FIVE AFRICANNATIONSSocial Studies for 10th E.G.B.Teacher: Mauricio Torres
INTRODUCTION While the nations of Africa faced many of the same challenges, each nation had a unique history. We shall examine the recent histories of five different nations…
GHANA The first African nation south of the Sahara to win its independence was the British colony of Gold Coast. The independence movement was led by Kwame Nkrumah. In 1957 they achieved their goal and they took the name Ghana, like the old African Empire. Nkrumah advocated for socialism and nationalized many business. He also built a massive dam, which left Ghana with equally massive debts. His government became dictatorial and corrupt. In 1966 he was overthrown.
KENYA In Kenya, freedom came after armed struggle. White settlers had taken over the fertile highlands and displaced local Kikuyu farmers. Jomo Kenyatta, a leading spokesman supported nonviolent methods to gain independence. In the 1950s more radical leaders turned to violence. They attacked white settlers and Africans that • After his release, he worked with them. became the leader of a They were called the Mau Mau guerrillas. free Kenya in 1963. The British arrested Kenyatta and killed • He jailed opponents and thousands of Kikuyu. outlawed opposition; his party ruled out free elections.
ALGERIA Since they conquered the Algerian territory, the French intended to make sure it stayed French: they settled by the millions. Algerian nationalist set up the National Liberation Front (NLF). In 1954 they turned to guerrilla warfare to win freedom. France was reluctant to lose its colony after oil had been discovered there in the 1950s and the loss of their Vietnamese colony. They sent half a million soldiers to crush the rebellion.
ALGERIA The war raged for years and thousands of Algerians died in the struggle. French public opinion turned against its own leaders and demanded freedom for Algeria. Finally in 1962, Algeria was free. A coup in 1965 began a long period of military rule and nationalized their oil industries.
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OFCONGO It used to be a Belgian colony that covers a vast area of central Africa. These huge areas of land contain valuable resources such as copper and diamonds. In order to maintain its power over the land, the Belgians rushed to declare its independence. This way they worked with un-experienced and greedy politicians to retain effective control of the province. The country was divided into two factions: One backed by the Soviet Union, and the other by the U.S. The side supported by the U.S. won, and its leader Mobutu Sese Seko became a dictator. His harsh and corrupt government lasted for 30 years, until he was ousted by rebels.
NIGERIA Its people belong to hundreds of ethnic groups and it has the largest population in Africa. After WWII, the British gave in and granted independence peacefully in 1960. With the discovery of oil, hopes for the nation’s future rose high. Unfortunately, the first of many coups happened in 1966 due to regional and ethnic differences. Until 1999 its government was held by the military. Even though today they are back on civilian hands, the Nigerians face disputes between Christian and Muslims and a large risk of civil war.
ASK YOURSELF - CHART Summarize & Analyze: Make a chart comparing the different paths taken by each country in order to achieve their independence and the final outcome. What is your opinion on this?
VOCABULARY Nationalize.- place a business or industry under government ownership Nonviolence.- it can refer to the behaviour of people using nonviolent action Faction.- a group of people connected by a shared belief or opinion within a larger group
BIBLIOGRAPHY Ellis, E. G., & Esler, A. (2009). World History. (P. Hall, Ed.) Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, US: Pearson Education INC. Images taken from www.google.com