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  1. 1. Unit 5: Disillusion, Defiance, Discontent (1914-1946)
  2. 2. World War I <ul><li>a struggle between the Allies and Central Powers </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. joined the Allied cause in 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>E.E. Cummings and Ernest Hemingway served as ambulance drivers in the war </li></ul>
  3. 3. “ The Roaring Twenties” <ul><li>economic boom, Prohibition problems, and the development of cities </li></ul><ul><li>arrival of radio, jazz, movies/movie theaters, “fads,” conspicuous wealth </li></ul><ul><li>the backdrop to F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Great Depression <ul><li>began with the crash of the stock market in October 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>12 million people unemployed by mid-1932 </li></ul><ul><li>1932 - Franklin D. Roosevelt elected, “New Deal” economic reforms brought about an end to the Depression </li></ul>
  5. 5. World War II <ul><li>U.S. joined the war after the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>Allied powers (U.S., Great Britain, France, Soviet Union) defeated the Axis powers (Japan, Nazi Germany, Italy) </li></ul><ul><li>atomic bombs dropped on two Japanese cities </li></ul>
  6. 6. Literature of the Period MODERNISM <ul><li>began as a quest for new ideas / feelings of uncertainty, disillusionment </li></ul><ul><li>new approaches and techniques - diverse literature </li></ul><ul><li>all Modernists sought to capture modern life in their work </li></ul><ul><li>work constructed from fragments / improvised rhymes and free verse / implied and ambiguous themes </li></ul>
  7. 7. Literature of the Period IMAGISM <ul><li>the start of the Modernist movement, lasted from 1909 to 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>a popular movement in both the U.S. and England </li></ul><ul><li>hard, clear expression, concrete images, everyday language </li></ul><ul><li>H.D., Ezra Pound, William Carlos Williams </li></ul>
  8. 8. Literature of the Period THE EXPATRIATES <ul><li>many American writers, disillusioned by World War I, became exiles of America </li></ul><ul><li>many settled in Paris, and were known as the “lost generation” </li></ul><ul><li>Gertrude Stein, Sherwood Anderson, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Ezra Pound, T.S. Eliot </li></ul><ul><li>wrote about the chaos and hopelessness of life after the war </li></ul>
  9. 9. Literature of the Period NEW APPROACHES <ul><li>stream-of-consciousness - re-creates the natural flow of a character’s thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>poems - wordplay, unique typography, special punctuation / informal, conversational speech </li></ul><ul><li>Hemingway – The Sun Also Rises ; stories about World War I and the aftermath, disillusionment </li></ul><ul><li>Steinbeck – Of Mice and Men , Grapes of Wrath ; stories of the Depression, migrant workers </li></ul>
  10. 10. Literature of the Period THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE <ul><li>a movement among African American writers, mostly from the South, in northern Manhattan - 1920s-1930s </li></ul><ul><li>began with poems by Countee Cullen and Langston Hughes </li></ul><ul><li>led to a burst of creative activity by African American authors - Claude McKay, Jean Toomer </li></ul>