Learning Theories


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Learning Theories

  1. 1. The Technical Core: Learning and Teaching<br />Steve Sorden<br />
  2. 2. Learning happens when experience produces a stable change in someone’s knowledge or behavior.<br />The authors present three general theories of learning:<br />Behaviorism – observable changes in behaviors, skills, and habits.<br />Cognitive– internal mental activities such as thinking, remembering, creating, and problem solving.<br />Constructivist – making meaning of events and activities. <br />Three Theories of Learning<br />
  3. 3. Popularized by B.F. Skinner. Dominant in the United States in the first half of 20th Century<br />A-B-C sequences: <br />antecedent behavior consequence<br />Behaviorism<br />
  4. 4. Antecedents and Behaviors<br />
  5. 5. Reinforcement (strengthens behavior)<br />Positive reinforcement<br />Negative reinforcement<br />Punishment (weakens or suppresses behavior)<br />Direct punishment (Type I)<br />Removal punishment (Type II)<br />Consequences<br />
  6. 6. Functional behavioral assessments<br />Positive Behavioral Supports<br />Learning Objectives<br />Direct Instruction<br />Applications of Behaviorism<br />
  7. 7. Brain-based learning – lost meaning in overuse.(Cognitivism is based in empirical research from Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Science)<br />Can be traced back to ancient Greeks, but modern scientific form didn’t become popular in the U.S. until after WWII.<br />Re-emerged with rise of the computer and new understandings of language and the brain.<br />Cognitivism<br />
  8. 8. Critical and powerful concept in cognitivism<br />Determines what we pay attention to and how we understand new information presented.<br />Prior knowledge can be beneficial or detrimental when trying to learn new information. <br />Prior Knowledge<br />
  9. 9. Declarative (what)<br />Procedural (how) <br />Conditional (when and why to apply knowledge)<br />Knowledge<br />
  10. 10. Memory<br />
  11. 11. Episodic – Memory about information associated with a particular place and time.<br />Procedural – memory for how to do things<br />Semantic – memory for meaning; it is the memory of general concepts, principles, and their associations. Stored as images and schemata.<br />3 Kinds of Long-term Memory<br />
  12. 12. Thinking about thinking.<br />An individual’s awareness on his or her own cognitive processing and how it works.<br />Planning, monitoring and evaluation are three crucial cognitive skills.<br />Metacognition<br />
  13. 13. Underlining or Highlighting<br />Taking Notes – focuses attention and helps encode information<br />Visual Tools like Cmaps(http://cmap.ihmc.us)<br />Mnemonics<br />Applications of Cognitivism<br />
  14. 14. Knowledge is not passively received but actively constructed by the learner.<br />Learners organize experience, rather than discover reality.<br />Constructivism<br />Jonassen’s Web of Constructivism (1994)<br />
  15. 15. Individual (Piaget) – meaning is constructed by the individual<br />Social (Vygotsky) – Knowledge is socially constructed<br />Radical (Postmodernism) – Knowledge is not an reflection of the external world. We interpret meaning in our own way. No belief is any better or any worse than any other.<br />Three Types of Constructivism<br />
  16. 16. Students should avoid basic skill drills and artificial problems.<br />Students should be challenged with complex situations and fuzzy problems<br />Teaching through authentic tasks and problems.<br />Situated learning – tied to context in which something is learned.<br />Learning should occur in groups and through social activities<br />A Few General Constructivist Ideas<br />
  17. 17. Inquiry and problem-based learning<br />Cognitive apprenticeships – experts with extensive knowledge guide, model, demonstrate, and correct, as well as provide a personal bond that is motivating.<br />Cooperative learning<br />Applications of Constructivism<br />
  18. 18. The Technical Core: Learning and Teaching<br />Steve Sorden<br />