Israel

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Israel

  1. 1. Israel { Social Studies for 10th EGB Teacher: Mauricio Torres
  2. 2.   Today Israel is a very different place from when its founders first cleared, irrigated and farmed the land. Its landscape is different. Its diverse economy is different. Even the character of its people is different. Since gaining its independence, Israel has raced along a path of urgent and rapid development to become one of the most technologically advanced countries in the world. Introduction
  3. 3. Setting { and economy
  4. 4.  When the first Zionists arrived in Palestine, people were already living along the fertile coastal plains in the valleys of the highland regions.   The land available for the new residents, was either mosquito-infested swamps or barren deserts. Little by little they drained the swamps, and coaxed water into the desert.  This has been a priority to the government, to turn the desert into productive, fertile land. Environmental Change
  5. 5.   The Negev Desert is the driest region and covers over half the country. They have built a series of pipelines, canals and tunnels called the National Water Carrier. This irrigates large sections of the Negev desert.  This has turned once barren lands into fertile pastures and Israel now produces almost all of its own food. Transforming the Desert
  6. 6.  But having an agricultural success, has its price:  Israel is straining its water supplies. Water shortages
  7. 7.  Israel has successfully developed its few natural resources. However, those industries alone could not produce enough employment opportunities to support the nation’s rapidly growing population. Economic Activities
  8. 8.   Israelis looked in part to high technology to help its struggling economy. With grants and loans, their highly trained scientists and engineers were able to make Israel a world leader in:   medial laser technology, sophisticated weaponry, aerospace equipment and electronics. To support its growing population, they also developed a service industry to supply its growing population (education, housing, tourism, etc). Economic Activities
  9. 9. Cultural { diversity
  10. 10.  Israelis have different backgrounds, but about 80% of them are Jewish.   But even so, these Jews migrated from all over the world, so there is a huge diversity even amongst them! But another group (20%) living in Israel are the Arabs. Diverse Cultures
  11. 11.   Historically, Israel had Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews migrating. But lately, Ethiopian and former Soviet Union have began to migrate also. So, besides the obvious cultural differences, there are also huge political differences among them.  Representatives in the Knesset, Israel’s parliament, range from ultra-Orthodox to non-religious Israel’s Jews
  12. 12.    Ultra-Orthodox Jews adhere strictly to Jewish religious tradition and believe Israel should be governed accordingly. The nonreligious believe in a secular state. Clashes between both factions have made Israel a boiling pot of political conflicts. They never seem to find an agreement on important issues! Israel’s Jews
  13. 13.   This diverse group include: Christians, Muslims and Druzes (independent people who broke away from Islam) As a minority, they hold a different place in Israeli society. Israel’s Arabs
  14. 14.  Israeli Arabs are citizens of Israel. As such, they have full political rights.   They serve in the Knesset, they enjoy the free press and in some cases, they are allowed to form political parties. Nevertheless, they feel that in education, employment and other areas, they are being discriminated. Israel’s Arabs
  15. 15. sources { Of conflict
  16. 16.  Another major challenge for Israel, is that it must build a lasting peace with Palestinians and its other Arab neighbors. Cooperation and conflict
  17. 17.  By the end of the war in 1949, most of the Palestinians had lost their homes and more than 500,000 had migrated. At the same time, Jews from other Middle East countries were expelled.  In the following wars, Palestinians were confined to the Gaza Strip, near the Egyptian border and the West Bank. Palestinian Refugees
  18. 18. {
  19. 19.   In the 60s, many of these refugee camps became bases for the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) – the Palestinian’s government in exile. The PLO demanded that Palestine be liberated and also refused to recognize Israel as a country.  They gained attention by hijacking planes, kidnapping and killing Israeli civilians and conducting raids on Israeli communities. More Conflict
  20. 20.   The Israelis view the PLO as terrorist, while the Palestinians look at them as freedom fighters. As the PLO set bases in Lebanon, Israel attacked Lebanon and even invaded it in 1982.   After this, many Palestinians left Lebanon for good. At the same time, more Israelis were settling in the occupied territories – an issue which worried the Palestinians More Conflict
  21. 21.  During the 70s and 80s, thousands of lives were lost on both sides, mostly because:   Palestinians refused to recognize Israel and the Israelis refused to create a Palestinian homeland. In 1987, the Palestinians launched an intifada (“shaking off”, in Arabic) as a resistance movement. Israelis responded with military force. Struggle for a solution
  22. 22.   Peace talks resumed in Oslo in 1991 but they proceed at a very slow pace. In Oslo, Norway, they finally agreed to:    Peace Talks Israel would withdraw from the Gaza Strip and West Bank; while the Palestinians would assume authority for self governance. In the vacated areas. Still, Israelis still settled in these areas and Palestinians threatened Israel.
  23. 23.  During the late 90s, Israeli and Palestinian representatives negotiated with each other.    Israeli leaders feared what price would Israel have to pay for peace. In the year 200, the Palestinians started a new intifada with suicide bombings, and once again, Israeli military force was used. With Mahmoud Abbas, a more moderate Palestinian leader, there were high hopes of reaching peace soon. Closer to Peace

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