aggression)This is a weakness because it reducesthe complex mental disorders down to basic elements, it’s too simplistic!
  11. 11. ExtrapolationFor example, rats have been widely used by behaviourists to demonstrate conditioning (so the research tests animal behaviour – not human) This is a weakness because that research can’t be applied to humansbecause they are biologically differentand may not respond in the same way at animals
  12. 12. Key terms / Buzz words Deterministic B.F. Skinner Classical Learning Social Learning Punishment Operant Reward Encourage Reductionist VicariousEnvironment Animal Studies ‘Little Albert’ Scientific AssociationExtrapolation Extrapolation Rats/pigeon
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