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  1. 1. Later Peoples of the FertileCrescent: Sea PeoplesSocial Studies for 8th E.G.B. | Teacher: Mauricio TorresChapter 3, Section 1 (page 72 in your books)
  2. 2. The Phoenicians At the western end of the Fertile Crescent, along the Mediterranean Sea, was a land known as Phoenicia. They were not powerful, but they were a trade- based society.
  3. 3. Geography Today, it lies on modern day Lebanon. Mountains to the north and east, ocean to the west. They had few resources, and their trading routes were limited due to hostile neighbors. They were forced to trade through the sea.
  4. 4. Trade To able to trade, they had to learn and master seamanship (being sailors). They built the harbor Tyre, which is still used today! Phoenicians traded all around the Mediterranean: Egypt, Greece, Italy, Sicily and Spain. They also founded other colonies along the coast, like Carthage.
  5. 5. Trade Phoenicia grew wealthy from trade. They traded: lumber, silverwork, ivory and slaves.
  6. 6. Innovations The Phoenicians developed:  Glass blowing: the art of heating and shaping glass.  Purple dye: an ink made from a type of shellfish. But their most important development was the alphabet! The one we still use today is based on the one invented by the Phoenician’s  Alphabet: a set of letters that can be combined to form words.
  7. 7. Ask Yourself Recall:  What were the three most important innovations of the Phoenicians? Identify:  What was the reason why they relied so much on trade? Draw Conclusions:  Why were the Phoenicians such good sailors?  Why were their colonies only along the Mediterranean coastline?
  8. 8. Write in… Phoenician! Use the second column from the left as a guide to write your own name in ancient Phoenician. Practice in class and when you go home, improve the art and bring it back next class so it can be posted in your classroom!
  9. 9. Excercise Look for the meaning of the words written in italic or with a different color in order to understand the unit better. This might be helpful in a test!
  10. 10. Bibliography Burstein, S. M., & Shek, R. (2012). World History (Teacher´s Edition) (1st Edition ed.). (H. McDougal, Ed.) Orlando, Florida, US.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Ellis, E. G., & Esler, A. (2009). World History. (P. Hall, Ed.) Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, US: Pearson Education INC. Images taken from