Independence: Five Nations


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Independence: Five Nations

  1. 1. FIVE AFRICANNATIONSSocial Studies for 10th E.G.B.Teacher: Mauricio Torres
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  While the nations of Africa faced many of the same challenges, each nation had a unique history.  We shall examine the recent histories of five different nations…
  3. 3. GHANA  The first African nation south of the Sahara to win its independence was the British colony of Gold Coast.  The independence movement was led by Kwame Nkrumah.  In 1957 they achieved their goal and they took the name Ghana, like the old African Empire.  Nkrumah advocated for socialism and nationalized many business.  He also built a massive dam, which left Ghana with equally massive debts.  His government became dictatorial and corrupt.  In 1966 he was overthrown.
  4. 4. KENYA In Kenya, freedom came after armed struggle.  White settlers had taken over the fertile highlands and displaced local Kikuyu farmers. Jomo Kenyatta, a leading spokesman supported nonviolent methods to gain independence. In the 1950s more radical leaders turned to violence.  They attacked white settlers and Africans that • After his release, he worked with them. became the leader of a  They were called the Mau Mau guerrillas. free Kenya in 1963.  The British arrested Kenyatta and killed • He jailed opponents and thousands of Kikuyu. outlawed opposition; his party ruled out free elections.
  5. 5. ALGERIA  Since they conquered the Algerian territory, the French intended to make sure it stayed French: they settled by the millions.  Algerian nationalist set up the National Liberation Front (NLF).  In 1954 they turned to guerrilla warfare to win freedom.  France was reluctant to lose its colony after oil had been discovered there in the 1950s and the loss of their Vietnamese colony.  They sent half a million soldiers to crush the rebellion.
  6. 6. ALGERIA The war raged for years and thousands of Algerians died in the struggle. French public opinion turned against its own leaders and demanded freedom for Algeria. Finally in 1962, Algeria was free. A coup in 1965 began a long period of military rule and nationalized their oil industries.
  7. 7. DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OFCONGO  It used to be a Belgian colony that covers a vast area of central Africa.  These huge areas of land contain valuable resources such as copper and diamonds.  In order to maintain its power over the land, the Belgians rushed to declare its independence.  This way they worked with un-experienced and greedy politicians to retain effective control of the province.  The country was divided into two factions:  One backed by the Soviet Union, and the other by the U.S.  The side supported by the U.S. won, and its leader Mobutu Sese Seko became a dictator.  His harsh and corrupt government lasted for 30 years, until he was ousted by rebels.
  8. 8. NIGERIA Its people belong to hundreds of ethnic groups and it has the largest population in Africa. After WWII, the British gave in and granted independence peacefully in 1960.  With the discovery of oil, hopes for the nation’s future rose high. Unfortunately, the first of many coups happened in 1966 due to regional and ethnic differences. Until 1999 its government was held by the military. Even though today they are back on civilian hands, the Nigerians face disputes between Christian and Muslims and a large risk of civil war.
  9. 9. ASK YOURSELF - CHART Summarize & Analyze:  Make a chart comparing the different paths taken by each country in order to achieve their independence and the final outcome.  What is your opinion on this?
  10. 10. VOCABULARY Nationalize.- place a business or industry under government ownership Nonviolence.- it can refer to the behaviour of people using nonviolent action Faction.- a group of people connected by a shared belief or opinion within a larger group
  11. 11. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ellis, E. G., & Esler, A. (2009). World History. (P. Hall, Ed.) Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, US: Pearson Education INC. Images taken from