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Artificial Intelligence


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Artificial Intelligence

  1. 1. contents Introduction The Beginnings of AI History Applications Achievements of AI Future of AI Conclusion
  2. 2. Introduction Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the branch of science which deals with intelligence of machines where an intelligent agent is a system that takes actions which maximize its chances of success. It is the study of ideas which enable computers to do the things that make people seem intelligent. The central principles of AI include such as reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. It is the science and engineering of making intelligent computer programs.
  3. 3. The Beginnings of AI. In 1950 Alan Turing published a landmark paper in which he speculated about the possibility of creating machines with true intelligence. He noted that "intelligence" is difficult to define and devised his famous Turing Test. If a machine could carry on a conversation (over a teletype) that was indistinguishable from a conversation with a human being, then the machine could be called "intelligent“. This simplified version of the problem allowed Turing to argue convincingly that a "thinking machine" was at least plausible and the paper answered all the most common objections to the proposition. The Turing Test was the first serious proposal in the philosophy of artificial intelligence.
  4. 4. Gaming in A.I History. In 1951, using the Ferranti Mark I machine of the University of Manchester, Christopher Strachey wrote a checkers program and Dietrich Prinz wrote one for chess. Arthur Samuel's checkers program, developed in the middle 50s and early 60s, eventually achieved sufficient skill to challenge a world champion. Game AI would continue to be used as a measure of progress in AI throughout its history.
  5. 5. John McCarthy In 1956 John McCarthy regarded as the father of AI, organized a conference to draw the talent and expertise of others interested in machine intelligence for a month of brainstorming. He invited them to Vermont for "The Dartmouth summer research project on artificial intelligence." From that point on, because of McCarthy, the field would be known as Artificial intelligence. Although not a huge success, the Dartmouth conference did bring together the founders in AI, and served to lay the groundwork for the future of AI research.
  6. 6. Knowledge Expansion In the seven years after the conference, AI began to pick up momentum. Although the field was still undefined, ideas formed at the conference were re- examined, and built upon. Centers for AI research began forming at Carnegie Mellon and MIT, and new challenges were faced: further research was placed upon creating systems that could efficiently solve problems, by limiting the search, such as the Logic Theorist. And second, making systems that could learn by themselves. In 1957, the first version of a new program The General Problem Solver(GPS) was tested. The program developed by the same pair which developed the Logic Theorist. The GPS was an extension of Wiener's feedback principle, and was capable of solving a greater extent of common sense problems. Knowledge Expansion
  7. 7. Knowledge Expansion (Cont.) A couple of years after the GPS, IBM contracted a team to research artificial intelligence. While more programs were being produced, McCarthy was busy developing a major breakthrough in AI history. In 1958 McCarthy announced his new development; the LISP language, which is still used today and is the language of choice among most AI developers. Knowledge Expansion
  8. 8. From Lab to Life  Other fields of AI also made there way into the marketplace during the 1980's. One in particular was the machine vision field. The work by Minsky and Marr were now the foundation for the cameras and computers on assembly lines, performing quality control. By 1985 over a hundred companies offered machine vision systems in the US, and sales totaled $80 million.
  9. 9. AI Put to Test The military put AI based hardware to the test of war during Desert Storm. AI-based technologies were used in missile systems, heads-up-displays, and other advancements. AI has also made the transition to the home. With the popularity of the AI computer growing, the interest of the public has also grown. Applications for the Apple Macintosh and IBM compatible computer, such as voice and character recognition have become available. Also AI technology has made steadying camcorders simple using fuzzy logic. With a greater demand for AI-related technology, new advancements are becoming available. Inevitably Artificial Intelligence has, and will continue to affecting our lives.
  10. 10. A.I. TimelineAI Timeline
  11. 11. AI and Hollywood Movies  In today’s generation, Hollywood movies are mostly about androids, humanoids, and robots.  Machines going out of control  Replacing humanity  World domination
  12. 12. Smart Car  Speech recognition  Up-to-date information about historical landmarks and points of interest on the car’s rout.  Lowest price gas stations close to the current position of the car.  Warns drivers of road hazards.
  13. 13. Robotics  Robotics continue to evolve from manufacturing, medicine and remote exploration to entertainment, security and personal assistance.  Robots may be one of the most well known examples of Artificial Intelligence.  Japan has announced that they will send the first humanoid robots to the moon.
  14. 14. AI In Military  The U.S is spending as much 100 billion dollars to develop robots that can aid or replace human soldiers on the front line. These robots can operate in combat zones with little supervision.  Flight simulations and virtual environments help train over 500,000 Soldiers.
  15. 15. What’s New in AI.  Honda has created a helmet-like device that can read human brain waves and transmit them to humanoid robot. A person can make the robot perform simple tasks, including moving Its arm.  Prototypes of a car with sensors and small motors to navigate a traffic-laden city street with no driver have been created.
  16. 16. Today’s AI.  While military uses have tended to dominate commercial development of autonomous robots in America, business opportunities for smart robots are also sizable, according to experts Japan’s research into intelligent robotics has been oriented toward helping the nation’s rapidly aging population perform domestic tasks.
  17. 17. AI In Video Games  Video game artificial intelligence is a programming area that tries to make the computer act in a similar way to human intelligence.  A rule based system is used whereby information and rules are entered into a database, and when the video game AI is faced with a situation, it finds appropriate information and acts accordingly.
  18. 18. AI in Video Games  In 2001 the game Halo featured A.I. that could use vehicles and team tactics. The AI could recognize threats such as grenades and incoming vehicles.  In 2008 the Game Left 4 Dead featured a new type of AI in gaming called The Director. Instead of having a difficulty level which just ramps up to a constant level, the AI analyze how the players fared in the game so far, and try to add subsequent events that would give them a sense of narrative.
  19. 19. Some other Applications:  Credit granting  Information management and retrieval  AI and expert systems embedded in products  Plant layout  Helps desks and assistance  Employee performance evaluation  Shipping  Marketing  Warehouse optimization  In space workstation maintenance  Satellite controls  Network developments  Military activity controls  Nuclear management
  20. 20. some achievements of AI:  DARPA Grand Challenge - 123miles through desert.  DARPA Urban Challenge - Autonomous driving in traffic.  Deep Thought is an international grand master chess player.  Expert systems are used regularly in finance, medicine, manufacturing and agriculture.
  21. 21. Future of AI : Looking at the features and its wide application we may definitely stick to artificial intelligence. Seeing at the development of AI, is it that the future world is becoming artificial. Biological intelligence is fixed, because it is an old, mature paradigm, but the new paradigm of non-biological computation and intelligence is growing exponentially. The memory capacity of the human brain is probably of the order of ten thousand million binary digits. But most of this is probably used in remembering visual impressions, and other comparatively wasteful ways. Hence we can say that as natural intelligence is limited and volatile too world may now depend upon computers for smooth working.
  22. 22. conclusion Till now we have discussed in brief about Artificial Intelligence. We have discussed some of its principles, its applications, its achievements etc. The ultimate goal of institutions and scientists working on AI is to solve majority of the problems or to achieve the tasks which we humans directly can’t accomplish. It is for sure that development in this field of robotics will change the complete scenario of the world. Now it is responsibility of creamy layer of engineers to develop this field.
  23. 23. Thank you