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16 bealer

  1. 1. XML Essentials for Decision Makers SSP June 2, 2004 San Francisco
  2. 2. Welcome & Introductions Barry Bealer
  3. 3. Presenters Barry Bealer, Really Strategies Lisa Bos, Really Strategies Dale Waldt, aXtive minds3 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  4. 4. Agenda 8:00-8:10 Welcome & Introductions 8:10-8:30 The Big Picture: XMLs Role in Publishing 8:30-8:50 The XML Family of Standards 8:50-9:30 XML Technologies 9:30-9:45 Break 9:45-11:00 Structured Information Modeling 11:00-11:30 Planning for XML 11:30-12:00 Questions and Discussion4 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  5. 5. Class Survey XML usage: How many … Using XML? Planning to use? Considering? Audience roles: How many … In Editorial Role? Production? Technical? Other?5 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  6. 6. The Big Picture:XML’s Role in Publishing Lisa Bos
  7. 7. Life Is Getting Harder We must: Do more with content faster with minimal staff increases. We must also be ready for the unknown opportunity and threat.7 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  8. 8. Doing More… Electronic products can do really cool stuff: search research tools (finding related materials) new ways of presenting data8 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  9. 9. Doing Cool Stuff Requires: More information about documents and data (metadata) Identifying useful information that is deep inside documents9 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  10. 10. Part of the Solution Structured markup like XML is an excellent way to gather metadata and to identify data locked in documents.10 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  11. 11. Faster and With Minimal Staff Increases… Traditional publishing operations scale linearly: Doing more with content requires more people and more time because content is manually manipulated for each usage.11 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  12. 12. Faster and With Minimal Staff Increases… So, how do publishers (and other industries) increase productivity? By increasing automation. What’s the enemy of automation? Inconsistency.12 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  13. 13. Part of the Solution Structured markup like XML helps build consistency and predictability into content.13 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  14. 14. Business Case for XML Match competition’s capabilities Reduce expense – Increased productivity Increase revenue – Enables electronic product functionality Increase revenue – New opportunities for derivative print and electronic products14 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  15. 15. How Does XML Fit In?15 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  16. 16. How Does XML Fit In?16 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  17. 17. Now What Do I Do? Determining the right way to implement XML can be difficult. Factors include: Culture (reaction to change) Business objectives Nature of content and products17 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  18. 18. The XML Family of Standards Lisa Bos
  19. 19. What Are Standards? There are many organizations involved in standards development, including: World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) International Standards Organizations (ISO) IDEAlliance (International Digital Enterprise Alliance) The purpose, methods, and membership of these groups vary widely.19 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  20. 20. What Are Standards? There are many types of standards Standards for content syntax Standards for content markup vocabularies Standards for programming languages Some standards compete with each other20 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  21. 21. What Are Standards? Not all standards are widely-adopted or well-implemented. The ones we’re discussing today are both.21 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  22. 22. Core XML Standards Readiness XML and the XML Family of standards are in production use in a variety of applications Maturity as indicated on a Gartner Maturity Curve Peak of Inflated Expectations Plateau of Productivity XSLT XPath / XPointer XML HTML XSL:FO Inception Trough of Disillusionment22 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  23. 23. Why Use Standards? Leverage well-tested thinking already done by lots of really smart people Standards evolve with changing situations Software supports them, and is sometimes free! Experienced people are available to hire or consult with23 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  24. 24. The Foundation Standard: XML XML = Extensible Markup Language Rules for a markup syntax intended for tagging content in a format-independent and controlled (well-formed) fashion Independent of the markup vocabulary (tags) used Not revolutionary, evolutionary Foundation for many other standards Managed by W3C Currently at version 1.1, although most organizations implement 1.024 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  25. 25. Benefits Identified by the W3C Enables internationalized media-independent electronic publishing Saves businesses money by enabling the use of inexpensive off-the- shelf tools to process data Saves training and development costs by having a single format for a wide range of uses Increases reliability, because user agents can automate more processing of documents they receive Provides the underpinnings of the Semantic Web, enabling a whole new level of interoperability and information interchange Encourages industries to define platform-independent protocols for the exchange of data, including electronic commerce Allows people to display information the way they want it, under style sheet control Enables long-term reuse of data, with no lock-in to proprietary tools or undocumented formats (From www.w3c.org)25 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  26. 26. A Quick Look (XML) <?xml version="1.0"?> <!DOCTYPE article SYSTEM "journal.dtd" > <article> <metadata> <id>2433</id><volume>291</volume><number>20</number><pages>2433-2440</pages><date>May 26, 2004</date><type>Original Contribution</type> </metadata> <title>Association of Frequency and Duration of Aspirin Use and Hormone Receptor Status With Breast Cancer Risk</title> <contributors><authors>Mary Beth Terry, PhD; Marilie D. Gammon, PhD; Fang Fang Zhang, MD, MPH; Heba Tawfik, MD, MPH; Susan L. Teitelbaum, PhD; Julie A. Britton, PhD; Kotha Subbaramaiah, PhD; Andrew J. Dannenberg, MD; Alfred I. Neugut, MD, PhD</authors></contributors> <abstract> <para-title>Context</para-title> <p>Use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been associated with a decrease in the risk of several cancers, including breast cancer. NSAIDs inhibit cyclooxygenase activity and thereby reduce prostaglandin synthesis; prostaglandins stimulate aromatase gene expression and thereby stimulate estrogen biosynthesis. Given the importance of estrogen in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, the ability of aspirin and other NSAIDs to protect against breast cancer could vary according to hormone receptor status.</p> ... </abstract> </article> (text from JAMA)26 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  27. 27. Standards for Rules: DTDs and Schemas Method for creating New XML markup vocabularies (tags) Rules for how tags can be combined (documents that conform are valid) DTDs have been around for a long time (SGML) Schemas are newer and there are competing standards. Examples: W3C Schema (W3C) RELAX NG (OASIS)27 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  28. 28. A Quick Look (DTD) <!ELEMENT article (metadata, title, contributors, abstract, section+, references) >28 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  29. 29. Transformation Standards: XSLT & XPath XSLT = Extensible Stylesheet Language – Transformations A scripting language for transforming XML into other formats (like HTML) Based on XML Managed by W3C Active version is 1.0; 2.0 is in progress29 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  30. 30. Transformation Standards: XSLT & XPath XPath = XML Path Language A language for addressing locations in XML documents (e.g., to the <heading> of the first <section> element) Needed by XSLT and other standards that process XML content Managed by W3C Active version is 1.0; 2.0 is in progress30 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  31. 31. A Quick Look (XSLT transforms XML to HTML) XML Input <article><title>Association of Frequency and Duration of Aspirin Use and Hormone Receptor Status With Breast Cancer Risk</title> ...</article> Rule for <article><title> XSLT Fragment <xsl:template match="article/title"> <h1> Outputs HTML <h1> tag <xsl:text>ARTICLE: </xsl:text> <xsl:apply-templates/> </h1> Outputs “ARTICLE: ” </xsl:template> before title text Outputs content of HTML Output <h1>Association of Frequency and Duration of <title> Aspirin Use and Hormone Receptor Status With Breast Cancer Risk</h1> In a Browser ARTICLE: Association of Frequency and Duration of Aspirin Use and Hormone Receptor Status With Breast Cancer Risk31 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  32. 32. XML Technologies Lisa Bos
  33. 33. Typical System33 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  34. 34. XML Editors Products that facilitate authoring and editing XML content Can require you to follow the rules in DTDs and/or schemas Require varying levels of configuration and customization Have word processing capabilities, but have historically NOT been perceived by users as the same kind of product34 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  35. 35. XML Editors Examples: Industrial strength for editors/production staff: Arbortext Epic, Blast Radius XMetaL Industrial strength for developers: Altova XML Spy Less expensive/free/often more suited for developers: Cooktop, <oXygen/>35 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  36. 36. XML Editors XML Editor Demonstrations36 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  37. 37. XML Editors What about Microsoft Word? Conversion between Word and XML New Word capabilities37 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  38. 38. Content Repositories Repository = where you will store your XML (and other) content Huge range of options from the simple to the sophisticated, inexpensive to very, very costly Some have XML-specific capabilities, some do not Help with automation and predictability by controlling access to content and facilitating the processes used to work with it Your biggest short-term and long-term investment You might not need one right away38 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  39. 39. Content Repositories Enterprise Content Management Systems (e.g., Documentum) Can read XML files when loaded and copy metadata from the XML into the database for use for searching and other purposes Can store documents in re-usable “chunks” Provides workflow tools and other content management functions39 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  40. 40. Content Repositories Relational Databases (e.g., Oracle) Varying degrees of XML support including querying Can break content down into individual data values when load and reassemble when export For some content, the overhead of mapping from an XML hierarchical structure to a relational structure doesn’t scale well40 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  41. 41. Content Repositories Native XML Repositories (e.g., Software AG’s Tamino) XML is the native data format – no special processing needed Can query the XML directly Can use queries to return subsets of content for different outputs41 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  42. 42. Transformation Tools – Conversion to XML Lots of methods, none of which is perfect Manual Specialized software products Custom programming Combo Right approach depends on the content, the DTD/schema, and volume Sometimes human beings do the best and most affordable job Outsourcing is often an excellent option42 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  43. 43. Transformation Tools – XML to ??? XSLT is the language of choice, but need software to run the scripts Are lots of options for XSLT processing engines, most of which are free: Apache’s Xalan, Michael Kay’s Saxon Sometimes also want development environments for creating and testing XSLT scripts and related software MarrowSoft Xselerator, XML Spy, Stylus Studio43 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  44. 44. XML Transformation – How It Works Transformation of content using XSLT Rules DTD / Error Schema Report Validate & Transform XML HTML Doc Doc XSLT Rules44 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  45. 45. Transformation Tools Demonstrations45 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  46. 46. Parsers Each of these software products need a parser (usually built in) Parsers help the software read XML content Parsers can verify that content is well-formed and that it conforms to the DTD/schema (validation) Example: Apache’s Xerces46 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  47. 47. Technology Challenges for Society Publishers Handling external submissions Transformation to XML from unstructured formats Specific types of content: tables, math, chemical equations Building internal knowledge Ongoing technology management Ongoing awareness of standards activity And Figuring out the business model that justifies change/investment47 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  48. 48. Case Study American College of Physicians Started with limited XML use in production environment several years ago Leveraged to develop several online products and support content licensing Support print and electronic from same content set Based on positive experiences and need for improvements in editorial environment, recently invested in content management system Now prepared for next generation of print and electronic It works!48 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  49. 49. Break!
  50. 50. StructuredInformationModeling Dale Waldt
  51. 51. Information May Consist of 3 Things 10001101101001010010010 Data 01010001101101001010010 01001010001101101001010 Information elements & values 01001001010001101101001 01001001001010001101101 00101001001001010001101 Structure Relationship of elements Location of information elements Presentation Rendering of information to aid consumption51 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  52. 52. Documents & Document Models A Document One "instance" of a document model A Document Model The collection of rules that define a class of documents Manual Manual Manual Objectives Lesson 1 Lesson 1 Lesson 1 Lab 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 2 Lesson 2 Index Lesson 3 Lab 2 A manual contains: • 1 optional objectives, followed by Glossary • 1 or more lessons, which may have • 1 optional lab, followed by • either 1 optional glossary or index.52 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  53. 53. What are We Modeling? Document models are rules about how the information should be organized Encapsulates business policies Provides naming vocabulary rules Defines occurrence rules Defines sequence & order rules Human & machine readable expression Supports automated processing & validation53 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  54. 54. Data Fitting a Simple Model <document> <head>XML Training Course</head> <subhead>May 1, 2004</subhead> <p>Copyright 2004 aXtive Minds, Inc.</p> <head>Objectives</head> <p>Learn about XML</p> <p>Have fun!</p> <head>Lesson 1 - XML</head> <p>XML is the eXtensible Markup Language.</p> <head>Lab 1 - Quiz</head> <p>What does XML stand for?</p> <head>Glossary</head> <p>XML - eXtensible Markup Language</p> </document>54 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  55. 55. Data Fitting a More Robust Model <training_manual> <topic>XML Training Course</topic> <date>May 1, 2004</date> <copyright>Copyright 2004 aXtive Minds, Inc.</copyright> <lesson> <topic>Lesson 1 - XML</topic> <objectives> <obj>Learn about XML</obj> <obj>Have fun!</obj> </objectives> <p>XML is the eXtensible Markup Language.</p> <quiz> <head>Lab 1 - Quiz</head> <question>What does XML stand for?</question> </quiz> </lesson> <glossary> <term>XML</term> <definition>eXtensible Markup Language</definition> </glossary> </training_manual>55 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  56. 56. An Even More Robust Model<training_manual id=XML101 date=2004-05-02 copyright=AXM2004> <topic>XML Training Course</topic> <keyword>XML</keyword> <lesson> <topic>XML</topic> <objectives> <obj>Learn about XML</obj> <obj>Have fun!</obj> </objectives> <p>XML is the eXtensible Markup Language.</p> <quiz> <question>What does XML stand for?</question> </quiz> </lesson></training_manual>56 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  57. 57. Metadata is Information About the Information Foundation of re-usability Tags must be consistent across your repository Keep the tags simple, but meaningful & expressive Try not to get too granular with the tagging Build document meta-data in as early as possible57 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  58. 58. Group Exercise: XML Data Modeling58 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  59. 59. Evolution of Markup Systems GML SGML HTML XML HTML.dtd XHTML W3C Schema SOAP TREX RELAX Schematron RELAX NG ?59 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  60. 60. Markup Systems Compared Requirement SGML HTML XML Data Portability Ubiquitous Support Platform Independence Works Well in a Browser Works in non-Browser Environments Easy to Develop Applications & Content Formatting Supported Consistent Styling Easily Enforced Ambiguity Avoided Easily Intelligent Structure Supported Easily Repurposed & Reorganized Databases Support It Natively Compact Data Supports Enterprise Data Architecture Supports Supply Chain Automation Supports Messaging & EAI Applications Data Longevity Open Standard Strong Adoption Skills Readily Available Partially Meets Requirement Fully Meets Requirement60 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  61. 61. Information Can Be Reused Gain greater value from your information assets 1. Name Betaferon 4.9 Overdose <Overdose_s> <Overdose_p> 6.3 Shelf Life <Duration> SPC <Life> 1. Name Betaferon XML 3 How to use 5 Storing PL61 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  62. 62. What is an XML Document? Any data that starts with an XML Declaration XML Declaration provides key information to system Uses special XML Declaration syntax Standalone Declaration: XML Declaration Open No = external subset used Yes = entire DTD in Internal Subset XML Declaration Type <?xml version=1.0 encoding=UTF-8 standalone=no ?> Version of XML Declaration Closed Character XML Specification Encoding62 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  63. 63. XML Elements Elements are the building blocks of XML structure definitions Are identifiable, typed objects Can have content (i.e., other elements or data) Hierarchy is defined by elements containing other elements XML elements must nest properly in data instances Element boundaries are delimited with "Tags" < for Open Start Tag > for Close Start Tag & Close End Tag </ for Open End Tag /> for Close EMPTY Element Tag <postalcode>14534</postalcode> <graphic href=G1234/>63 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  64. 64. Element Content May be character data <name>Dale Waldt</name> May be other elements <name> <firstname>Dale</firstname> <lastname>Waldt</lastname> </name> May be a combination of these two <p>An interesting presentation by <name>Dale Waldt</name> of <companyname>aXtive Minds</companyname>.</p> May be empty & have no content <graphic href=G1234/>64 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  65. 65. Basic Well-Formedness Rules Must use XML syntax for markup Syntax: Case sensitive, start & end must match Name Characters rules in effect A – Z, 0 – 9 or some punctuation ( : . - _) All literal delimiters required & must match Elements: Require both start & end tags Must nest consistently Only one occurrence of root element65 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  66. 66. Well-Formed Markup Example <Book> <Chapter> <title>My Guide to the Best Sports Teams Ever</title> <para> Needless to say, <bold>Baltimore</bold>, has the <italic>Orioles</italic>. </para> <para>They are a fantastic team.</para> <para>This year may be an exception.</para> </Chapter> </Book>66 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  67. 67. Not Well-Formed Markup Example <Section> <title>My Guide to the Best Sports Teams Ever <para>1999 Boston Red Sox are okay, I guess.</PARA> <Section> <title>All-star game <para> The all-star game is being held in Boston this year. </title></para> </Section> </Section> <Section> <title>My Guide to the Worst Sports Teams Ever <para>1986 Boston Red Sox Had a Rough Finish</para> </section>67 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  68. 68. Hierarchy & Nesting of Elements <contact> <name> Dale C. Waldt <firstname>Dale</firstname> <middleinitial>C</middleinitial> <lastname>Waldt</lastname> Director </name> aXtive Minds <affiliation> <title>Director</title> 684 Mendon Road <address> Pittsford, NY 14534 <company>aXtive Minds</company> <street>684 Mendon Road</street> <city>Pittsford</city> dale@aXtiveminds.com <state>NY</state> <postalcode>14534</postalcode> </address> +1.585.703.8440 <email>dale@aXtiveminds.com</email> <phone>+1.585.703.8440</phone> </affiliation> </contact>68 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  69. 69. Demo 1. Styling Well Formed XML69 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  70. 70. XML Publishing / CMS Process Content may be created & managed in a variety of formats Content was once prepared for a single use or format New technology options for delivery channels have increased the uses to which data can be applied A single format is no longer suitable for the process "end to end" Print Print Editing & Transform Production Update Data Web Web Capture Transform Server Data Product Management Staging Data Wireless Wireless Creation Transform Delivery Master Product Interchange Data Repository Repository Transform Interchange70 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  71. 71. Client-side vs. Server-side Processing HTML Web Browsing XSLT / XSL:FO (Server-side Processing) XML DTD Transform Rules HTML Document XML XML/XSLT CSS Document Processor Style Instance XML Web Browsing/Printing Server-side Processing (Client-side Processing) XSL XML Style Sheet Document Instance XML XSL Style Topic XSL:FO / XSL:FOXML Structured / MapFormatting Editor Format71 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  72. 72. Well-formed XML Info May be Enough Well-formed documents are useful when variety & inconsistency is okay Simple documents can be rendered & read HTML XML/CSS or XML/XSLT Messages Not suitable when specific structure or vocabulary are required Record structure verification E.g., APIs, RPC, EDI, etc. Minimum required information set E.g., Forms & other data entry Use of Rules Schema Assists processing72 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  73. 73. Information Can Be Validated Validation using a DTD or Schema DTD / Error Schema Report Validate XML HTML Doc Doc73 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  74. 74. XML Schema • Concepts Types of Validation Degree of validation may depend on process requirements or other criteria Timing Business Requirements / Policy Feasibility Roles Different Tools and Schema Types can be applied for varying degrees of validation Loose DTD (Optionalized) Strict DTD Schema Syntax Checking well-formed MoreInvalid Valid Schematron 74 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  75. 75. XML Data is Validated Against Rules<?xml version=1.0?><!--?xml-stylesheet type=text/xsl href=headlines2.xsl?--><!DOCTYPE headlines [<!-- General Entity Declarations --><!ENTITY axm "aXtive Minds" ><!-- Elements & Attributes --><!ELEMENT headlines (article+) ><!ELEMENT article (head, city?, p) ><!ATTLIST article<!ELEMENT head date CDATA #REQUIRED > (#PCDATA) > Rules<!ELEMENT city (#PCDATA) ><!ELEMENT p (#PCDATA) >]><headlines> <article date=February 24, 2002> <head>Canadian Curlers Sweep! </head> <city>Salt Lake City </city> <p>Canadian curling teams swept the final competitions to win gold, silver and Content bronze medals. </p> </article></headlines>75 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  76. 76. Demo Validation of XML Data76 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  77. 77. Document Type Definitions (DTDs) A Document Type Definition: Models one document type (e.g., email, manual, balance sheet, command line, article, wire transfer, error message, report, memo, statement, invoice, treatise, play, etc.) Describes rules for documents instance of that type (e.g., names, values, structure, sequence, objects, etc.) Uses ELEMENT, ATTLIST, ENTITY, & NOTATION Declarations Is written in formal XML Declaration syntax Provide limited datatyping capabilities XML Schemas much more powerful for datatyping Useful to communicate rules to other users & applications Used to test data instance compliance to these rules Can be referenced, stored inline, or dynamically assembled from fragments77 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  78. 78. Element Declaration Structure Declared using ELEMENT declarations Markup Declaration Open Element Type Name <!ELEMENT contact (name, (affiliation | title)+ ) > Declaration Type Content Model Markup Declaration Close Applied to XML data instances <contact> <name>Dale Waldt</name> <title>President</title> <affiliation>aXtive Minds, Inc.</affiliation> </contact>78 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  79. 79. Content Model Syntax Separators (Connectors) Type Symbol Read As Caution: Separators Caution: Separators cannot be mixed within cannot be mixed within Sequence , “followed by” aagroup in aacontent model. group in content model. They must be used They must be used Choice | "or" consistently within aagroup. consistently within group. Occurrence Indicators Type Symbol Read As Required (no symbol) Must have one, and only one Optional ? May have zero or only one Required & Repeatable + Must have one or more Optional & Repeatable * May have zero or more79 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  80. 80. Attributes Modify Elements Must be tied to a defined XML Element Provide additional information to the Element Can be a list of predefined values Can have default values or declared value types Can be optional or required <!ELEMENT chapter (title, p+) > <!ATTLIST chapter number CDATA #REQUIRED uid CDATA #IMPLIED org (axm | sbg) "axm" > . . . <chapter number=1.0> Note: IfIfElements are like Nouns, Note: Elements are like Nouns, then Attributes are like adjectives! then Attributes are like adjectives!80 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  81. 81. Attributes vs. Elements – Best Practices Elements are best for: Hierarchy (Parent / Child relationship) Containers Text passages Note: IfIfElements are like Nouns, Note: Elements are like Nouns, Sequencing then Attributes are like adjectives! then Attributes are like adjectives! Content without constraints Attributes are best for: Modifying information Metadata Enumeration Constrained values or types81 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  82. 82. General Entity Declarations Source <!DOCTYPE memo [ <!ENTITY copy "©" > Resolved & Transformed ]> . . . . .. .. . <list> New Titles New Titles <title>New Titles</title> <item> • • Dogs, © 2002, Miles Waldt Dogs, © 2002, Miles Waldt Dogs, &copy; 2002, Miles Waldt </item> • • Cats, © 2002, Max Waldt Cats, © 2002, Max Waldt <item> . .. .. . Cats, © 2002, Max Waldt </item> </list . . .82 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  83. 83. Planning for XML Dale Waldt
  84. 84. Major Benefits of XML Systems Integrate editing, storage, security systems Encapsulate process in system controls Allow versions of content to be managed as single item Automate repetitive processing & assembly tasks Support efficient content creation, updating & tracking May be local and/or distributed84 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  85. 85. Teachers Net Case Study – Current SystemOutside Authors Create MS Word Articles DocumentsEditorial JournalDepartment Quark Edit Articles Edit Edit Convert Articles MS Word Articles Journal JournalProduction CleanupDepartment Convert Articles Assemble Journals HTML Articles Quark Journal Quark Compose Quark Compose Compose HTML Articles Documents Journal Journal JournalPeer Web VendorReview Review Articles85 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  86. 86. Teachers NetCase Study – XML Publishing Capture ProductionOutside Authors Articles Department Create Compose Articles Articles Compose Journals Stage HTML Internet HTML Journals Editorial Department Convert Articles Edit Review Articles Articles Assemble Journal Peer Reviewers Edit Articles Journals Journal XML XML86 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  87. 87. Teachers NetCase Study – Cost / Benefit AnalysisCurrent System FTE Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Total Editorial 2 100 100 100 100 100 500 Composition 3 150 150 150 150 150 750 IT 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Conversion / Data Capture 2 100 100 100 100 100 500 Training 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Subtotal 7 350 350 350 350 350 1750XML Publishing FTE Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Total Editorial 2 100 100 100 100 100 500 Composition 1 150 50 50 50 50 350 IT 1 50 50 50 50 50 250 Conversion / Data Capture 1 100 50 50 50 50 300 Training 0 25 0 0 0 0 25 New Products (cost avoidnace) n/a 0 -50 -50 -50 -50 -200 New Formats (cost avoidance) n/a 0 -50 -50 -50 -50 -200Subtotal 5 425 150 150 150 150 1425Cumulative Benefits (NAV) 2 -75 75 225 375 52587 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  88. 88. XML "First Step" Methodology 1) Requirements Analysis 2) Conceptual Design 3) Planning & Analysis 4) Training & Familiarization 5) DTD & Schema Development 6) Proof of Concept Development 7) Evaluation & Redirection Note: One or more of Note: One or more of these steps can be these steps can be flexibly applied as project flexibly applied as project requirements dictate. requirements dictate.88 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  89. 89. First Step 1 – Requirements & Conceptual Design Environmental Analysis Problem Statements Goals Statements General Requirements Target Statements Conceptual Design General System Description Subsystem Descriptions Features Descriptions Traceability Matrix89 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  90. 90. First Step 2 - Planning & Analysis System Development Plan by Functional Area Data Conversion Plan SW / HW Investment Plan Business Case(s) Presentation Risk Analysis & Prevention Plan90 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  91. 91. conversion • project Data Design & DTD Development Steps The XML Development Project Data Design & DTD Development Tasks: Done in parallel with other development Requirements evolve to optimize systems & processes Task Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10Initial Design & PlanningDTD Development / ReviewConversion Development DTD ReviewPrototype Development DTD ReviewConversion EnhancementConversion ProcessingEditorial DevelopmentRepository DevelopmentOutput Transform Development DTD ReviewConversion Enhancement Final DTD ReviewFinal Conversion ProcessingImplementation & Training 91 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  92. 92. System Design & Integration Tasks The XML Development Project System Development Tasks Done in parallel with other development Requirements evolve to optimize systems & processes Task Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10Initial Design & PlanningDTD Development / ReviewConversion Development DTD ReviewPrototype Development DTD ReviewConversion EnhancementConversion ProcessingEditorial DevelopmentRepository DevelopmentOutput Transform Development DTD ReviewConversion Enhancement Final DTD ReviewFinal Conversion ProcessingImplementation & Training 92 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  93. 93. conversion • project Legacy Data Conversion Tasks The XML Development Project Data conversion Tasks Done in parallel with other development Requirements evolve to optimize systems & processes Task Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10Initial Design & PlanningDTD Development / ReviewConversion Development DTD ReviewPrototype Development DTD ReviewConversion EnhancementConversion ProcessingEditorial DevelopmentRepository DevelopmentOutput Transform Development DTD ReviewConversion Enhancement Final DTD ReviewFinal Conversion ProcessingImplementation & Training 93 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  94. 94. First Step 3 - Training & Familiarization Executive Familiarization Briefing Core Competency Familiarization General Processes & Models Specific Skills Development Training XML XSLT & Composition XML & DB ? Other94 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  95. 95. XML Publishing/CMS Process Skill Sets Editing & Print Update Production Data Capture Data Product Web Management Staging Server Data Creation Wireless XML Product Services Repository Repository• Data Design• Info Modeling • Info Modeling • Vertical Apps. • Vertical Apps.• Vertical Apps. • Core XML Standards • Production Tools • Core XML Standards• XML Conversion • XML Services Stds. • Core XML Stds. • XML Services Standards• Capture Tools • XML Applications • XML Services Stds. • Web/Wireless Protocols• Project Mgt. • Process Mgt. • XML Transforms • Delivery Platforms• Communications • Project Mgt. • Process Mgt. • XML Transforms• Domain Expertise • Domain Expertise • Domain Expertise • Domain Expertise95 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  96. 96. Developing Decision Makers Managers & Systems Analysts XML Concepts XML Standards Overview XML Planning & Implementation XML Standards Tracking Legal & IPR Issues Software/System Development Overviews XML Business Cases Understanding Web / HTML Data & Process Modeling (Managerius Structurus)(Managerius Incompletus ext. 1999) 96 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  97. 97. Developing Developers XML System Developers XML Syntax & Practices XSLT Syntax & Practices ? XPath / XPointer Schemas (All Types) SAX / DOM X Web Protocols (HTTP/S, FTP) Data & Process Modeling RDBMS / XML DBMS XTM, Xlink, XQuery SVG, PDF, GIF, JPEG, etc.(Developus Formatus) Scripting Languages & Tools (Developus Structurus)97 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  98. 98. First Step 4 - DTD / Schema Development Data Analysis General Data Analysis Report XML DTD / Schema Development Sample / Test Data Development Documentation Development98 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  99. 99. Data Design & DTD Development Question I used to get: "How much does it cost to create a DTD?" Process is: Iterative & Time Consuming Broad in scope Requires Specialized Skills XML/Schema Processing Requirements & Limitations Domain Expertise Business Fundamentals Teamwork & Communication Innovative Design Cannot be Done in a Vacuum99 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  100. 100. Data Design & DTD Development In-house vs. Outsource "Dont buy fish at the fish monger, hire a fishing guide to show you how to do it." Consultants Have experience & prestige Can train your staff May lack domain knowledge Lack knowledge of internal processes & requirements May cost more Internal staff May lack experience in XML May know your systems & requirements well May be less expensive Can fill need to maintain data models ongoing100 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  101. 101. XML Data Analysis Process Maintain an enterprise view of requirements Consider entire data lifecycle Design team must have broad representation Not created by engineers alone Requires domain expertise Normalize dissimilar definitions Normalize vocabulary to be robust enough to serve all uses Eliminate redundancies, ambiguity & manual work where feasible Use "obvious" names & structures Set appropriate scope Define your target data type Prioritize & work toward most valuable needs Eliminate Impossible Goals Validate your design Eliminate ambiguity Test design against expectations101 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  102. 102. First Step 5 – System Development Data Conversion Tools Editorial Tools Data Transformations & Rendering Tools Data Storage Methods Workflow & Process Tools Data Delivery Product Prototypes Quality Assurance Tools102 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  103. 103. Print & Web ProductionConversion Cleanup Editing & Management Composition Production Edit Manage Compose Source Unparsed Data Data Data PDF Data Data Pages Structure Parse & Loading /Conversion Correct Staging Reorg Error Error Stage/ HTML Log Log Hosted Transform Pages Database to Web Web Site Production103 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  104. 104. Focus on Core Strengths Many Publishers do not possess Dedicated IT Staff Production Staff Web Development Staff Service Bureaus Can do Some or All of These Web Enables: Integrated Workflow Distributed Processing Seamless Data Interchange Leveraging Not Duplicating System Investment Can be internal or External Service Bureaus104 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  105. 105. Final Deliverables Business Case Project Proposal / Cost/Benefit Analysis Conceptual Design Documents Requirements / Traceability Matrix Conceptual Data & System Designs Implementation Plans System Components Data Design & Conversion Training & Implementation Evaluation Report105 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  106. 106. Critical Success Factors for XML Development Quickly define problems, goals, and opportunities for XML & structured information development project Use "Rapid Development" methodology to test design Focus on "Business Drivers" & "Technology Enablers" Use Technical & financial analysis provides clear business case & development plan106 XML Essentials for Decision Makers, © 2002-2004
  107. 107. Questions and DiscussionBarry Bealer, President / CEO Dale Waldt,Lisa Bos, VP & Chief Architect President / Senior Consultant Really Strategies aXtive Minds, Inc. 618 South Broad Street 684 Mendon Road 2nd Floor Pittsford, NY 14534 Lansdale, PA 19446 +1.215.631.3107 +1.585.703.8440 bbealer@reallysi.com dale@aXtiveminds.com lbos@reallysi.com http://aXtiveminds.com http://www.reallysi.com

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