Principals and elements of design.


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A presentation stating various elements and Principles of Design and colour theory through various illustrations and images.

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Principals and elements of design.

  1. 1. Elements and Principles of Design Ar Suvarna Deshpande/Lele
  2. 2. Elements and Principles of Design The Elements of Design are the language of the visual arts. This introduction focuses on the elements that are most relevant to two-dimensional (flat) art works. Other elements include point, motion and elements related to three-dimensional art such as mass and volume. Line path of a point Shape perceivable area Value relative light and darkness Color color theory basics Space (2D) height, width and the illusion of depth Texture actual or simulated tactile quality
  3. 3. Shape - perceivable area. Shapes can be created by line, or by color and value changes which define their edges. As with line, the decisions you make concerning shape are important. The shapes of the objects that you create or place in your images are positive shapes. The spaces around these shapes are the negative spaces. It is just as important to be attentive to the negative space as the positive shapes.
  4. 4. Value - relative light and darkness. The overall lightness and lack of contrast in the left image conveys a sense of spirituality and harmony between the tree and the circular sky.
  5. 5. Line - the path of a point. Although the subject matter is the same in all three works, the differences in line quality have created works with very different impact. How you use line is one of the most important decisions to be made in creating a work of art
  6. 6. Space - height and width. A monitor display has two actual dimensions - height and width. In addition, an artist can create an illusion of depth, using overlapping, diminishing scale, atmospheric perspective, vertical placement, warm and cool colors, diagonals and linear perspective.
  7. 7. Texture - surface quality. We experience actual texture when we touch objects and feel their roughness, smoothness or patterns, which we can simulate or imply in digital imagery.
  8. 8. Principles of Design Scale>overall size>Proportion>relative size within the work Unity-repetition> rhythm > pattern .>Unity Balance>equalizing the visual weight of elements Direction>visual path Emphasis>focal point
  9. 9. Proportion - relative size of objects within the work of art. In his painting of bedroom (left), Rene Magritte has created a surreal situation simply by manipulating the proportions of common objects. There are no clues that tell us if we are in a normal-sized room or a dollhouse. In the other painting, Andrew Wyeth has used the proportion very differently - the small farmhouse against the largeness of the field created a sense of isolation.
  10. 10. Color - basic color theory. We response to color on many levels. Color can be used simply to describe an object. It can also be used emotional (blue for sadness or spiritually, red for angry), symbolically (associated with a flag's color, corporation logo or sports team) and psychologically
  11. 11. Scale - overall size. Much of the impact of monumental artwork such as Mount Rushmore is its sheer size. Scale, alone, can change the meaning of a work of art.
  12. 12. Balance - equalizing the visual weight of elements. The cross on the left is symmetrically (formally) balanced - one half mirrors the other. Religious and significant objects are often given a symmetrical balance. The painting by Mary Cassatt, (on the right) depicts an ordinary moment. Appropriately, it is asymmetrically balanced. The two women on one side are balanced by the large silver service and fireplace on the other -with the area of highest value contrast
  13. 13. Direction and Emphasis. Direction is the visual path our eye will follow. Emphasis refers to the object or element which first catches our attention
  14. 14. Space: Indicators of depth on a flat surface Overlapping Diminishing scale Atmospheric perspective Vertical placement Color (warm/cool, intensity) Diagonals
  15. 15. Overlapping - when objects partially overlap other objects, we perceive them as closer than the covered objects. Overlapping "overrules" the other indicators of depth - we know that the smaller pyramids are closer because they overlap the larger pyramids. Overlapping most clearly establishes proximity. Atmospheric perspective - close objects have greater intensity of color, detail and value contrast.
  16. 16. Diminishing scale - the largest statue appears closest and the smallest appears further away
  17. 17. Vertical placement - we perceive objects that are placed lower in the image as closer to us, and objects that are placed higher as being further away. The boat placed lowest in this work by Japanese artist, Diagonals and Linear perspective - we perceive diagonal lines as receding into the distance. The diagonal lines in this painting of a bridge create a extraordinary sense of depth.
  18. 18. Color - we perceive warm colors (red, orange and yellow) as closer than cool colors (green, blue, violet). Psychologically, the red and yellow objects in both works appear to be in the foreground, while the cool- colored backgrounds recede.
  19. 19. Unity-Variety. Repetition of visual elements such as shapes or colors create a rhythm and pattern in an artwork - creating a sense of harmony and unity that pulls the picture together
  20. 20. Pigment Color - (paint) reflected light Pigment color is created when a pigment absorb certain light wavelengths and reflects others. For example, a blue shirt absorbs all wavelengths except blue, which is reflected. The color wheel based on the three primary colors: red, yellow and blue, was developed in 1666 by Sir Isaac Newton. Primary pigment colors - red, yellow and blue are the primary colors. All other colors are derived from these three hues. Secondary pigment colors - green, orange and purple are created by mixing the primary colors. Tertiary colors - yellow-orange, red-orange, red-purple, blue-purple, blue-green and yellow-green are the colors created by mixing the secondary colors.
  21. 21. HSB (Hue, Saturation and Brightness) - color can be defined by its hue (wavelength), saturation (chroma, purity or intensity) and brightness (value) Hue - is the color's name (orange, blue, etc.). It is located on the color wheel - expressed as a degree between 0° and 360°. Saturation - is the purity of the color. Saturation is the amount of gray in proportion to the hue - measured from 0% (gray) to 100% (fully saturated). Brightness - is the relative lightness or darkness of the color -measured from 0% (black) to 100% (white).
  22. 22. What is color theory? Color Theory is a set of principles used to create harmonious color combinations. Color relationships can be visually represented with a color wheel — the color spectrum wrapped onto a circle. The color wheel is a visual representation of color theory: According to color theory, harmonious color combinations use any two colors opposite each other on the color wheel, any three colors equally spaced around the color wheel forming a triangle, or any four colors forming a rectangle (actually, two pairs of colors opposite each other). The harmonious color combinations are called color schemes – sometimes the term 'color harmonies' is also used. Color schemes remain harmonious regardless of the rotation angle.
  23. 23. Monochromatic Color Scheme The monochromatic color scheme uses variations in lightness and saturation of a single color. This scheme looks clean and elegant. Monochromatic colors go well together, producing a soothing effect. The monochromatic scheme is very easy on the eyes, especially with blue or green hues. Analogous Color Scheme The analogous color scheme uses colors that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel. One color is used as a dominant color while others are used to enrich the scheme. The analogous scheme is similar to the monochromatic, but offers more nuances.
  24. 24. Complementary Color Scheme The complementary color scheme consists of two colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel. This scheme looks best when you place a warm color against a cool color, for example, red versus green- blue. This scheme is intrinsically high-contrast. Split Complementary Color Scheme The split complementary scheme is a variation of the standard complementary scheme. It uses a color and the two colors adjacent to its complementary. This provides high contrast without the strong tension of the complementary scheme.
  25. 25. Triadic Color Scheme The triadic color scheme uses three colors equally spaced around the color wheel. This scheme is popular among artists because it offers strong visual contrast while retaining harmony and color richness. The triadic scheme is not as contrasting as the complementary scheme, but it looks more balanced and harmonious. Tetradic (Double Complementary) Color Scheme The tetradic (double complementary) scheme is the most varied because it uses two complementary color pairs. This scheme is hard to harmonize; if all four hues are used in equal amounts, the scheme may look unbalanced, so you should choose a color to be dominant or subdue the colors.
  26. 26. LINES Lines used to Horizontal follow the edges of forms are called lines are calm and quiet, contour drawings Drawings which vertical lines seem to depict suggest more of a more movement potential for than actual movement outline are called gesture diagonal lines drawings strongly suggest movement
  27. 27. Shape shape is an enclosed object. Shapes can be created by line, or by color and value changes which define Volume and Mass Shape is considered to be a two-dimensional element, while three-dimensional elements have volume or mass. Therefore, a painting has shapes, while a sculpture has volume and mass. Positive/Negative shapes In a picture, the shapes that the artist has placed are considered the positive shapes. The spaces around the shapes are the negative spaces. It is just as important to consider the negative space in a picture as the positive shapes.
  28. 28. Value Value refers to the relative lightness or darkness of a certain area. Value can be used for emphasis. Variations in value are used to create a focal point for the design of a picture
  29. 29. Illusion of Space and Depth Size & Vertical Location Since objects in our environment look smaller when they are farther away, the easiest way to show depth is to vary the size of objects, with closer objects being larger and more distant objects being smaller. Overlapping When objects are partially obscured by other objects in front of them, we perceive them as further back than the covering objects. Detail (Aerial or Atmospheric Perspective) Atmospheric perspective uses color and value contrasts to show depth. Objects which are further away generally have less distinct contrast - they may fade into the background or become indistinct dark areas.
  30. 30. LINEAR PERSPECTIVE is based on the idea that all lines will converge on a common point on the horizon called the vanishing point. You have observed linear perspective when you notice that the lines on the highway appear to meet at a point in the distance. Artists use linear perspective to create a focal point for a picture
  31. 31. MOVEMENT Multiple Anticipated Movement Image Optical Movement Fuzzy Outlines Optical Illusions
  32. 32. RHYTHM AND MOVEMENT Rhythm refers to the way your eye moves throughout a picture. Some pictures move you throughout
  33. 33. BALANCE To understand balance, think of the balance beam. When objects are of equal weight, they are in balance. If you have several small items on one side, they can be balanced by a large object on the other side. Visual balance works in much the same way. It can be affected not only by the size of objects, but also their value (ie. lightness or darkness, termed visual weight). SYMMETRICAL/FORMAL BALANCE Symmetrical balance is mirror image balance. If you draw a line down the center of the page, all the objects on one side of the screen are mirrored on the other side (they may not be identical objects, but they are similar in terms of numbers of objects, colors and other elements.
  34. 34. ASSYMMETRICAL BALANCE Asymmetrical balance occurs when several smaller items on one side are balanced by a large item on the other side, or smaller items are placed further away from the center of the screen than larger items. One darker item may need to be balanced by several lighter items.
  35. 35. EMPHASIS Ways to Create a Focal Point by color by Placement by value by texture by Isolation by Contrast
  36. 36. The principles of good design are the tools used by an artist or desinger to create an effective composition or design. The principles are: balance, movement, repetition, emphasis, simplicity, contrast, proportion, space, and unity.
  37. 37. Symmetrical balance is when the weight is equally distributed on both sides of the central axis. Symmetry is the simplest and most obvious type of balance. It creates a secure, safe feeling To balance a composition is to distribute its parts in such and a sense of a way that the viewer is satisfied that the piece is not about solidity. to pull itself over
  38. 38. Asymmetrical Balance Asymmetrical balance is when both sides of the central axis are not identical, yet appear to leave the same visual weight. It is a "felt" equilibrium or balance between the parts of a composition rather than actual. Examples of The Effective Use Of Balance Radial Balance Horizontal Balance Vertical Balance
  39. 39. Movement in Repetition and Rhythm The use of repetition to create movement occurs when elements which have something in common are repeated regularly or irregularly sometimes creating a visual rhythm.
  40. 40. Emphasis is the stressing of a particular area of focus rather than the presentation of a maze of details of equal importance. emphasis is by creating center of interest, a.k.a. a focal point. A focal point is an area where the eye tends to center
  41. 41. The most common ways of creating contrast are by creating differences in: • size • shape • value • 'alignment • color • direction • type • movement • texture
  42. 42. Contrast in art and design occurs when two related elements are different. The greater the difference the greater the contrast. Contrast adds variety to the total design and creates unity. It is what draws the viewer's eye into the painting and helps to guide the viewer around the art piece
  43. 43. The Principle of Proportion Proportion in art is the comparative harmonious relationship between two or more elements in a composition with respect to size, color, quantity, degree, setting, etc.; i.e. ratio. Equal division creats monotony Unequal divisions create lack of harmony.
  44. 44. Shape of one part should fit the shape of its adjoining elements Good Harmony Lack of harmony
  45. 45. Space in art refers to the distance or area between, around, above, below, or within shapes and forms found within a composition ways space is used in art composition. These are: Positive space Negative space • Two-dimensional space • Three-dimensional space • •
  46. 46. Deep Space When used effectively all of these tools to create the illusion of three-dimensional space will create a sense of what is referred to as "deep space" within your painting. In deep space there are three terms used to describe depth: Foreground is the area of a painting that visually appears closest to the viewer. It is often located on a lower plane or bottom of the canvas. • Middle ground is space that makes up the distance between the foreground and background of a painting. There is no specific measurement for what the limits are. • Typically it is located somewhere on the middle plane of the canvas. Background is the area of a painting that visually appears to be far away in the distance at or near the horizon. It is usually located on a higher plane of the canvas. •
  47. 47. Changing Size and Placement Linear Perspective
  48. 48. Unity is the hallmark of a good design. It's the final result in a composition when all the design elements work harmoniously together giving the viewer a satisfying sense of belonging and relationship.
  49. 49. Hue and Value Deep Space Atmospheric Perspective
  50. 50. DISTORTION
  51. 51. B — Foreground Background Relationships (Large and Small Objects). We know that to our eyes nearby objects appear larger than faraway objects. For example a Ponderosa Pine tree appears gigantic when we stand right in front of us but seem to shrink to the size of a large match stick when viewed from several miles away. Placing such a tree in the foreground of a photograph, or just part of the trunk of the tree, and then placing another similar tree in the background will definitely give the viewer a clear indication of distance.
  52. 52. Various principles like parallelism, focal point, radiation, distortion, play of background foreground, rhythm & repetition are the basis for each composition.
  53. 53. THANK YOU Ar Suvarna Deshpande Lele