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134 tenopir

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134 tenopir

  1. 1. Researching Researchers:What User Studies Tell Us
  2. 2. …researchers and students
  3. 3. Average Time Spent and Number of Articles Read Per Year Per Scientist140120100 Number80 Read60 Hours40 Spent20 0 1977 1981 1984 1987 1991 1996 2000 2003
  4. 4. The most up-to-date source for our research. http://web.utk.edu/~tenopir/
  5. 5. Recent Studies:2000-2001 UTK medical, engineering, science and ORNL scientists2001-2002 Astronomers2002-2003 Pittsburgh and Drexel faculty and students2004 Pediatricians and Australian universities
  6. 6. Use and Users of Electronic LibraryResources: An Overview and Analysis ofRecent Research Studies. Tenopir,Carolwww.clir.org/pub/reports/pub120/pub120.pdf
  7. 7. Tier 1 studiesSTUDY PARTICIPANTSSuperJournal Students & facultyDLF/Outsell Students & facultyHighWire/eJUSt Scholars & cliniciansPew/OCLC/ULC High school & College studentsOhioLINK OhioLINK usersTenopir & King Scientists and social scientistsLibQual+ Students & facultyJSTOR JSTOR users
  8. 8. Tier 2 Studies• Over 200 good studies in last decade• One time studies or small scale• Variety of methods• Together build our knowledge of user behavior
  9. 9. 1. Researchers use many ways to get information2. E-journals influence some behaviors3. Differences due to workfield, workplace, and others
  10. 10. Communication Means Oral Discussions CommunicationReviews Secondary Written Articles Reports Publications
  11. 11. Specimens Lab/FieldConversations notebook Sounds Data Scientists Sets Photos Working Direct Meetings Observations Publications
  12. 12. Lab/FieldConversations Specimens notebook Sounds Scientists Data Sets Working Photos Publications • Proceedings Direct • Preprints ObservationsMeetings • Journal Articles • Books
  13. 13. Specimens Lab/FieldConversations notebook Sounds Data Scientists Sets Working Photos Direct Meetings Observations Publications
  14. 14. Average Annual Amount Reading250 Engineers200 Scientists150100 Medical Professionals50 0 Scholary Trade Books Reports Patents Journals Journals
  15. 15. Average Annual Amount of time (Hours) spent reading(Hrs) 300 250 Engineers 200 Scientists 150 100 Medical Professionals 50 0 Scholarly Trade Books Reports Patents Journals Journals
  16. 16. Average Annual Amount (Hours) of time spent for e-mails(Hrs.) 250 200 239 150 110 86 100 50 0 Engineers Scientists Medical Professionals
  17. 17. Amount of Reading by Scientists Number of Annual Readings250200 41 100150 187100 160 50 117 0 UT 1993 UT 2000 DU 2002 Negligible Partial Nearly All Print Electronic
  18. 18. “Electronic” articles include:
  19. 19. Sources of Reading100% 90% 80% 70% Paper 60% 50% Other e- 40% E-prints 30% 20% E-journals 10% 0% AAS ORNL UTK
  20. 20. 2. E-journals and e-alternatives influence reading patterns in some ways
  21. 21. Active Journal Characteristics Ulrichsweb, October 2003 Total number of active periodicals ~180,000 Number of active online periodicals ~35,000 Number of active online refereed or scholarly periodicals ~15,000
  22. 22. Journal Migration12,00010,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 98 99 00 01 02 03 Print ElectronicSource: Montgomery and King, “Comparing Library and User Related Costs of Print andElectronic Journal Collections” in D-Lib October 2002. Available athttp://wwww.dlib.org/dlib/october02/montgomery/10montgomery.html
  23. 23. Use of the Collections (000) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Online* Print - Current Print - Bound*No. of vendor-reported full-text views. C. Montgomery
  24. 24. Print & Electronic Serial Titles in Australian and New Zealand Academic Libraries Print and Electronic Electronic Titles Titles 43,301 78,385 4% 6%253,627 1,245,42417% 83% 1,123,738 Print Individual Electronic Serial Titles 90% Electronic Titles Within a Single Publisher Collection Titles Within aggregations Source: CAUL Statistics http://www.caul.edu.au/stats/caul2002-pub.xls
  25. 25. Directory of Open Access Journals Directories Number of Journals Social Science/Bus/Law 218 Health/Life Science 164 Math/Eng/Tech 110 Humanities 134 Science 128 Total of 822 Journals at DOAJ, 2003, Lund University Libraries Source:http://www.doaj.org DOAJ-Directory of Open Access Journals
  26. 26. Studies Show Scientists Prefer Electronic:• Convenience• Ability to search across/within articles• Timeliness/currency• Links• Downloading/printing/saving/sending• Easy access to a wide variety of sources
  27. 27. Source of Articles Read By Electronic Journals Experience 13% Personal 15.2% Library 35.8% 46%41% Separates 49% 15% Early 37% Advanced 48% Evolving
  28. 28. Source of Articles Read at Drexel Faculty Doctoral Students 12% 11% 14% 42% 46% 76%Personal Subscriptions Library-Provided Separate Copies
  29. 29. Library-Provided Articles at Drexel Faculty Doctoral Students16% 14% 12% 16% 70% 77%Print Electronic Document Delivery
  30. 30. Sources of Readings % and amount of readings from use of personal separate copies subscriptionsScientists appear to be reading frommore journals—at least one article peryear from approximately 23 journals, upfrom 13 in the late 1970s and 18 in themid-1990s.
  31. 31. How Scientists Learned About Articles Early Evolving Advanced 1990-1995 2000-2001 2001-Browsing 58% 46% 21%Online Search 9% 14% 39%Colleagues 16% 22% 21%Citations 6% 13% 16%
  32. 32. Means of Learning About Articles Read Browse 29% 21% 49% Search 37% 22% Other 39% Universities Astronomers 20.8% 16.9% 62.3% Medical Faculty
  33. 33. Means of Discovery at Drexel Faculty Graduate Students 9% 12%15% 33% 20% 56% 20% 35% Browsing Online Searching Another Person Citation in Publication C. Montgomery
  34. 34. Age of Reading from Digital Media Early Evolving Advanced 5% 3.5% 7% 5% 6.9% 8% 20.8%23% 23% 65% 64% 68.8% 1 years 2-5 years 6-15 years >15 years
  35. 35. Perceived value of Resource Productive Astronomers100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Definitive Definitive e- Keep Up Keep Up e- journals prints journals prints
  36. 36. 3. Differences in reading patterns due to workfield, workplace, etc.
  37. 37. Scholarly Article Reading Work Field Articles Read Time Spent Time Per (Per Year) (Hours) Article (Min) Univ. Med. ~322 118 22 Chemists ~276 198 43Life Scientists ~239 104 26 Physicists ~204 153 45Soc Sci/Psych ~191 121 38 Engineers ~72 97 81
  38. 38. Print or Electronic by Broad Field: University of PittsburghElectronic Electronic Print 26.8% 45.0% Print 55.0% 73.2% Non-Scientists Scientists Electronic Print 41.1% 58.9% All
  39. 39. Print or Electronic Electronic 20 %37 % Print 63 % 80 % 25 %Universities Astronomers 75 % Medical Faculty
  40. 40. Means of Learning About Articles Read Browse 29% 21% 49% Search 37% 22% Other 39% Universities Astronomers 20.8% 16.9% 62.3% Medical Faculty
  41. 41. A few words about research methods…
  42. 42. What Conclusions Can You Draw?§ Usage logs § What groups do§ Interviews/surveys/ § Opinion, what individuals and journals groups say they do in general and why§ Critical (last) incident § What individuals say they do specifically and why§ Observational/ § What individuals do in a Experimental controlled or natural setting and why§ Citation Analysis § What authors cite
  43. 43. Learning About Users and Usage Opinions, preferences (individual)Usage logs Critical incidentCitations (readings), Experimental
  44. 44. “Convenience drives usage of e-journals…and it is a relative termamong scholars.”Stanford e-Just
  45. 45. “What is convenient for one scholar is notnecessarily convenient for others. With their ownidiosyncratic approaches to both print journalsand online information, and with their ownconfiguration of professional strengths, histories,and needs, scholars patch together systems thatwork for them in their context.”Stanford e-Just

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