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  1. 1. Social Studies for 10th EGB Teacher: Mauricio Torres
  2. 2.  A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League.
  3. 3. UK FRANCE Syria / Lebanon Palestine/ Transjordan Mesopotamia
  4. 4.    Palestine & Transjordan (UK) Syria & Lebanon (FR) Mesopotamia (UK)
  5. 5.   From 29 September 1923 – 15 May 1948. On the evening of 14 May, the Jews in Palestine had declared the establishment of the State of Israel. ◦ Arab states attacked the following day, marking the start of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. ◦ Following the war, 75% of the area west of the Jordan River was controlled by the new State of Israel.
  6. 6.    29 September 1923 – 1 January 1944. During the two years that followed the end of the war in 1918 – and in accordance with the Sykes-Picot agreement - the French controlled the rest of Ottoman Syria (modern Syria, Lebanon) and other portions of southeastern Turkey. During the French occupation, many different nations were created and finally Syria and Lebanon were established formally.
  7. 7.   It had a rough start: ◦ Event though it was formed with a Republican government, it suffered many coup d’etat. From the 40s to the 60s, Syrian politics were very unstable, until Hafez al-Assad came to power. ◦ From then on, there was government stability, as the Assads ruled like monarchs.
  8. 8.   Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and turmoil interspersed with prosperity built on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade. It was also home to a mix of different cultures: Sunni and Shiite Muslims, Greek Orthodox and Maronite Christians. ◦ Lately, with the inflow of Arab refugees from Palestine, tensions between factions have increased.
  9. 9.   The Mandate was never enforced and the Kingdom of Iraq was created instead, with British administration enacted via the AngloIraqi Treaty. The Kingdom of Iraq became independent in 1931-1932.
  10. 10.  After independence was gained, a Kingdom was established, with the Hashemite monarchy at its head. ◦ In 1958, this was over with a military coup.  But in 1968 the Ba’ath party took over. ◦ Leadership was eventually taken by general Saddam Hussein
  11. 11. Fragile Governments Monarchic or Military Govs. Internal and External Conflicts
  12. 12.   he_Ottoman_Empire#Republic_of_Turkey