Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Horse Owner 101 : Things Every Horse Owner Needs to Know


Published on

Presentation on the basic of horse care - Hoof care, Deworming Properly, Vaccination Strategies, and Emergency Preparations

Published in: Health & Medicine

Horse Owner 101 : Things Every Horse Owner Needs to Know

  1. 1. Horse Owner 101:Things EVERY Horse Owner Needs to Know<br />Monday, January 24, 2011<br />South Shore Equine Clinic & Diagnostic Center<br />151 Palmer Road<br />Plympton, MA<br /><br />
  2. 2. Welcome to SSEC Horse Owner Education Series !<br />Mark T. Reilly, DVM, Diplomate ABVP (Equine)<br />Linda J. Cimetti, DVM<br />Travis M. Tull, DVM (surgeon)<br />Rachel A. Oberholtzer, DVM (intern)<br />
  3. 3. TERMS and ANATOMY<br />Foal <br />Weanling<br />Yearling<br />Colt or Filly<br />Stallion (Gelding)or Mare<br />Senior<br />Geriatric<br />
  4. 4. TERMS and ANATOMY<br />3rd Phalanx - “Foot”<br />1st & 2nd Phalanx - “Pastern”<br />Fetlock - “Ankle”<br />Shin - “Cannon Bone”<br />Carpus - “Knee”<br />Tarsus - “Hock”<br />Stifle - “Stifle”<br />Pelvis - “Croup”<br />Chest - “Barrel”<br />
  5. 5. TERMS and ANATOMY<br />
  6. 6. BASIC INFORMATION<br />Temperature : 98 – 101.5<br />Heart Rate / Pulse : 28-44<br />Respiratory Rate: 8-12<br />Number of Teeth: 40 (44)<br />**Know individual normals**<br />
  7. 7. AREAS TO BE COVERED<br />Foot Care<br />Deworming<br />Vaccinating<br />Emergency Care<br />
  8. 8. Foot Care<br />Coronet = Germinal Layer<br />Hoof = “Fingernail”<br />Continuous Growth<br />Conformation<br />Trimming / Shoeing – every 5-8 weeks<br />
  9. 9. Foot Care<br />Coronet = Germinal Layer<br />Hoof = “Fingernail”<br />Continuous Growth<br />Conformation<br />Trimming / Shoeing – every 5-8 weeks<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11. DEWORMERS<br />
  12. 12. DEWORMING<br />1960’s – First dewormer developed<br />Every 8 weeks (1966)<br />1970’s & 80’s– New Drug Classes<br />Rotational Deworming<br />1990’s & 2000’s- Adaptations<br />ERP shortened<br />Resistance<br />Small Strongyles > Large Strongyles<br />2010’s – New Strategies based on EBM<br />
  13. 13. DEWORMING<br />Evidence Based Medicine (EBM):<br />The conscientious, explicit and judicious use of the current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.<br />Improves the quality of care<br />Improves the standard of care<br />
  14. 14. DEWORMING<br />Example of EBM:<br />Sick Horse with bacterial infection<br />Therapy based on specific diagnosis and the veterinarian’s clinical experience and knowledge of the recommendations of experts.<br />Ex: Antibiotic for the sick horse BUT not for the other horses – they could develop antibiotic resistance or develop an antibiotic induced problem (diarrhea).<br />
  15. 15. DEWORMING<br />Example of EBM:<br />Same Barn with no horses showing signs of parasites. What is appropriate therapy?<br />Deworm all horses with the same dewormer every 6-8 weeks.<br />Deworm with cheapest one (on sale?)<br />Only deworm those that move on and off the premises<br />Use EBM to formulate a plan<br />
  16. 16. DEWORMING<br />Is there a clinical justification for treating this horse?<br />What parasite am I trying to eliminate?<br />What stages of that parasite are likely to be present?<br />Why this dewormer? (3 classes of dewormers)<br />Will it kill the desired parasite(s) and stage(s)?<br />Will it work as expected? (Confidence)<br />Are there better options?<br />Are there any other management techniques that might help me achieve my goal?<br />
  17. 17. DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />1960s: 90% of colics due to migrating stages<br />1970s: S. vulgaris – 90-100% prevalent<br />1960s and 70s: Interval dose program<br />Prevent egg shedding by deworming every 8 weeks year round<br />Worked against S. vulgaris (large strongyles)<br />
  18. 18. DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />1980s: Large strongyles eliminated<br />BUT……<br />Now 100% of strongyles are now SMALL strongyles (a change in species)<br />1990s: Recognize Drug Resistance<br />Severe weight loss<br />Chronic diarrhea and edema<br />
  19. 19. PARASITE RESISTANCE<br />1983 – most recent dewormer drug class<br />Name???<br />IVERMECTIN<br />Shortening ERP = 1st step in resistance<br />1995 - MOXIDECTIN (Quest) = same class<br />2005 - New drug class in cats and dogs (Emodepside)<br />2009 - New drug class in ruminants in New Zealand (Monepantel)<br />
  20. 20. PARASITE RESISTANCE<br />ROTATION of DEWORMERS<br />Does NOT prevent resistance<br />2 of 3 classes already show high resistance<br />Potentially dangerous, if not illogical<br />( = marketing<br />
  21. 21. DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />IS THE DEWORMER EFFECTIVE?<br />FECAL EGG COUNT REDUCTION TEST<br />The ONLY way to know<br />Measure levels before and 14 days after treatment<br />Failure to achieve high levels of reduction = RESISTANCE on that farm<br />2 of the 3 classes show high resistance<br />
  22. 22. DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />Step 1 : Fecal Egg Count (FEC) <br />Before deworming <br />Step 2 : FEC 2 weeks later<br />Tests for resistance (> 90%)<br />If minimal reduction, change drug class and repeat<br />Step 3 : FEC at Egg Reoccurence Period (ERP)<br />4-5 weeks – Benzimadazoles (Panacur)<br />6-8 weeks – Pyrantel (Strongid)<br />8-10 weeks – Ivermectin/Moxidectin (Zimectrin, Quest)<br />
  23. 23. FECAL EGG COUNT<br />Strongyle eggs<br />
  24. 24. DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />Which drugs are effective?<br />Which horses require less or more frequent treatment?<br />Evaluate success by using FEC at regular intervals<br />** Small numbers of worms do not cause any significant health impairment (<100-200)<br />** All horses are not the same – 20% of horses harbor 80% of the worms<br />
  25. 25. DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />Refugia – unselected portions of population<br />Helps with parasite control<br />These are the worms not exposed to drugs, or in horses not treated<br />Do not make resistant genes<br />= low FECs (<100-200) are ok<br />
  26. 26. DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />COST?<br />Dewormer is cheaper than a FEC program<br />Optimal Horse Health<br />Millions of tubes used each year that are killing very few parasites either because there are very few to kill, or because the drug is ineffective<br />
  27. 27. DEWORMING STRATEGY<br />Denmark – dewormers are prescription only since 1999<br />Requires a diagnosis<br />Disallows prophylactic treatments<br />Sweden, Finland, Netherlands now similar<br />Rest of European Union to follow<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. Strategic Vaccination<br />VACCINES MAKE THE IMMUNE <br />SYSTEM THINK IT HAS THE <br />DISEASE<br />
  30. 30. Strategic Vaccination<br />Types of Vaccines<br />Diseases to protect against<br />Time of Year <br />Identify Animals at Risk<br />Number of visits<br />Reaction History?<br />
  31. 31. Strategic Vaccination<br />Types of Vaccines<br />Killed Vaccine – Dead portion of virus <br />Modified Live – Inactivated virus<br />Bacterin – Vaccine vs. Bacterial disease<br />
  32. 32. Strategic Vaccination<br />Types of Vaccines<br />Killed Vaccine<br />PROCON<br />Safety Adjuvant Required<br />Broad Response<br />No Replication<br />
  33. 33. Strategic Vaccination<br />Types of Vaccine<br />Modified Live<br />PRO CON<br />No adjuvant necessary Short Shelf-life<br />Broad Response Safety in Pregnancy<br />Limited Replication Revert to virulence<br />
  34. 34. Strategic Vaccination<br />Diseases to vaccinate against : <br />Influenza<br />Rhinopneumonitis (Herpes)<br />Rabies<br />Eastern/Western Encephalitis<br />West Nile Encephalitis<br />Tetanus <br />Potomac Horse Fever<br />Strangles (Strep. Equi)<br />
  35. 35. Strategic Vaccination<br />Timing of Vaccination<br />Spring<br />Fall<br />Prior to Shipping<br />Prior to Exposure<br />After Exposure<br />Annually vs. Biannually vs. Tri-annually<br />
  36. 36. Strategic Vaccination<br />Animals at Risk<br />Young or Naïve<br />Mature/Adult – resident<br />Mature/Adult – competitive/traveling<br />Senior – isolated<br />Breeding Stock<br />Prior to Breeding<br />During Pregnancy<br />
  37. 37. Strategic Vaccination<br />Number of Visits Necessary to Complete Vaccination Series<br />“ANTIGEN” = foreign protein used to promote immune response<br />
  38. 38. Strategic Vaccination<br />Number of Visits Necessary to Complete Vaccination Series<br />“ANTIBODY” = Immune System Response to foreign protein<br />
  39. 39. Strategic Vaccination<br />Number of Visits Necessary to Complete Vaccination Series<br />“ADJUVANT” = necessary to enhance the Antigen presentation and help drive the Immune Response. ***Causes INFLAMMATION***<br />
  40. 40. Strategic Vaccination<br />Goal in vaccination: <br />MAXIMIZE IMMUNE RESPONSE WITHOUT OVERLOADING IMMUNE SYSTEM<br />
  41. 41. Strategic Vaccination<br />Number of visits Necessary ??<br /># Adjuvants -- limited to 2 or 3 per visit<br /># Antigens – limited to 4 or 5 per visit<br />Use of combinations and similar products<br />Visits no sooner than 12 to 14 days apart<br />
  42. 42. Strategic Vaccination<br />EXAMPLES<br />Visit #1: Influenza/Rhino, Rabies<br />Visit #2: EWT, West Nile, (PHF)<br />Visit #3: Strangles<br />(Rhino & Influenza boosters every 3 to 6 months)<br />(EWT boosters at 6 months, if necessary)<br />
  43. 43. Strategic Vaccination<br />EXAMPLES<br />Visit #1: West Nile, Rabies, Influenza<br />Visit #2: EE/WE/Tetanus, Rhino, (PHF)<br />Visit #3: Strangles<br />(Rhino & Influenza boosters every 3 to 6 months)<br />(EWT boosters at 6 months, if necessary)<br />
  44. 44. Strategic Vaccination<br />EXAMPLES<br />Pregnant Mare<br />Visit #1: 3-5 months: Rhino<br />Visit #2: 7 months: Rhino<br />Visit #3: 9 months: Rhino<br />Visit #4: 10 months: EWT, Influenza, West Nile<br />
  45. 45. Strategic Vaccination<br />EXAMPLES<br />Foal<br />Visit #1: 4-6 months: Rhino (EHV-1 & 4)<br />Visit #2: 5-7 months: Rhino #2<br />Visit #3: 6 months: EWT, West Nile, Rabies<br />Visit #4: 7 months: EWT#2,West Nile #2,Rabies #2<br />Visit #5: 9 months: Influenza, Strangles, Rhino #3<br />Visit #6: 10 months: Influenza #2, Strangles #2<br />Visit #7: 11 months: Influenza #3<br />(spaced by 2 weeks, where necessary)<br />
  46. 46. Strategic Vaccination<br />Vaccination Reactions<br />Expected or Adverse?<br />Individuals in a population?<br />Appropriate Immune Response?<br />2 – 3 days or longer?<br />
  47. 47. Strategic Vaccination<br />History of Reactions<br />Which vaccine? Adjuvant? Antibody? Manufacturer?<br />Number of vaccines given at same time?<br />Lump?<br />Fever?<br />Does Pre-treatment Help?<br />Any other horses affected?<br />Help from the Pharmaceutical Company?<br />
  48. 48. Strategic Vaccination<br />Vaccinate all horses in a herd<br />“Just a single<br />unprotected horse in a <br />herd can provide a <br />reservoir of infection to <br />all the others.”<br />
  49. 49. Strategic Vaccination<br /> Preventing a disease through proper vaccination programs is far safer, easier, and moreeconomical than treating the disease after the horse is already sick.<br />
  50. 50.
  51. 51. EMERGENCY!!!<br />
  52. 52. EMERGENCY PLANNING<br />Rule #1 : STAY SAFE!!<br />Horses can be very dangerous when injured or panicked<br />You cannot help your horse if you are injured<br />The most important thing is your SAFETY and the safety of those around you<br />
  53. 53. EMERGENCY PLANNING<br />Is it safe to approach the horse?<br />If so:<br />Catch and calm the horse.<br />If possible, take the horse to a safe place such as a stall or paddock.<br />Get someone to help you.<br />
  54. 54. EMERGENCY PLANNING<br />Phone numbers you need to have available:<br />A friend or neighbor who can assist you in an emergency.<br />Your veterinarian, including how to reach after hours.<br />Your insurance company.<br />
  55. 55. EMERGENCY PLANNING<br />TRAILERING<br />If you do not own a trailer, make arrangements in advance for transportation in case of an emergency.<br />Know how to hitch up, road worthy.<br />Make sure your horse is well accustomed to loading and riding<br />Keep a well maintained First-Aid Kit in the truck or trailer.<br />
  56. 56. EMERGENCY PLANNING<br />It always helps to have assistance in times of an emergency.<br />Be sure to prepare and practice your plans.<br />This will help you to act calmly and efficiently during times of an emergency.<br />
  57. 57. EMERGENCY PLANNING<br />Halters on or off?<br />Knowledgeable handlers available?<br />Local Fire Department <br />
  58. 58. EMERGENCIES<br />Are they accident prone?<br />Behavior<br />Kicks<br />Lacerations<br />Abrasions<br />Fractures<br />Bite wounds<br />
  59. 59. EMERGENCIES<br />Colic<br />Foaling Difficulty<br />Laceration/Hemorrhage<br />Illness/Fever<br />Seizures<br />Acute Lameness<br />Ocular Trauma<br />
  60. 60. EMERGENCIES<br /> As a horse owner you must know how to recognize serious problems, respond promptly and take appropriate action while waiting for the vet to arrive.<br />
  61. 61. EMERGENCIESWhat you should know …<br />Temperature<br />Heart Rate<br />Respiratory rate<br />Abdominal sounds<br />Normal behavior<br />
  62. 62. What you should know<br />Temperature<br /> < 101.5º F<br /> Taken rectally with digital or mercury thermometer<br />
  63. 63. What to know..<br />Heart Rate<br /> Normal:<br /> 28 - 44 beats per minute<br />
  64. 64. What to know…<br />Respiratory Rate<br />Normal is 8-12 breaths per minute<br />**watch nostrils or sides<br />
  65. 65. What to know…<br />Manure <br />Gas<br />Gut sounds<br />(borborygmi)<br />Decreased<br />Increased<br />Absent<br />
  66. 66. What to know…<br />Mucous membranes <br />Color<br />Hydration<br />Capillary refill time (CRT)<br />
  67. 67. Normal values<br />Every horse is different<br />Keep a daily record<br />Wider range in foals<br />
  68. 68. When you think you may have an emergency note the following:<br />In addition to Temp, HR, RR, Gut sounds<br />Attitude<br />BAR, lethargic, anxious, painful, quiet, etc.<br />Appetite/H20 consumption<br />Manure production<br />
  69. 69. More Obvious Signs<br />Rolling, pawing, strecthing, etc.<br />Sweating<br />Ataxia/Wobbly<br />Nasal Discharge<br />Labored breathing<br />Bleeding<br />Lameness<br />
  70. 70. Is it an EMERGENCY??<br />
  71. 71. OCULAR (EYE) TRAUMA<br />ANY problem related to the eye should be considered an emergency and should be seen by a vet prior to treatment<br />
  72. 72. OCULAR TRAUMA<br />INDICATIONS OF AN INJURY:<br />Squinting<br />Excessive Tearing<br />Eye(s) look cloudy<br />Mucous discharge<br />
  73. 73. EYE INJURIES<br />INDICATIONS OF AN INJURY:<br />Holding eye closed or sensitive to light<br />Swelling around eye or eyelid<br />Laceration of the eyelid<br />
  74. 74. EYE INJURIES<br />DO NOT ATTEMPT TO TREAT <br />Could be devastating<br />They only have 2 eyes!!!<br />
  76. 76. EYE INJURIES<br />WAIT FOR VETERINARY EVALUATION<br />Treating a corneal ulcer with a single dose of a steroid will delay healing for up to 3 weeks<br />Could result in rapid decline and loss of the eye even with surgical intervention<br />
  77. 77. EYE INJURIES<br />WAIT FOR VETERINARY EVALUATION<br />They only have 2 eyes and delay of treatment can be devastating and have long lasting negative effects <br />Uveitis, cataracts, scarring<br />
  78. 78.
  79. 79. WOUNDS<br />Horses frequently get cuts and scrapes<br />It is important to know which wounds need veterinary attention<br />If you do not know, then you should call your vet<br />
  80. 80. WOUNDS<br />Examples of wounds that need immediate attention<br />Puncture wounds<br />Deep Lacerations (where you can see bone, tendons, etc.)<br />
  81. 81. WOUNDS<br />Examples of wounds that need immediate attention<br />Wounds near joints or tendons<br />Severely contaminated wounds<br />
  82. 82. WOUNDS<br />Examples of wounds that need immediate attention<br />Wounds near joints or tendons<br />Severely contaminated wounds<br />
  83. 83. WOUNDS<br />Examples of wounds that need immediate attention<br />Puncture wounds<br />Large OR small<br />
  84. 84. PUNCTURE WOUNDS<br />If possible penetrating objects should be left in place until you contact your vet<br />Removal could result in further damage<br />Blood loss<br />
  85. 85. PUNCTURE WOUNDS<br />If possible penetrating objects should be left in place until you contact your vet<br />Leave nail in place if stepping on it will not drive it further into the foot<br />Vet may want to x-ray prior to removal<br />
  86. 86. PUNCTURE WOUNDS<br />If possible penetrating objects should be left in place.<br />If removed:<br />Mark exact point of entry on foot<br />Mark exact depth of penetration on object (nail) removed<br />Clean and bandage area<br />
  87. 87. WOUNDS<br />BLEEDING<br />Blood squirting or flowing steadily from a wound needs to be controlled<br />Apply a sterile or clean pad and apply firm pressure (vet wrap/polo/belt)<br />
  88. 88. WOUNDS<br />BLEEDING<br />Keep Pressure applied for 30 minutes<br />If blood soaks through, add more padding over top and continue with pressure until veterinarian gets there<br />
  89. 89.
  90. 90. LAMENESS<br />Acute, severe lameness<br />Abscess (most common)<br />Fractures<br />Laminitis<br />Tendon Injury<br />Nail/Foreign Body Puncture<br />
  91. 91. LAMENESS<br />Call your veterinarian immediately if….<br />Your horse cannot bear any weight on the affected limb<br />The leg is being held at an abnormal angle<br />Bone is protruding out of the skin or hoof<br />*Try to keep the horse calm<br />
  92. 92. LAMENESS<br />Laminitis<br />Very painful condition caused by inflammation within the hoof<br />Can result in detachment of the coffin bone from the hoof wall<br />
  93. 93. LAMINITIS<br />Signs<br />Horse is unwilling to walk forward or has “walking on eggshell” gait<br />May rock back on hind end (saw horse stance)<br />Shifting weight<br />Lying down a lot<br />Heat in feet and coronary bands<br />Increased digital pulses<br />
  94. 94. LAMINITIS<br />Numerous causes<br />Unpredictable course of disease<br />Early medical attention yields better outcome<br />Call your vet if you suspect your horse has laminitis or any other severe, acute onset of lameness<br />
  95. 95.
  96. 96. HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS<br />Allergic Reactions<br />Common Causes: <br />Bee Sting <br />Snake bite<br />Medication <br />Toxin ingestion (plant, mold, etc.)<br />
  97. 97. HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS<br />Allergic Reactions – Signs<br />Hives<br />Swollen face/muzzle<br />Difficulty, noisy or labored Breathing<br />Sweating<br />Colic<br />**Call your vet immediately if you notice any of these signs<br />
  98. 98. HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS<br />Allergic Reactions – Treatment<br />Corticosteroids<br />Antihistamine<br />Epinephrine<br />*Severe hypersensitivity reaction can be life threatening<br />*Usually responds well to treatment<br />
  99. 99. COLIC<br />Term used to describe abdominal pain usually indicating a digestive disorder<br />Can be life threatening<br />Every colic should be taken seriously<br />
  100. 100. COLIC<br />Common signs:<br />Repeatedly lying down and getting up<br />Rolling<br />Pawing<br />Looking at or biting flanks<br />Stretching out as if to urinate<br />
  101. 101. COLIC<br />Common signs:<br />Curling upper lip or grinding teeth<br />Depression<br />Loss of appetite<br />Sweating<br />Increased heart or respiratory rates<br />Decreased gut sounds/manure production<br />
  102. 102. COLIC<br />Key medications to have on hand:<br />BANAMINE<br />MILK OF MAGNESIA<br />Be prepared to trailer if necessary<br />Withhold all food – follow instructions<br />Write it down!!<br />Remember: 90% of colics resolve without surgical intervention<br />
  103. 103. COLIC<br />Important to call the vet at the first signs noticed<br /> prior to giving any oral meds or feeding<br />Be sure to tell the vet about any changes in feed, housing, medications, etc.<br />
  104. 104.
  105. 105. Emergency Preparedness:Have a plan of action!!<br />STAY CALM<br />Have a list of friends who may be able to assist you if needed<br />Phone chain<br />Trailer if needed<br />
  106. 106. Emergency Preparedness:<br />Things to tell the vet:<br />Recent changes<br />Significant medical info<br />TPR, Gut sounds<br />Manure in last 24 hours<br />DO NOT GIVE ANY MEDICATION OR HOME REMEDY UNLESS OK’D by your veterinarian<br />
  107. 107. Emergency Preparedness:Action Plan<br />Prepare a first aid kit<br />Good lighting available<br />Running water<br />
  108. 108. Emergency Preparedness:First Aid Kit<br />Commercially prepared<br />Home made kits<br />Veterinary Supplies<br />
  109. 109. Emergency Preparedness:First Aid Kit<br />PLEASE<br />REMEMBER TO<br />STAY OFF THE<br />PHONE!!<br />
  110. 110. SUMMARY<br />By acting promptly you can help minimize the risk of an injury or illness<br />
  111. 111. SUMMARY<br />Your horse’s health and well being depend on you!<br />
  112. 112. QUESTIONS?? COMMENTS??<br />Drawing of Emergency Kit – Donated by Equine Essentials – Route 53 Kingston<br />SSEC Emergency Kits – 10% discount tonight<br />For Attending tonite, in your packet is a coupon: <br /> 20% off a Farm Call OR 10% off SSEC Wellness Plan<br />Next Talk – Monday, February 7th<br />Unveiling the Mysteries of Foot Lameness : Laminitis, Navicular Disease, Coffin Joints<br />