Chapter 13 aisha


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Chapter 13 aisha

  1. 1. The Eyes and Ears<br />By: Aisha Land<br />Chapter 13 <br />
  2. 2. Ear tubes are known by several names: tympanostomy tubes, ventilating tubes, pressure equalizing tubes or most frequently, PE tubes. They are tiny hollow tubes made of a soft material<br />PE tubes decrease the frequency of ear infections by allowing air in and helping fluid to drain into the throat. Preventing fluid from staying in the middle ear can help to restore and preserve normal hearing. The small tubes that are used do not cause hearing loss or long term damage to the eardrum<br />Pressure Equalizing Tubes (PE Tubes)<br />
  3. 3. This specialty is a branch of medicine that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of eyes, ear, nose, throat, and head and neck disorders<br />The full name of the specialty is otolaryngology-head and neck surgery<br />Eyes, Ears, Nose, Throat (EENT)<br />
  4. 4. The process by which sound waves are transmitted to the inner ear by the cranial bones without traveling through the air in the ear canal<br />Bone Conduction (BC)<br />
  5. 5. Binaural hearing allows you to make fine judgments about sound and to listen selectively to one of several sounds<br />Both Ears (AU)<br />
  6. 6. an infection or inflammation of the middle ear. This inflammation often begins when infections that cause sore throats, colds, or other respiratory or breathing problems spread to the middle ear. These can be viral or bacterial infections<br />Otitis Media (OM)<br />
  7. 7. a state of proper correlation between the refractive system of the eye and the axial length of the eyeball, rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis being brought to focus exactly on the retina<br />Emmetropia (EM)<br />
  8. 8. Exotropia is one of the most common forms of strabismus, a condition that refers to any misalignment of the eyes. In the case of exotropia, one eye deviates outward (away from the nose) while the other fixates normally<br />Exotropia (X)<br />
  9. 9. The muscles of the eye are designed to stabilize and move the eyes. All eye muscles have a resting muscle tone that is designed to stabilize eye position. During movements, certain muscles increase their activity while others decrease it. The movements of the eye include: adduction (the pupil directing toward the nose); abduction (the pupil directed laterally); elevation (the pupil directed up); depression (the pupil directed down); intorsion (the top of the eye moving toward the nose); and extorsion (the superior aspect of the eye moving away from the nose). Horizontal eye movements are rather simple. Increased activity of the lateral rectus will direct the pupil laterally, while increased activity of the medial rectus will direct it medially. <br />Extraocular Movement (EOM)<br />
  10. 10. The visual acuity test is used to determine the smallest letters a person can read on a standardized chart or card held 14 - 20 feet away<br />Visual Acuity (VA)<br />
  11. 11.<br /><br />References: <br />