Social Studies for 10th EGB
Teacher: Mauricio Torres
A League of Nations mandate was a legal
status for certain territories transferred from
the control of one country to another
following World War I, or the legal
instruments that contained the internationally
agreed-upon terms for administering the
territory on behalf of the League.
From 29 September 1923 – 15 May 1948.
On the evening of 14 May, the Jews in
Palestine had declared the establishment of
the State of Israel.
◦ Arab states attacked the following day, marking the
start of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
◦ Following the war, 75% of the area west of the
Jordan River was controlled by the new State of
29 September 1923 – 1 January 1944.
During the two years that followed the
end of the war in 1918 – and in
accordance with the Sykes-Picot
agreement - the French controlled the
rest of Ottoman Syria (modern Syria,
Lebanon) and other portions of
During the French occupation, many
different nations were created and
finally Syria and Lebanon were
It had a rough start:
◦ Event though it was
formed with a Republican
government, it suffered
many coup d’etat.
From the 40s to the
60s, Syrian politics
were very unstable,
until Hafez al-Assad
came to power.
◦ From then on, there was
government stability, as
the Assads ruled like
Lebanon's history since
independence has been marked by
alternating periods of political
stability and turmoil interspersed
with prosperity built on Beirut's
position as a regional center for
finance and trade.
It was also home to a mix of
different cultures: Sunni and Shiite
Muslims, Greek Orthodox and
◦ Lately, with the inflow of Arab refugees
from Palestine, tensions between factions
The Mandate was never enforced and the
Kingdom of Iraq was created instead, with
British administration enacted via the AngloIraqi Treaty.
The Kingdom of Iraq became independent in
After independence was
gained, a Kingdom was
established, with the
Hashemite monarchy at its
◦ In 1958, this was over with a
But in 1968 the Ba’ath party
◦ Leadership was eventually
taken by general Saddam
Monarchic or Military Govs.
Internal and External Conflicts