Social Studies for 9th EBG
Teacher: Mauricio Torres
The Roman army played a
vital role in the Republic’s
expansion. They were well
trained and defeated many
This way, commerce grew
and new resources were at
When the Gauls had to be paid to
leave Rome, others attempted to
invade Rome. Little by little, the
Romans defeated them and took
over their lands.
This way, Romans took over almost
all of the Italian peninsula.
The army, was a highly organized
entity, capable of fighting in large or
• Groups of 6,000
• Groups of 100
soldiers, led by a
• Roman infantry
Before Rome set out to conquer
Italy, most of its inhabitants were
farmers. As the republic grew, most
arrived in the city to work.
Wealthy romans bought the empty
lands and set their own farms, which
were worked by slaves.
Even with these production of
food, it wasn’t enough to feed a
growing population. Therefore
merchants had to trade with other
lands and bring in more resources
• Metal goods
They were using coins to trade
all over the Mediterranean!
As Rome grew, other powers saw the
romans as a threat. One of these were
the Carthaginians. The wars with
Carthage were known as Punic
Wars, because in latin, Punic means
The first war began because both nations
sent armies to the island of Sicily.
Rome easily defeated the Carthaginians
over land, but on the sea it was a
different issue. They had to raise a navy
and quickly outnumbered their enemy.
This led to a final victory!
Carthage was seeking revenge from
Hannibal, its most brilliant general
led an army across the Alps and
defeated the Romans many times, in
the Italian peninsula.
The Romans, on the verge of
defeat, made a daring attempt at
destroying Carthage itself! It lured
Hannibal back to Africa and was
finally defeated at the battle of
By 140 BC, the Roman senate grew
alarmed because Carthage was
regaining its power.
The consuls declared war and finally
Carthage was destroyed to its
• The burned the city
• Killed most of the inhabitants
• Sold the survivors as slaves.
This way, Rome now had control over
the western Mediterranean and
Later, the roman legion marched on:
They invaded Gaul and Greece.
But it was Greece, that would later change the
With the Punic wars, Rome took
Sicily, Corsica, Spain and North Africa.