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Truck Efficiency Improvements and Why You
Should Implement Them
Anthony Maietta, EPA Region 5
Transportation a Large
Contributor to Greenhouse Gas
Emissions
Source: US Emissions Inventory
https://www3.epa.gov/climate...
Energy Use by Mode of
Transportation
National Transportation Statistics 2013
Total US Energy
use in 2013:
26 Quadrillion
B...
US Must Take Lead for Addressing CO2
More States And Cities Are Taking Action On Climate Change
States with Climate Action Plans: 34
Source: http://www.pewclim...
Health Effects of Diesel Emissions
• Two main categories of diesel exhaust:
– Gases: non-toxic and toxic components
• Vola...
Health Effects of Diesel Emissions
(continued)
Particulate Matter (PM)
• Small particles of dust, dirt, soot, smoke, liqui...
2.5 Microns
Health Effects of Diesel Emissions
(continued)
What health and environmental effects have been
linked to high PM concentra...
Regulatory Approaches
• Criteria Pollutant Regulations (PM and
Ozone)
• Fuel Regulations
• Engine Standards
What You Can Do
Improving Your Truck’s
Efficiency
• Idle Reduction
– Policies
– Onboard Devices
– Shore Power
• Fuel Efficiency
– Tires
– ...
When a vehicle is running for
nonpropulsion purposes, it is
idling.
• Trucks idling while in queue
• Vehicles waiting to
l...
Running emergency lights and other auxiliaries
• Emergency vehicles, utility vehicles
Powering HVAC
•All vehicle types, fo...
Most Idling Is Not
Waiting in queue
•Delivery trucks, transit buses and motor coaches,
shuttle buses, taxis
Engine warming...
• Idling a car wastes up to 0.5 gallons of fuel per hour.
• Idling a medium-duty truck wastes 0.4 to 0.6 gallons of
fuel p...
Idle Reduction Policies
Elements of Idle Reduction Policies
• Clear signage
• Communicated well –
to drivers and
management
• Reduced detention
ti...
20
Onboard Idle Reduction Technologies
Average fuel savings Emissions Controlled
Trucks: 1 gal/hr CO2, NOx, and PM
Rail: 4...
Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)
• Mounted externally
• Small Engine/Generator Combination
– HVAC
– Electrical accessories
Bunk Heaters/Battery Air Conditioners
Heaters
•Use very little fuel
BAC’s
•Store energy as truck operates
•Can work up to ...
Automatic Engine Shutdown (AESS)
• Start and stop truck automatically
• Can be programmed to meet idle rules
• Can be prog...
Truck Stop Electrification
Advanced Truck Stop Electrification
SmartWay Trailer and Aerodynamics Verification:
New programs introduced in 2014
26
Scope
Trailer
Designati
on
Levels
Smart...
Aerodynamics - Tires
27
Average fuel savings Emissions Controlled
Trucks: 4 - 5% CO2, NOx
• Single-wide tires and aluminum...
Tires (continued)
• Single-wide tires Can Reduce 800-1000
lbs (when used on drive and trailer axles)
– Reduced fuel consum...
Benefits of Low Rolling
Resistance Tires
29
• Incremental fuel savings
demonstrated for the tractor,
trailer & combination...
Aerodynamics - Vehicle
30
Average fuel savings Emissions Controlled
Trucks: 5% CO2, NOx
• Trailer Fairings, Side-skirts
• ...
Tractor Aerodynamics
• Roof
• Side Extender
• Side Tank
• Front Bumper
• Mirrors
Can add up to 15% increase in fuel
econom...
SmartWay Designated Tractors
32
Low Rolling
Resistance Tires
EPA-compliant
Engine
Aerodynamic Technologies
(grill, hood, b...
Trailer Aerodynamics
• Gap Reducer
• Side Skirts/Fairings
• Cargo loading
• Wheelbase/
fifth-wheel
settings (less gap)
• ~...
The Ideal “SmartWay Truck”
35
SmartWay Technology Programs:
Evolving with the industry
• SmartWay Trailer and aerodynamics programs
updated in 2015
–...
New SmartWay Trailer:
New programs finalized in February 2015
36
Scope
Trailer
Designation
Levels
SmartWay “Elite”
Trailer...
What Can The Driver Do?
• Speed management
– Company policy
– Incentives
– Speed Governing
– Driver Training
• 65mph vs 55...
What Can The Driver Do? (continued)
• Cruise control (when possible)
• Coast when possible
• Smooth braking/acceleration
•...
The SmartWay
Transport Partnership
www.epa.gov/smartway
SmartWay Transport Partnership
• What is SmartWay?
– Successful
government/industry
collaboration
– Voluntarily achieves i...
SmartWay Partner Results
• Over 3,000 Partners, as of 3/2016
• $24.9 billion dollars in fuel costs saved
• Saved 170.3 mil...
National Clean Diesel Campaign &
Midwest Clean Diesel Initiative
What is MCDI?
A public-private partnership formed in 2004
with a goal to address 1 million ‘legacy’
diesel engines by 2010...
What is MCDI? (continued)
State Coalitions:
– Government, industry, and nonprofit
organizations
– Address diesel pollution...
How MCDI Reduces Diesel
Emissions
“The 5 R’s”
– Retrofit
– Repower
– Replace
– Rebuild
– Refuel
Each can reduce emissions ...
Resources and Contact Information
SmartWay Transport Partnership
http://www.epa.gov/smartway
National Clean Diesel Campaig...
SmartWay Transport Partnership - Trucking Efficiency Improvements
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SmartWay Transport Partnership - Trucking Efficiency Improvements

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SmartWay Transport Partnership - Trucking Efficiency Improvements

  1. 1. Truck Efficiency Improvements and Why You Should Implement Them Anthony Maietta, EPA Region 5
  2. 2. Transportation a Large Contributor to Greenhouse Gas Emissions Source: US Emissions Inventory https://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/Downloads/ghgemissions/ US-GHG-Inventory-2016-Chapter-2-Trends.pdf
  3. 3. Energy Use by Mode of Transportation National Transportation Statistics 2013 Total US Energy use in 2013: 26 Quadrillion Btu
  4. 4. US Must Take Lead for Addressing CO2
  5. 5. More States And Cities Are Taking Action On Climate Change States with Climate Action Plans: 34 Source: http://www.pewclimate.org http://www.usmayors.org/climateprotection/map.asp 1,060 Cities Signed as on as U.S. Conference of Mayors Climate Protection Agreement
  6. 6. Health Effects of Diesel Emissions • Two main categories of diesel exhaust: – Gases: non-toxic and toxic components • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) • Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) – Particles: fine/ultrafine and toxic chemicals absorbed onto them Pollutants react with oxygen and make ozone } More about particulates...
  7. 7. Health Effects of Diesel Emissions (continued) Particulate Matter (PM) • Small particles of dust, dirt, soot, smoke, liquid droplets, and organic chemicals • EPA regulates PM in two categories: – PM10 (10 microns or less) – PM2.5 (2.5 microns or less) • PM2.5 is very small, 1/30th of the width of a human hair – Small size allows PM2.5 to get through the human body’s airway defense mechanisms and enter deep into the lungs
  8. 8. 2.5 Microns
  9. 9. Health Effects of Diesel Emissions (continued) What health and environmental effects have been linked to high PM concentrations? • Respiratory Problems • PM, especially PM2.5 can enter deep into the lungs and bloodstream • Aggravated asthma, coughing, painful/difficult breathing, chronic bronchitis, decreased lung function, premature death • Visibility • Haze problems in national parks • Atmospheric deposition • Can cause high acidity in lakes and streams • Can change soil nutrient concentration • Can damage sensitive plants and crops
  10. 10. Regulatory Approaches • Criteria Pollutant Regulations (PM and Ozone) • Fuel Regulations • Engine Standards
  11. 11. What You Can Do
  12. 12. Improving Your Truck’s Efficiency • Idle Reduction – Policies – Onboard Devices – Shore Power • Fuel Efficiency – Tires – Aerodynamics – Driver Behavior/Incentives
  13. 13. When a vehicle is running for nonpropulsion purposes, it is idling. • Trucks idling while in queue • Vehicles waiting to load/unload passengers or goods 14
  14. 14. Running emergency lights and other auxiliaries • Emergency vehicles, utility vehicles Powering HVAC •All vehicle types, for operator and passenger comfort in extreme weather Performing nonpropulsion (PTO) work •Bucket trucks, sewer-line maintenance trucks, wood chippers Some Idling Is Unavoidable
  15. 15. Most Idling Is Not Waiting in queue •Delivery trucks, transit buses and motor coaches, shuttle buses, taxis Engine warming •Today’s vehicles warm up faster by being driven than idling Sitting in vehicle •During lunch breaks, to complete paperwork, to make phone calls
  16. 16. • Idling a car wastes up to 0.5 gallons of fuel per hour. • Idling a medium-duty truck wastes 0.4 to 0.6 gallons of fuel per hour. • Idling in the U.S. uses more than 6 billion gallons of fuel at a cost of more than $20 billion EACH YEAR. • Engine idling increases vehicle maintenance costs. • Engine idling can shorten vehicle life. The Cost of Idling Adds Up
  17. 17. Idle Reduction Policies
  18. 18. Elements of Idle Reduction Policies • Clear signage • Communicated well – to drivers and management • Reduced detention time (at facilities) • Proper staging of cargo • Driver comfort stations • Queue Scheduling • Sufficient drayage equipment
  19. 19. 20 Onboard Idle Reduction Technologies Average fuel savings Emissions Controlled Trucks: 1 gal/hr CO2, NOx, and PM Rail: 4 - 12 gal/hr • Automatic Shut-Down/Start Up System • Battery Powered Systems • Diesel Driven Heating System • Auxiliary Power Unit/Generator Set
  20. 20. Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) • Mounted externally • Small Engine/Generator Combination – HVAC – Electrical accessories
  21. 21. Bunk Heaters/Battery Air Conditioners Heaters •Use very little fuel BAC’s •Store energy as truck operates •Can work up to 16 hours
  22. 22. Automatic Engine Shutdown (AESS) • Start and stop truck automatically • Can be programmed to meet idle rules • Can be programmed for temperature
  23. 23. Truck Stop Electrification
  24. 24. Advanced Truck Stop Electrification
  25. 25. SmartWay Trailer and Aerodynamics Verification: New programs introduced in 2014 26 Scope Trailer Designati on Levels SmartWay “Elite” Trailer (9% fuel savings from aero) (1% fuel savings from tires) 53’ Refrigerated trailers SmartWay Trailer (5% fuel savings from aero) (1% fuel savings from tires) 53’ Van trailers Aero Device Performa nce Bins 9% or more fuel savings 5% (5.0 – 8.9) fuel savings 4% (4.0 – 4.9) fuel savings 1% (1.0 – 3.9) fuel savings Test Method s Tunnel CFD New Track Test Coastdow n Choice of new 2014 test method for verification and option to supplement with additional test methods Web table indicating all methods used to verify a device Fleet- relevant Credibility Simplicity Recogniti on
  26. 26. Aerodynamics - Tires 27 Average fuel savings Emissions Controlled Trucks: 4 - 5% CO2, NOx • Single-wide tires and aluminum wheels – Reduced rolling resistance – Reduced weight • Low rolling resistance duals can be as effective as singles
  27. 27. Tires (continued) • Single-wide tires Can Reduce 800-1000 lbs (when used on drive and trailer axles) – Reduced fuel consumption – Increased cargo capacity • Low rolling resistance – better mpg – 2% to 5% compared to conventional tires
  28. 28. Benefits of Low Rolling Resistance Tires 29 • Incremental fuel savings demonstrated for the tractor, trailer & combination • Benefits demonstrated with new and retread tires • SAE 2014-01-2425 Tractor only Trailer only Tractor & Trailer Baseline
  29. 29. Aerodynamics - Vehicle 30 Average fuel savings Emissions Controlled Trucks: 5% CO2, NOx • Trailer Fairings, Side-skirts • Nose Cone and Trailer Tail
  30. 30. Tractor Aerodynamics • Roof • Side Extender • Side Tank • Front Bumper • Mirrors Can add up to 15% increase in fuel economy (vs untreated tractor)
  31. 31. SmartWay Designated Tractors 32 Low Rolling Resistance Tires EPA-compliant Engine Aerodynamic Technologies (grill, hood, bumper, mirror, side chassis fairing) Optional Auxiliary Power Unit reducing idle emissions Aerodynamic Technologies (roof fairing, side extenders)
  32. 32. Trailer Aerodynamics • Gap Reducer • Side Skirts/Fairings • Cargo loading • Wheelbase/ fifth-wheel settings (less gap) • ~5%-9% fuel econ. improvement
  33. 33. The Ideal “SmartWay Truck”
  34. 34. 35 SmartWay Technology Programs: Evolving with the industry • SmartWay Trailer and aerodynamics programs updated in 2015 – Includes 53 foot trailers in both dry van and refrigeration trailer configurations – Now has SmartWay Trailer and SmartWay Elite levels – New test methods for verifying trailer aerodynamic components are more rigorous and incorporate multiple test protocols (i.e., track test, wind tunnel, coastdown, and computational methods) – SmartWay tire program recently expanded to include verified low rolling resistance retread and wide-based tires. • SmartWay Tractor under review – Respond to fleet and manufacturer input – Better harmonize with truck GHG regulations
  35. 35. New SmartWay Trailer: New programs finalized in February 2015 36 Scope Trailer Designation Levels SmartWay “Elite” Trailer (9% fuel savings from aero) (1% fuel savings from tires) 53’ Refrigeration trailers SmartWay Trailer (5% fuel savings from aero) (1% fuel savings from tires) 53’ Van trailers
  36. 36. What Can The Driver Do? • Speed management – Company policy – Incentives – Speed Governing – Driver Training • 65mph vs 55mph  7% less fuel • Reduced maintenance costs • More time between rebuilds
  37. 37. What Can The Driver Do? (continued) • Cruise control (when possible) • Coast when possible • Smooth braking/acceleration • Progressive shifting (at lowest RPM possible) • Limit unnecessary idling • Limit unnecessary shifting/block shifting • Reduce accessories use
  38. 38. The SmartWay Transport Partnership www.epa.gov/smartway
  39. 39. SmartWay Transport Partnership • What is SmartWay? – Successful government/industry collaboration – Voluntarily achieves improved fuel efficiency – Reduces environmental impacts from freight transport • Partnership Categories – Carriers – Shippers – Logistics – Rail • Partners use models: – Benchmark freight operations – Measure transportation footprint – Identify technologies & strategies to reduce emissions – Track emissions reductions and project improvement • Equipment Manufacturers – SmartWay certified cars & trucks • Auto manufacturers • Tractor manufacturers • Trailer manufacturers
  40. 40. SmartWay Partner Results • Over 3,000 Partners, as of 3/2016 • $24.9 billion dollars in fuel costs saved • Saved 170.3 million barrels of oil – (equivalent to taking 14 million cars off the road for one year) • Emissions reduced: – 72.8 million metric tons CO2 – 1,458,000 tons Nox – 72,000 tons PM
  41. 41. National Clean Diesel Campaign & Midwest Clean Diesel Initiative
  42. 42. What is MCDI? A public-private partnership formed in 2004 with a goal to address 1 million ‘legacy’ diesel engines by 2010 (we did!) MCDI Leadership Group: (initially) 33 public- sector and private-industry organizations. Meets yearly to discuss progress, raise issues MCDI Co-Chairs: EPA, Cummins, ALA, Illinois EPA; choose general direction of the Initiative
  43. 43. What is MCDI? (continued) State Coalitions: – Government, industry, and nonprofit organizations – Address diesel pollution through projects, legislation, and innovative financing Communication tools: • www.epa.gov/midwestcleandiesel • Webinars • To get on board: maietta.anthony@epa.gov
  44. 44. How MCDI Reduces Diesel Emissions “The 5 R’s” – Retrofit – Repower – Replace – Rebuild – Refuel Each can reduce emissions and/or fuel use
  45. 45. Resources and Contact Information SmartWay Transport Partnership http://www.epa.gov/smartway National Clean Diesel Campaign http://www.epa.gov/cleandiesel Midwest Clean Diesel Initiative http://www.epa.gov/midwestcleandiesel Tony Maietta (312-353-8777) maietta.anthony@epa.gov

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