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Odyssey notes

  1. 1. THE ODYSSEY<br />Homer<br />
  2. 2. What is an EPIC POEM?<br /><ul><li> a long, narrative poem about a legendary hero
  3. 3. a complex story that involves many characters and spans many years
  4. 4. epic poems are often part of a culture’s mythology – a set of stories about a particular person or event</li></li></ul><li>What is an EPIC HERO?<br /><ul><li> a character who is intelligent, clever, and brave, and can solve the problems he encounters
  5. 5. the epic hero undertakes a dangerous voyage and demonstrates traits valued by his society
  6. 6. In The Odyssey, Odysseus is the epic hero</li></li></ul><li>Who is HOMER?<br /><ul><li> a storyteller who lived around 1200 B.C.–700 B.C.
  7. 7. a Greek poet; author of The Illiadand The Odyssey
  8. 8. may have been blind
  9. 9. a very important figure in Greek culture – considered their BEST poet</li></li></ul><li>The Illiad<br /><ul><li> the story of the last year of the Trojan War
  10. 10. the ten-year war between the Trojans and the Greeks happened sometime around 1000 B.C.
  11. 11. the war started when Greeks went to Troy to reclaim Helen</li></li></ul><li>The Trojan Horse<br />Troy was defeated when Odysseus and his men were able to get inside the walls of Troy concealed within the body of the Trojan horse.<br />
  12. 12. The Odyssey<br /><ul><li> The story of the ten-year journey of Odysseus and his men trying to get home after the Trojan War.
  13. 13. an epic poem about humans on the journey of life overcoming temptations along the way.
  14. 14. We will read portions of Books IX-XII</li></li></ul><li>
  15. 15. Characters<br /><ul><li> Odysseus – a Greek; king of Ithaca
  16. 16. Calypso – sea goddess who loved Odysseus
  17. 17. Circe – an enchantress who helps Odysseus
  18. 18. Polyphemus – one of the Cyclops who traps the men
  19. 19. Tiresias – a blind prophet who helps Odysseus
  20. 20. Sirens – female creatures whose songs tempt sailors
  21. 21. Charybdis – a dangerous whirlpool
  22. 22. Scylla – a sea monster of gray rock</li></li></ul><li>Part 1: Opening Lines<br /><ul><li> Homer asks for the Muse’s help in telling the story
  23. 23. speaks of the Trojan War
  24. 24. describes Odysseus’ fight to get home
  25. 25. describes the foolishness of his men</li></li></ul><li>Part 2: Sailing from Troy<br /><ul><li> Odysseus gets to Phaeacia; tells Alcinous his story
  26. 26. this story is Books IX-XII
  27. 27. his home is Ithaca; his men are the Greeks
  28. 28. he has been on Calypso’s island for a long time
  29. 29. after Troy, arrived in Ismarus where the Cicones live
  30. 30. the men were foolish, and many were killed</li></li></ul><li>Part 3: The Lotus-Eaters<br /><ul><li> Zeus causes a storm – notice the importance of gods
  31. 31. the storm takes them off course for several days
  32. 32. arrive at the home of the Lotus-Eaters
  33. 33. the men forget to go home when they taste the Lotus
  34. 34. Odysseus ties them up and takes them home</li></li></ul><li>“The Cyclops” – Practice Quiz<br />What do Odysseus’ men want to do when they find the cave?<br />How does Polyphemus reply to the request for help?<br />What do the men create to hurt Polyphemus?<br /> Why does Odysseus call himself “Nobody”?<br />How do the men manage to get out of the cave?<br />How does Odysseus taunt Polyphemus?<br />How does Polyphemus respond?<br />Explain the prayer to Poseidon.<br />What good / bad character traits does Odysseus show in this particular story?<br />
  35. 35. Part 4: The Cyclops<br /><ul><li> in the land of the brutal and ignorant Cyclops
  36. 36. Odysseus and 12 men bring wine and gifts
  37. 37. Odysseus is curious and wants to see the cave man
  38. 38. Polyphemus rejects Odysseus’ request for help
  39. 39. he eats two men for dinner</li></li></ul><li>Part 4: The Cyclops (2)<br /><ul><li> he eats two more men for breakfast
  40. 40. while Polyphemus is gone, the men fashion a stake
  41. 41. eats two more men, then drinks Odysseus’ wine
  42. 42. Odysseus calls himself “Nobody”
  43. 43. stabbed in the eye while he is drunk and asleep</li></li></ul><li>Part 4: The Cyclops (3)<br /><ul><li> other Cyclopes come to help, but Polyphemus says that “Nobody” has tricked him!
  44. 44. Polyphemus blocks the door so the men can’t escape
  45. 45. Odysseus ties the sheep together; one man is tied underneath each middle sheep; escape when they are let out to pasture</li></li></ul><li>Part 4: The Cyclops (4)<br /><ul><li> Odysseus taunts Polyphemus after the escape
  46. 46. Polyphemus responds by heaving rocks, almost destroying the ship
  47. 47. Poly. says that a wizard once predicted this incident
  48. 48. Cyclops prays to Poseidon that Odysseus lose his men and only return home after many dark years – an accurate prophesy!</li></li></ul><li>Part 5: The Land of the Dead (1)<br /><ul><li> men are almost home, but a storm drives them back to Aeolia, where they are cast out by Aeolus
  49. 49. after seven days they get to the land of the Laestrygonians, cannibals – destroy all ships but one
  50. 50. escape to Circe’s home Aeaea – she turns half of the men to swine</li></li></ul><li>Part 5: The Land of the Dead (2)<br /><ul><li> Circle says that to get home, Odysseus must journey to the land of the dead (Hades) and consult Tiresias</li></li></ul><li>Part 5: The Land of the Dead<br />Q: What is the “region of the Men of Winter”?<br />A: This is the land of the dead souls.<br />Q: Who told the men to go to this place? Why?<br />A: Circe; to consult the prophet Tiresias<br />Q: Why do the men “pour libations” and kill a heifer and lamb?<br />A: They are making sacrifices to the gods.<br />
  51. 51. Part 5: The Land of the Dead<br />Q: Who is Elpenor?<br />A: One of Odysseus’ soldiers who died in Circe’s hall.<br />Q: What does he want Odysseus to do when he gets back to Aeaea Island?<br />A: Cremate and bury him properly<br />Q: What could Elpenor’s death be a symbol of?<br />A: Foolish behavior (he dies as the result of stupidity and drunkenness)<br />
  52. 52. Part 5: The Land of the Dead<br />Q: Who is Anticlea?<br />A: Odysseus’ mother; he sees her dead soul<br />Q: Who appears next?<br />A: Tiresias<br />Q: According to Tiresias, why is Poseidon angry with Odysseus?<br />A: For blinding his son, Polyphemus<br />
  53. 53. Part 5: The Land of the Dead<br />Q: What does Tiresias tell Odysseus to avoid?<br />A: The grazing cattle belonging to Helios<br />Q: What does Tiresias say Odysseus will find at home?<br />A: Men eating his livestock and courting his wife<br />Q: After he has returned home, who should Odysseus make a sacrifice to?<br />A: Lord Poseidon<br />
  54. 54. Part 5: The Land of the Dead (3)<br />Tiresias offers information:<br /><ul><li> escape the Sirens
  55. 55. do not eat the cattle
  56. 56. you will find trouble when you return home
  57. 57. make a sacrifice to Lord Poseidon </li></li></ul><li>Part 6: Scylla and Charybdis<br /><ul><li> Men encounter Scylla and Charybdis, as Circe predicted
  58. 58. Scylla, a sea monster eats six of the best men
  59. 59. Odysseus realizes that weapons are useless against her
  60. 60. Charybdis causes great whirlpools and spurts of water</li></li></ul><li>Part 7: The Sirens<br />
  61. 61. #1<br />
  62. 62. #2<br />
  63. 63. #3<br />
  64. 64. #4<br />
  65. 65. #5<br />
  66. 66. s<br />#6<br />
  67. 67. #7<br />
  68. 68. #8<br />
  69. 69. #9<br />
  70. 70. #10<br />
  71. 71. Part 7: The Cattle of the Sun God<br /><ul><li> Zeus causes a storm; the men go ashore, and Odysseus warns them: DON’T EAT THE CATTLE
  72. 72. several days pass and the men begin to starve
  73. 73. Odysseus goes off alone; Eurylochus convinces the men to slaughter the cattle
  74. 74. Lampetia goes to Helios and tells what they have done</li></li></ul><li>Part 7: The Cattle of the Sun God<br /><ul><li> Zeus causes a great storm
  75. 75. Odysses’ remaining men are flung into the sea
  76. 76. Odysseus survives by clinging to a piece of wood; Zeus helps him to avoid Scylla
  77. 77. arrives at Calypso’s island – there for seven years
  78. 78. flashback ends here – he is now at Phaeacia, about to return home to Ithaca</li>