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International developments in open access: An overview of trends at the national, funder, and institutional levels


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Presentation on international developments in open access given at the Special Libraries Association Arabian Gulf Chapter 2014 annual conference in Doha, Qatar.

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International developments in open access: An overview of trends at the national, funder, and institutional levels

  1. 1. Sarah L. Shreeves University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Special Libraries Association – Arabian Gulf Chapter 2014 March 25, 2014 - Doha, Qatar INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS IN OPEN ACCESS: An overview of trends at the national, funder, and institutional levels Open by Matt Katzenburger CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  2. 2. Whether open access is „good‟ is no longer the question.
  3. 3. The question is how open access will be implemented and who will make that decision.
  4. 4. Open access literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. - Peter Suber DEFINITIONS
  5. 5.  Most open access discussions and activities are focused on the peer-reviewed journal literature  Open access can also apply to monographs, conference papers and presentations, textbooks, and other scholarly output  Open access is a model seen across all disciplines, but has the most activity in the sciences. DEFINITIONS
  6. 6. TWO (AND A HALF) ROADS TO OPEN ACCESS Open Access Publishing (journals & books) „gold‟ „hybrid‟ Archiving (self, institutional, disciplinary) „green‟ Two Roads Were There by Simon Kirby (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)
  7. 7. GRATIS and LIBRE  Gratis: You can read it for free. Anything else, you better ask permission.  Libre: With credit given, OK to text-mine, re- catalog, mirror for preservation, quote, remix, whatever.  Most OA is gratis. You get to “libre” via Creative Commons licensing, usually. Definitions from Dorothea Salo
  8. 8. POLICIES National Funder Institutional Sub-institutional
  9. 9. Governments WHO ARE THE ACTORS? Public Libraries Researchers Research funders Publishers Research institutions Business
  10. 10. Economic good WHAT ARE THE DRIVERS? Access Sustainability Wide dissemination Return on Investment Customer demand Increased visibility Innovation
  11. 11. INSTITUTIONAL MANDATE/POLICY • Often permission based (i.e. the faculty grant rights to institution to make available research) • Successful institutional policies: • Come from the faculty themselves • Include an opt out waiver • Infrastructure support sits in the Library often (usually through the use of an institutional repository) • Do not specify where faculty should publish Widener Memorial Library by Mak506 (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)
  12. 12. SUB-INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES - Some departments / research centers - Most often focused on electronic theses and dissertations
  13. 13. NATIONAL AND FUNDER POLICIES  National policies are often essentially funder policies (i.e. are put in effect via the funders)  Increasingly private funders – particularly in medical sector – are instituting OA policies
  14. 14. Nov 2013 – Argentina passes law that requires publicly funded research to be made openly available in a repository. May 2012 - United Kingdom Finch Report that requires OA with emphasis on „gold‟ Feb 2013 – White House issues a directive to federal agencies to require open access Dec 2013 – European Commission requires OA through Horizon 2020 Initiative. See also national funders in - Australia - Canada - Denmark - Norway - Peru - Singapore….and more
  15. 15. CASE STUDY: OPEN ACCESS AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL IN THE US 2005 US National Institutes of Health strongly recommends OA to published research 2006 Introduction of the Federal Research Publication Access Act (also 2010,2012) 2008 US NIH policy enacted into law as requirement of funding 2011 Introduction of the Research Works Act 2012 Research Works Act loses support 2013 Introduction of Fair Access to Science and Technology Act 2013 NIH starts to enforce compliance for OA policy
  16. 16. February 2013 John P. Holdren, Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) of the White House, issues a memorandum directing all federal agencies with over $100 million in research and development expenditures to “develop a plan to support increased public access to the results of research funded by the Federal Government.”
  17. 17. 2014 - Introduction of the Frontiers in Innovation, Research, Science and Technology Act (FIRST) HOW WILL THE OSTP DIRECTIVE BE IMPLEMENTED?  The Clearinghouse for the Open Research of the United States (CHORUS) from a group of over 100 publishers and related organizations. See  Shared Access Research Ecosystem (SHARE) from the Association of Research Libraries (ARL), the Association of American Universities (AAU), and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU). See policies/shared-access-research-ecosystem-share  Or ????
  18. 18. What‟s next?
  19. 19. I see two possible scenarios, one in which publishers effectively appropriate OA to their own ends, another in which the research community takes charge and oversees the development of an OA environment more suited to its needs than the needs of publishers. – Richard Poynder, March 2014
  20. 20. Questions? Comments?
  21. 21. Title Slide: Open by Matt Katzenburger / under a CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 Two Roads Were There by Simon Kirby / (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) Widener Memorial Library by Mak506 / (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) All Photos used under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike 2.0 License. If you reuse this presentation, PLEASE INCLUDE CREDITS FOR IMAGES REFERENCED ABOVE!! This presentation is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution Non -Commercial Share-Alike 4.0 License. Images used may have different terms; please consult with the terms associated with those images before reusing them. ATTRIBUTION/LEGAL STUFF