JUDAISM:MIGRATIONEFFECTSSocial Studies for 10th E.G.B.Teacher: Mauricio Torres
BACKGROUND With the Diaspora, Jews spread out all over the world. It began after the Babylonian Captivity in the 500s BC. Jews all over the world shared the same basic beliefs of Judaism: one God, same laws, same texts. But in different communities, with different customs, they began to develop their own languages, rituals and cultures. These differences led to the creation of two main cultural traditions, which still exist today.
TWO CULTURAL TRADITIONS:EASTERN EUROPE The Askenazim is a a branch of Judaism made up of the descendants of Jews who moved to France, Germany and Eastern Europe during the Diaspora. They lived in Jewish communities, separate from non-Jewish neighbors. Therefore, they developed their own customs: Yiddish is a language, similar to German but written in the Hebrew alphabet. A. Einstein
TWO CULTURAL TRADITIONS: SPAINAND PORTUGAL The Sephardim are the Jews who were descendants of those that established themselves in the Iberian Peninsula. They have their own language, the Ladino (a mix of Spanish, Hebrew and Arabic). Unlike the Ashkenazim, they did mix with non-Jewish residents. Therefore, their culture is a blend of different traditions. They are known for their writings and their philosophies, they produced a Golden Age of Jewish culture in the 1000s. Their poets wrote in Hebrew. Scholars made great advances in math, astronomy, medicine and philosophy.
TRADITIONS Jewish culture is one of the oldest in the world. Because their roots go back so far, many of them feel a strong connection with the past. They also feel that understanding their own history will help them better follow Jewish teachings.
HOLY DAYS: HANUKKAH It is a holiday celebrated in December and honors the rededication of the Second Temple during the revolt of the Maccabees. They wanted to make a celebration but they didn´t have enough lamp oil to perform the ceremony. Miraculously, the oil they had – enough for a day - burned for eight full days. Today it is celebrated by lighting eight candles in a special candleholder. They also exchange gifts on each one of the eight nights.
PASSOVER It is more important than Hanukkah and is celebrated in March or April. It is a time for Jews to remember the Exodus. During the Exodus, Jews left so quickly that bakers did not have time to let the bread rise. Therefore, during Passover, Jews only eat matzo, a flat, unrisen bread. They also celebrate with ceremonies and rituals.
HIGH HOLY DAYS These are the two most sacred of all Jewish holidays. They take place in September or October. The first two days are Rosh Hashanah, which celebrates the beginning of the new year on the Jewish calendar. On Yom Kippur, soon afterward, Jews ask God to forgive their sins. Since it is the holiest of all days for Jews, they do not eat or drink anything for the entire day. The ceremonies performed during Yom Kippur date back to the days of the Second Temple
ASK YOURSELF Recall: What language did each Jewish cultural tradition develop? Contrast: How do Ashkenazim and Sephardim differ? Define: What is Hanukkah? Identify: What is the most sacred Jewish holiday, and what events does it mark? Summarize: How do Jewish traditions and holy days unite Jews?
BIBLIOGRAPHY Burstein, S. M., & Shek, R. (2012). World History (Teacher´s Edition) (1st Edition ed.). (H. McDougal, Ed.) Orlando, Florida, US.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Images taken from www.google.com