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  1. 1. JUDAISM:MIGRATIONEFFECTSSocial Studies for 10th E.G.B.Teacher: Mauricio Torres
  2. 2. BACKGROUND  With the Diaspora, Jews spread out all over the world.  It began after the Babylonian Captivity in the 500s BC.  Jews all over the world shared the same basic beliefs of Judaism: one God, same laws, same texts.  But in different communities, with different customs, they began to develop their own languages, rituals and cultures.  These differences led to the creation of two main cultural traditions, which still exist today.
  3. 3. TWO CULTURAL TRADITIONS:EASTERN EUROPE The Askenazim is a a branch of Judaism made up of the descendants of Jews who moved to France, Germany and Eastern Europe during the Diaspora. They lived in Jewish communities, separate from non-Jewish neighbors.  Therefore, they developed their own customs:  Yiddish is a language, similar to German but written in the Hebrew alphabet. A. Einstein
  4. 4. TWO CULTURAL TRADITIONS: SPAINAND PORTUGAL  The Sephardim are the Jews who were descendants of those that established themselves in the Iberian Peninsula.  They have their own language, the Ladino (a mix of Spanish, Hebrew and Arabic).  Unlike the Ashkenazim, they did mix with non-Jewish residents.  Therefore, their culture is a blend of different traditions.  They are known for their writings and their philosophies, they produced a Golden Age of Jewish culture in the 1000s.  Their poets wrote in Hebrew.  Scholars made great advances in math, astronomy, medicine and philosophy.
  5. 5. TRADITIONS  Jewish culture is one of the oldest in the world. Because their roots go back so far, many of them feel a strong connection with the past.  They also feel that understanding their own history will help them better follow Jewish teachings.
  6. 6. HOLY DAYS: HANUKKAH It is a holiday celebrated in December and honors the rededication of the Second Temple during the revolt of the Maccabees.  They wanted to make a celebration but they didn´t have enough lamp oil to perform the ceremony. Miraculously, the oil they had – enough for a day - burned for eight full days. Today it is celebrated by lighting eight candles in a special candleholder. They also exchange gifts on each one of the eight nights.
  7. 7. PASSOVER It is more important than Hanukkah and is celebrated in March or April. It is a time for Jews to remember the Exodus.  During the Exodus, Jews left so quickly that bakers did not have time to let the bread rise.  Therefore, during Passover, Jews only eat matzo, a flat, unrisen bread. They also celebrate with ceremonies and rituals.
  8. 8. HIGH HOLY DAYS  These are the two most sacred of all Jewish holidays. They take place in September or October.  The first two days are Rosh Hashanah, which celebrates the beginning of the new year on the Jewish calendar.  On Yom Kippur, soon afterward, Jews ask God to forgive their sins.  Since it is the holiest of all days for Jews, they do not eat or drink anything for the entire day.  The ceremonies performed during Yom Kippur date back to the days of the Second Temple
  9. 9. ASK YOURSELF  Recall:  What language did each Jewish cultural tradition develop?  Contrast:  How do Ashkenazim and Sephardim differ?  Define:  What is Hanukkah?  Identify:  What is the most sacred Jewish holiday, and what events does it mark?  Summarize:  How do Jewish traditions and holy days unite Jews?
  10. 10. BIBLIOGRAPHY Burstein, S. M., & Shek, R. (2012). World History (Teacher´s Edition) (1st Edition ed.). (H. McDougal, Ed.) Orlando, Florida, US.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Images taken from www.google.com