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  1. 1. Flexibilty By: Shahram Shafii
  2. 2. Flexibilty <ul><li>Range of motion in a joint </li></ul><ul><li>Injury Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Improve Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Improves living </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types <ul><li>Static </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul>Range of possible movement about a joint and its surrounding muscles during a passive movement (1) Available range of motion (ROM) during active movements, therefore requires voluntary muscle actions. (1)
  4. 4. Factors Affecting Flexibility <ul><li>Can’t Change </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Can Change </li></ul><ul><li>Activity Level </li></ul><ul><li>Weight Training </li></ul><ul><li>Stretch Exercises </li></ul>
  5. 5. F.I.T. <ul><li>The literature provides limited guidelines regarding F.I.T. stretching principles (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Stretching sessions per week varies on sport and time of year (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Each practice session should have an appropriate warm up and then 8-12 min of sport specific stretching (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Then after practice/session it should conclude with another stretching session of 8-12 min. (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Individual stretches should be held for 30s to a mild discomfort, but not pain. (1) </li></ul>
  6. 6. When should athlete stretch? <ul><li>Before practice </li></ul><ul><li>Improves performance by increasing available ROM(3) </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases likelihood of injuries by increasing elasticity of muscles and tendons(3) </li></ul><ul><li>After practice </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates ROM improvements because of increased muscle temperature(3) </li></ul><ul><li>May also decrease muscular soreness(3) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Stretching <ul><li>Static </li></ul><ul><li>Functional (Dynamic) </li></ul><ul><li>PNF (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation) </li></ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><li>Ballistic </li></ul>
  8. 8. Static <ul><li>Slow and constant with the end position held for 30s </li></ul><ul><li>Performed slowly with hold at the bottom of the stretch, therefore decreasing the chance of an injury(1) </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to learn and proven to increase flexibility(1) </li></ul><ul><li>Injury can occur if stretch is too intense </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate for everyone </li></ul>
  9. 9. Static Video <ul><li>Static </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Functional (Dynamic) <ul><li>Involves flexibility during a movement(1) </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to ballistic but does not bounce at the end </li></ul><ul><li>Increase sport specific flexibility(1) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Dynamic Video <ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. PNF <ul><li>Allows joint to go pass its normal ROM (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Orginally developed for neuromuscular rehabilitation(1) </li></ul><ul><li>Requires partner or tool to perform stretch (1) </li></ul><ul><li>May be superior because it facilitates muscular inhibition(1) </li></ul><ul><li>Often impractical because lack of experience and technique(1) </li></ul>
  13. 13. PNF Video <ul><li>PNF </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Passive <ul><li>Allowing your bodyweight and gravity to gently lengthen muscles and connective tissues(3) </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t be only form of stretching to see benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Like a “Deep Muscle Massage” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Passive Video <ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Ballistic <ul><li>Involves active muscular effort and uses a bouncing-type movement in which the end position is not held(1) </li></ul><ul><li>High injury rate </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporates stretch reflex not allowing the muscle to relax, which defeats the purpose of stretching(1) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Ballistic Video <ul><li>Ballistic </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusion <ul><li>To improve performance and decrease the chance of injury, a proper warm up and flexibilty program should be incorporated into any workout program. </li></ul>
  19. 19. References <ul><li>1.Baechle, Thomas. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning . second. Hong Kong: The National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fox, E.L. Sports Physiology. Philadelphia: Saunders. 1979. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Howley, Edward. Health Fitness Instructor's Handbook . Fourth. Hong Kong: 2003. </li></ul>