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Feminism and Citizenship: Multiculturalism and Globalisation


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Feminism and Citizenship: Multiculturalism and Globalisation

  1. 1. By Shaining Lyngdoh 13 MSCOM6522
  2. 2. Feminism and Citizenship: Multiculturalism and Globalisation Contents Introduction 1. Understanding the concept 1.1 Feminism 1.2 Citizenship 1.3 Multiculturalism 1.4 Globalisation 2. Feminism and Citizenship 3. Multiculturalism and Globalisation Conclusion Bibliography Videos (if time permit)
  3. 3. Introduction We co -exist in a Complex world A trivial example of this amalgamation could be the different cuisine Our amalgamation is in media, education, finance, computer manufacturing, corporate management, and in religion  “Man was born free, and he is everywhere in chains. Those who think themselves the masters of others are indeed greater slaves than they”. Jean-Jacques Rousseau The struggle for freedom lead to the notion of feminism and citizenship and multiculturalism and globalisation The questions that arise in the modern struggle are what is the status of women in a nation?
  4. 4. 1. Understanding the concept 1.1 Feminism Feminism is the advocacy of women’s rights on the ground of the equality of the sexes. It is giving dignified identity to women Simone de Beauvoir in her book second sex said, “Woman is the privileged other”. Feminism: French and American revolutions in the late 18th century The terms ‘feminism’ or ‘feminist’ in earlier days were commonly termed as ‘Woman’s Rights’
  5. 5. The women's suffrage movement in UK and USA in the late 19th century pave way for women to have equal rights of voting. Feminist struggle in India: male European colonists –Sati, Gandhi-women movement and Post Independence-fair treatment of women Julia Kristeva, French feminist philosopher in her book Stabat Mater said, “If it is not possible to say of a woman what she is (without running the risk of abolishing her difference), would it perhaps be different concerning the mother, since that is the only function of the ‘other sex’ to which we can definitively attribute existence?” Patriarchal society subdued women
  6. 6. 1.2 Citizenship 1. Citizenship is the position of being vested with the rights, duties and privileges of a citizen in a country and is part of the political, economic, social, religious and cultural diversity of a country. 2. Citizenship endowed the citizens with rights to vote and to contest for election; rights to say, to think and speak; rights to practice their own religion; right to have a fair trial or get justice and right to own property.
  7. 7. 1.3 Multiculturalism Multiculturalism is the amalgamation of different cultures in a single country.
  8. 8. Multiculturalism is a society “at ease with the rich tapestry of human life and the desire amongst people to express their own identity in the manner they see fit”. Kevin Bloor;T he Definitive Guide to Political Ideologies. It has often been described as a “salad bowl” or “cultural mosaic” rather than a “melting pot”
  9. 9. Multiculturalism includes the perspectives of Racial differences, Gender, Sexual orientation, Ethnic backgrounds (language and customs) Religions and Disabilities. It is closely associated with “identity politics,” “the politics of difference,” and “the politics of recognition.”
  10. 10. “Multiculturalism as a philosophical orientation recognizes de facto pluralism in a society, and celebrates that diversity. It also requires governments and institutions to encourage pluralism through public policy, though the precise way this is done can vary across places and time”. Prof. Irene Bloemraad in The notion, “Unity in diversity” is an Indian style of saying that India is a multicultural nation and is inclusive.
  11. 11. 1.4 Globalisation Globalisation is a process when a nation is intertwining with other nations
  12. 12. The word ‘globalisation’ was said to have been coined by Theodore Levitt, a former professor at the Harvard Business School. The word constructs itself by combining the word “global” with the standard suffix “ization” which mean “to become global”, “to make global” or something along these lines. In 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people and the dissemination of knowledge.
  13. 13. Merits and Demerits of Globalisation Text from Investopedia, “Proponents of globalization say that it helps developing nations “catch up” to industrialized nations much faster through increased employment and technological advances. Critics of globalization say that it weakens national sovereignty and allows rich nations to ship domestic jobs overseas where labour is much cheaper”.
  14. 14. 2. Feminism and Citizenship Feminism and Citizenship in the past are two distinct areas as one deals with empowerment of women while the latter deals with rights and duties imbibed by a citizen.
  15. 15. Johannes Voet, a Dutch jurist emphasizes that feminist theory should reflect more seriously on citizenship. In the past women are looked down as incapable to carry out political tasks, administration, governance and are so they are not eligible to enter into political career or hold public offices. Women do not have the duties to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity; to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so; to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform; and to safeguard public property and to abjure violence.
  16. 16. When they don’t have the basic rights and duties are they citizens who have citizenship? Feminists of all strands have criticised the dominant conceptions of citizenship on two counts. They argue, first of all, that citizenship is gender-blind. A second major strand of feminism is, however, sceptical of what is felt to be a merely ‘add women approach, which while looking for avenues of inclusion into the public sphere, does not question its ‘maleness’. Rajeev Bhargava and Ashok Acharya writes in their book Political Theory: An introduction
  17. 17. Feminism and Citizenship address the issues pertaining women and social mobility like women health, education, status; women at work like sexual division of labour, domestic labour, women and paid employment, women in employment; women crime and deviance like rape, assault on wives, violence, male power and women and politics. Feminist have been concerned not to argue that women’s political action is identical to men’s. They have argued that male stream research and male-dominated trade unions and political parties have a taken-for- granted definition of what to count as political. Rajeev Bhargava and Ashok Acharya. (2013). Political Theory: An introduction. New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. p. 188.
  18. 18. 3. Multiculturalism and Globalisation Multiculturalism encourages globalisation and globalisation leads to multiculturalism.
  19. 19. The objective of Multiculturalism and Globalisation: Hélder Pessoa Câmara, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Olinda and Recife said, “Keep your language. Love its sounds, its modulation, and its rhythm. But try to march together with men of different languages, remote from your own, who wish like you for a more just and human world”. Multiculturalism relates to cultural diversity in a demographic setup or organizational level or sharing of ideologies that advocate equal respect to the various cultures in a society which is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature.
  20. 20. Globalisation and the increased interdependency among nations, which itself is a function of technological advances, have made possible the easy international movement of information, capital, commodities and people. When Multiculturalism and Globalisation brings changes is it good for humanity?
  21. 21. Multiculturalism and Globalisation creates a ‘we and free culture’ and provides equal opportunities to people irrespective of gender, religion, castes, class, colour, race, ethnicity, natio nality, or and social background. Multiculturalism and globalisation become as an ethical myth on the new cultural synthesis, parcelling business and states into a unitary container, centralisation of decision making, speculative capital and financial movements and loosen the morality of people.
  22. 22. Conclusion
  23. 23. Heraclitus, a Greek philosopher said, “No man ever steps in the same river twice, for it’s not the same river and he’s not the same man.” Feminism is understood as core aspect of citizenship and multiculturalism and globalisation enhances growth to people and economy. Modernisation, global politics, free trade and easy communication pave way to globalisation which enhances both men and women to participate freely in politics and business as full fledge citizenship. The new thinking of feminism and citizenship and the novel impact of multiculturalism and globalisation are welcomed but with great care.